What is APA? Your assignment states – Please reference using the APA style - 6th ed. The Association outlines the style in the Publication manual of the American. Psychological . 6ABC0EA//DBSCH_SCR__ pdf. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association () provides the means by which students and. This guide is based on the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the those three areas, but does not replace the need to study the APA Publication Manual.
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The sixth edition of the Publication Manual is devoted in large part to interpreting these advances and incorporating them into the style lexicon, It is my hope that. The Publication Manual of the APA, 6th ed., is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, and educators in the Table of Contents (PDF, KB). APA STYLE MANUAL – 6 th. Ed. HOW TO USE. Documenting Sources. APA requires the In addition, please refer to section (Direct Quotation of Sources) in the APA's Publication Manual. Example 1: . journals/releases/ devpdf.
Kensinger, , Psychology and Aging, 23, pp. If your manuscript is an update of an ongoing or earlier study and the method has been published in detail elsewhere, you may refer the reader to that source and simply give a brief synopsis of the method in this sec- tion see also section 1. Copyright protection is "an incident of the process of of authorship" U. The three manuscripts have been adapted for the Publication Manual from articles published in APA journals. Aging and visual search: Type the abstract itself as a single paragraph without paragraph indentation.
Chapter 3: Writing Clearly and Concisely Chapter 3 offers basic guidance on planning and writing the article. It advises readers on how to organize their thoughts, choose effective words, and describe individuals with accuracy and sensitivity.
Chapter 4: The Mechanics of Style Chapter 4 instructs readers on the nuts and bolts of style: It demonstrates that consistency in their use is key to clear scientific communication. Chapter 5: Displaying Results Chapter 5 describes the effective use of graphic elements in text.
It provides readers with guidance on which graphic element is best suited to the data being delivered as well as detailed instruction on table and figure preparation. Chapter 6: Authors must not submit to an APA journal a man- uscript describing work that has been published previously in whole or in substantial Ic part elsewhere, whether in English or in another language.
More important, authors should not submit manuscripts that have been published elsewhere in substantially rs similar form or with substantially similar content. Authors in doubt about what con- ta stitutes prior publication should consult with the editor of the journal in question. This policy does exclude from consideration the same or overlapping mate- rial that has appeared in a publication that has been offered for public sale, such as conference proceedings or a book chapter; such a publication does not meet the crite- rion of "limited circulation.
Acknowledging and citing previous work Authors sometimes want to publish what is essentially the same material in more than one venue to reach different audiences. However, such duplicate publication can rarely be justified, given the ready accessibil- ity of computerized retrieval systems for published works. If it is deemed scientifically necessary to re-present previously published material—for instance, in reports of new analyses or to frame new research that follows up on previous work from the authors' laboratory—the following conditions must be met: The amount of duplicated material must be small relative to the total length of the text.
The text must clearly acknowledge in the author note and other relevant sections of the article i. Any republished tables and figures must be clearly marked as reprinted or adapted, and the original source must be provided both in the text and in a footnote to the table or figure. The original publication venue must be clearly and accurately cited in the reference list see also the discussion on self-plagiarism in section 1.
When the original publication has multiple authors and the authorship is not iden- tical on both publications, it is important that all authors receive agreed-upon credit e. Piecemeal publication. Authors are obligated to present work parsimoniously and as completely as possible within the space constraints of journal publications. Data that can be meaningfully combined within a single publication should be presented to- gether to enhance effective communication. Piecemeal, or fragmented, publication of research findings can be misleading if multiple reports appear to represent independ- ent instances of data collection or analyses; distortion of the scientific literature, espe- cially in reviews or meta-analyses, may result.
Piecemeal publication of several reports of the results from a single study is therefore undesirable unless there is a clear benefit to scientific communication. It may be quite difficult to determine whether such a ben- efit exists when multiple dependent variables that were observed in the same sample and at the same time are reported in separate manuscripts. Authors who wish to divide the report of a study into more than one article should inform the editor and provide such information as the editor requests.
Whether the publication of two or more reports based on the same or on closely related research constitutes fragmented publi- cation is a matter of editorial judgment.
Reanalysis of published data. There may be times, especially in instances of large- scale, longitudinal, or multidisciplinary projects, when it is both necessary and appro- priate to publish multiple reports. Multidisciplinary projects often address diverse top- ics, and publishing in a single journal may be inappropriate.
Repeated publication from a longitudinal study is often appropriate because the data at different ages make unique scientific contributions. Further, useful knowledge should be made available to others as soon as possible, which is precluded if publication is withheld until all the studies are completed.
For example, in the early years of a longitudinal study, one might cite all previous publications from it. For a well-known or long-term longitudinal study, one iat might cite the original publication, a more recent summary, and earlier articles that es. Authors may refer the reader to an earli- er publication for this detailed information. It is important, however, to provide suffi- rs cient information so that the reader can evaluate the current report.
It is also important to make clear the degree of sample overlap in multiple reports from large studies. Again, authors should inform and consult with the editor prior to the submission of a manuscript of this type. Whether the publication of two or more reports based on the same ed or closely related research constitutes duplicate publication is a matter of editorial judgment, as is the determination of whether the manuscript meets other publication d, criteria.
Any prior publication should be noted see previous section on acknowledg- he ing and citing previous work and referenced in the manuscript, and authors must inform the journal editor of the existence of any similar manuscripts that have already ce been published or accepted for publication or that may be submitted for concurrent consideration to the same journal or elsewhere.
The editor can then make an informed judgment as to whether the submitted manuscript includes sufficient new information lit to warrant consideration.
If, during the review or production process, a manuscript is discovered to be in violation of duplicate publication policies and authors have failed to inform the editor of the possible violation, then the manuscript can be rejected with- as out further consideration. If such a violation is discovered after publication in an APA tat journal, appropriate action such as retraction by the publisher or notice of duplicate publication will be taken.
Authors d- have a responsibility to reveal to the reader that portions of the new work were previ- ously published and to cite and reference the source.
If copyright is owned by a pub- lisher or by another person, authors must acknowledge copyright and obtain permis- fit sion to adapt or reproduce. Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they re give credit where credit is due APA Ethics Code Standard 8. Ii- Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author i. The following paragraph is an example of how one might appropriately paraphrase some of the foregoing material in this section.
As stated in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American to Ps ychological Association APA, , the ethical principles of scientific publica- Eie tion are designed to ensure the integrity of scientific knowledge and to protect the intellectual property rights of others.
The key element of this principle is that authors do not present the work of anoth- er as if it were their own work. This can extend to ideas as well as written words. If authors model a study after one done by someone else, the originating author should be given credit. If the rationale for a study was suggested in the Discussion section of someone else's article, that person should be given credit.
Given the free exchange of ideas, which is very important to the health of intellectual discourse, authors may not know where an idea for a study originated.
If authors do know, however, they should acknowledge the source; this includes personal communications. For additional infor- mation on quotations and paraphrasing, see sections 6. Just as researchers do not present the work of others as their own pla- giarism , they do not present their own previously published work as new scholarship self-plagiarism.
There are, however, limited circumstances e. When the duplicated words are limited in scope, this approach is permissible. When duplication of one's own words is more extensive, citation of the duplicated words should be the norm. What constitutes the maximum acceptable length of duplicated material is difficult to define but must conform to legal notions of fair use.
The general view is that the core of the new document must consti- tute an original contribution to knowledge, and only the amount of previously pub- lished material necessary to understand that contribution should be included, primarily in the discussion of theory and methodology. When feasible, all of the author's own words that are cited should be located in a single paragraph or a few paragraphs, with a citation at the end of each.
Opening such paragraphs with a phrase like "as I have pre- viously discussed" will also alert readers to the status of the upcoming material. Protecting the Rights and Welfare of Research Participants 1.
Standards 8. Authors, regardless of field, are required to certify that they have followed these standards as a precondition of publishing their articles in APA journals see http: Authors are also encouraged to include such certifications in the description of participants in the text of the manuscript. Failure to fol- low these standards can be grounds for rejecting a manuscript for publication or for retraction of a published article.
Protecting confidentiality. Confidentiality in case stud- ies is generally handled by one of two means. One option is to prepare the descriptive case material, present it to the subject of the case report, and obtain written consent for its publication from the subject. In doing so, however, one must be careful not to exploit persons over whom one has supervisory, evaluative, or other authority such as clients, ild patients, supervisees, employees, or organizational clients see APA Ethics Code of Standard 3.
The other option is to disguise some aspects of of the case material so that neither the subject nor third parties e. Four main strategies have emerged for achieving this: Such disguising of cases is a delicate issue because it is essential not to change vari- ables that would lead the reader to draw false conclusions related to the phenomena [a- being described Tuckett, For example, altering the subject's gender in a case illus- tip trating a promising therapy for rape trauma might compromise its educative value if the ils client—patient's gender played a significant role in the treatment.
Subject details should be Lte omitted only if they are not essential to the phenomenon described. Subject privacy, how- If- ever, should never be sacrificed for clinical or scientific accuracy.
Cases that cannot ade- quately disguise identifiable subject information should not be submitted for publication.
An author's in economic and commercial interests in products or services used or discussed in a paper may color such objectivity. Whether an interest is significant will depend on individual circumstances and can- not be defined by a dollar amount. Holdings in a company through a mutual fund are not ordinarily sufficient to warrant disclosure, whereas salaries, research grants, con- sulting fees, and personal stock holdings would be.
Participation on a board of directors or any other relationship with an entity or person that is in some way part of the paper should also be carefully considered for possible disclosure. In addition to disclosure of possible sources of positive bias, authors should also carefully consider disclosure when circumstances could suggest bias against a product, service, facility, or person.
For example, having a copyright or royalty interest in a competing psychological test or assessment protocol might be seen as a possible source of negative bias against another test instrument. The previous examples refer to possible conflicts of interest of a researcher in the con- duct of the research. It is important to recognize that reviewers of research reports also have potential conflicts of interest.
In general, one should not review a manuscript from a Colleague or collaborator, a close personal friend, or a recent student. Reviewers also have an ethical obligation to be open and fair in assessing a man- uscript without bias. If for any reason a reviewer may find this difficult, it is appropri- ate to discuss the potential conflict of interest with the action editor as soon as this sit- uation becomes apparent. Last, reviewers have an obligation to maintain the confidentiality of a manuscript.
This means, in general, that one does not discuss the manuscript with another individ- ual. Moreover, as noted in section 1. Definition of authorship. Individuals should only take authorship credit for work they have actually performed or to which they have substantially contributed APA Ethics Code Standard 8. Authorship encompasses, therefore, not only those who do the actual writing but also those who have made substantial scientific con- tributions to a study. Substantial professional contributions may include formulating the problem or hypothesis, structuring the experimental design, organizing and conducting the statistical analysis, interpreting the results, or writing a major portion of the paper.
Those who so contribute are listed in the byline. Lesser contributions, which do not con- stitute authorship, may be acknowledged in a note see section 2. These contributions may include such supportive functions as designing or building the apparatus, suggesting or advising about the statistical analysis, collecting or entering the data, modifying or structuring a computer program, and recruiting participants or obtaining animals.
Conducting routine observations or diagnoses for use in studies does not constitute authorship. Combinations of these and other tasks, however, may justify authorship.
Determining authorship. As early as practicable in a research project, the collaborators should decide on which tasks are necessary for the project's completion, how the work F will be divided, which tasks or combination of tasks merits authorship credit, and on what level credit should be given first author, second author, etc. Collaborators may need to reassess authorship credit and order if changes in relative contribution are made in the course of the project and its publication.
This is especially true in faculty— student collaborations, when students may need more intensive supervision than origi- nally anticipated, when additional analyses are required beyond the scope of a student's current level of training Fisher, , or when the level of the contribution of the stu- dent exceeds that originally anticipated. When a paper is accepted by an editor, each person listed in the byline must verify in writing that he or she agrees to serve as an author and accepts the responsibilities of authorship see the section on author responsibilities at the beginning of Chapter 8.
Authors are responsible for determining authorship and for spec- ifying the order in which two or more authors' names appear in the byline. The gen- eral rule is that the name of the principal contributor should appear first, with subse- in- quent names in order of decreasing contribution, but this convention can vary froth ri- field to field.
If authors played equal roles in the research and publication of their ;it- study, they may wish to note this in the author note see section 2. Principal authorship and the order of authorship credit should accurately reflect id- the relative contributions of persons involved APA Ethics Code Standard 8. Relative status i. Because doctoral work is expect- ed to represent an independent and original contribution devised by students, except under rare circumstances, students should be listed as the principal author of any mul- tiauthored papers substantially based on their dissertation APA Ethics Code Standard 8.
Unusual exceptions to doctoral student first authorship might occur when the doctoral dissertation is published as part of a collection of stud- ies involving other researchers Fisher, Whether students merit principal author- ship on master's-level or other predoctoral research will depend on their specific con- tributions to the research. When master's-level students make the primary contributions to a study, they should be listed as the first author.
When students are Ley just beginning to acquire skills necessary to make a primary scientific contribution, ics they may conduct master's theses that involve the opportunity to learn these skills ily through collaboration on a faculty-originated project.
In such cases, authorship should n- be determined by the relative contributions of student and faculty member to the proj- he ect Fisher, During the review process, the manuscript is a confidential and or privileged document.
Editors and reviewers may not, without authors' explicit permis- Is. If reviewers for APA journals wish to consult with a colleague about some aspect of the manuscript, the reviewer must rs request permission from the editor prior to approaching the colleague. Publishers have rk different policies on this, and reviewers should consult with the editor about this mat- ter.
In addition, editors and reviewers may not use the material from an unpublished ay manuscript to advance their own or others' work without the author's consent. Under the Copyright Act of title 17 of the United States Code , an unpublished work is copyrighted from the moment it is fixed in tangible form—for example, typed on a page.
Copyright protection is "an incident of the process of of authorship" U. Copyright Office, , p. Until authors formally transfer copy- right see section 8.
To ensure copyright protection, include the copyright notice on all published works e. The notice need not appear on unpublished works; nonetheless, it is recommended that a copy- right notice be included on all works, whether published or not. Registration of copyright provides a public record and is usually a prerequisite for any legal action.
Authors submitting a manuscript to an APA journal are required to submit a form stating their compliance with ethical standards for publication as well as a form disclosing any conflicts of interest see Chapter 8, Figures 8. We encourage authors to consult these forms before beginning their research project and at regular intervals throughout the entire research process. Whether or not the work will be submitted to an APA journal, issues related to institutional approval, informed consent, deception in research, and participant protections should be carefully considered while the research is in the planning stages and may be the basis of questions for editors or reviewers see Chapter 8.
In particular, we urge researchers to review the following checklist. Ethical Compliance Checklist D Have you obtained permission for use of unpublished instruments, proce- dures, or data that other researchers might consider theirs proprietary?
S Have you properly cited other published work presented in portions of your manuscript? El Are you prepared to answer questions about institutional review of your study or studies? S Are you prepared to answer editorial questions about the informed consent and debriefing procedures you used?
S If your study involved animal subjects, are you prepared to answer editorial questions about humane care and use of animals in research? U Have all authors reviewed the manuscript and agreed on responsibility for its content? S Have you adequately protected the confidentiality of research participants, clients—patients, organizations, third parties, or others who were the source of information presented in this manuscript? S Have all authors agreed to the order of authorship? S Have you obtained permission for use of any copyrighted material you have included?
For each manuscript element, we detail current expectations for the Jn content. In each section, the following kinds of information are included: These reporting stan- dards relate to material recommended to appear in the abstract, the introduction of the research problem, the method section, the results, and the discussion of the results.
Also presented are three specific modules relating to studies with manipulated condi- tions or interventions. The chapter ends with sample papers that illustrate the function and format of the sections described. Journal Article Reporting Standards Reporting standards provide a degree of comprehensiveness in the information that is routinely included in reports of empirical investigations.
The motivation for the devel- opment of reporting standards has come from within the disciplines of the behavioral, social, educational, and medical sciences. Uniform reporting standards make it easier to generalize across fields, to more fully understand the implications of individual stud- ies, and to allow techniques of meta-analysis to proceed more efficiently.
Also, decision makers in policy and practice have emphasized the importance of understanding how research was conducted and what was found. A set of comprehensive reporting stan- dards facilitates this understanding. Reporting standards are emergent and have not yet been developed for all types of studies.
I In the next section, we describe a set of reporting standards relating to the mate- rial recommended to appear in a the abstract; b the introduction of the research problem; c subsections of the method section describing the characteristics of the par- ticipants; sampling procedures; sample size, power, and precision; measures and covari- ates; and the general descriptor of the research design; d the statistical results; and e the discussion of results.
These standards relate to all types of research designs. Then we present three specific modules relating to studies with manipulated conditions or interventions. You can use or a journal editor may ask you to use these modules in addition to the general template if they are relevant to the research at hand. One mod- ule contains standards for describing the experimental manipulation or intervention itself, and the other two modules describe features of designs with experimental i.
We also provide a flow chart to help you describe how subjects moved through the experimental or quasi-experimental study. In the same spirit, we include standards for reports of meta-analyses. Before you begin to write a manuscript, con- sult the particular journal to which you are considering submitting and see whether there are journal-specific guidelines regarding your research design.
We relied heavily on previous efforts to construct reporting standards in develop- ing the standards presented here.
Four earlier efforts contributed to the meta-analysis reporting standards. A complete description of how the standards were developed can be found in "Reporting Standards for Research in Psychology: Why Do We Need Them?
What Might They Be? Four sets of guidelines, which can be found in the Appendix, have been created to help you decide which elements are relevant to your study. These guidelines are from the American Psychologist article see previous paragraph and include entries beyond those discussed in this chapter. The additional modules for designs involving experimental manipu- lations and interventions can be found in Table 2 of the Appendix, Module A: Not everything in these guidelines will be relevant to every article you prepare.
Also, as descriptions of research expand, so does the space needed to report them.: Most scholarly publishers, ma! So, some of the material in the appendices may not appear in the published arti- ate- cle itself but rather in an online supplemental archive. We discuss supplemental mate- rch na1 more fully in section 2. It should be a concise statement of the main topic and should identify the van- I e ables or theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them.
Although its principal d function is to inform readers about the study, a title is also used as a statement of arti- cle content for abstracting and reference purposes in databases such as APA's PsycINFO.
Titles are commonly indexed and compiled in numerous reference works. Therefore, avoid words that serve no useful purpose; they increase length and can mislead indexers. For example, the words method and results do not normally appear in a title, nor should mg - such terms as A Study of or An Experimental Investigation of. Occasionally a term such see as a research synthesis or a meta-analysis or fMRI study of conveys important informa- it tion for the potential reader and is included in the title.
Avoid using abbreviations in a title; spelling out all terms helps ensure accurate, complete indexing of the article. Linu The title should be typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered between the left and right margins, and positioned in the upper half of the page. The preferred form of an author's name is first name, middle of initial s , and last name; this form reduces the likelihood of mistaken identity.
To pu- assist researchers as well as librarians, use the same form for publication throughout A: Determining whether Juanita A.
Smith is the same person as J. Smith, J. Smith can be difficult, particularly when citations span several years and to institutional affiliations change. Omit all titles e. The affiliation identifies the location where the author or authors were when the research was conducted, which is usually an institution. Include a dual affiliation only if two institutions contributed substantial support to the study.
Include no more than two affiliations per author. When an author has no institutional affiliation, list the city and state of residence below the author's name. Foster II and Roy R. Davis Jr.
The names of the authors should appear in the order of their contributions, cen- tered between the side margins. For names with suffixes e. The institutional affiliation should be centered under the author's name, on the next line. John 0. Students should note that an author note is usually not a requirement for theses and dissertations. Notes should be arranged as follows.
First paragraph: Complete departmental affiliation. Identify departmental affiliations at the time of the study for all authors. Format as follows: If an author is not affiliated with an institution, provide the city and state provide city and country for authors whose affil- iations are outside of the United States, and include province for authors in Canada or Australia.
No degrees should be given, and state names should be spelled out. Second paragraph: Changes of affiliation if any. Identify any changes in author affili- ation subsequent to the time of the study. Use the following wording: The affiliation should include the department and institution.
Identifygrants or other financial support and the source, if appropriate for your study; do not precede grant numbers by No. Next, acknowledge colleagues who assisted in conducting the study or critiquing the manu- script.
Do not acknowledge the persons routinely involved in the review and accept- ance of manuscripts—peer reviewers or editors, associate editors, and consulting edi- tors of the journal in which the article is to appear.
If you would like to acknowledge a specific idea raised by a reviewer, do so in the text where the idea is discussed. In this paragraph, also explain any special agreements concerning authorship, such as if authors contributed equally to the study. End this paragraph with thanks for personal assistance, such as in manuscript preparation. Special circumstances. If there are any special circumstances, disclose them before the acknowledgments in the third paragraph.
For example, if the manuscript is based on data also used in a previously published report e. Also, acknowledge the publication of related reports e. If any relationships may be perceived as a conflict of interest e. If your employer or granting organization requires a disclaimer stating, for example, that the research reported does not reflect the views of that organization, such a statement is included in this paragraph.
Person to contact mailing address, e-mail. Provide a complete the mailing address for correspondence. End this paragraph with an e-mail address and nal no period. This research was supported in part by grants from the National Institute on en- Aging and from the John D.
MacArthur Foundation. Start each paragraph of the note with an indent, and ext type separate paragraphs for the authors' names and current affiliations, changes in an affiliations, acknowledgments, and special circumstances, if any, along with the person Ill- to contact.
The author note is not numbered or cited in the text. Consult the instructions to authors or web page of the journal to which you plan to submit your articte for any journal-specific instructions.
A well-prepared abstract can be the most important singte paragraph in an articte. Most peopte have their first contact with an articte by seeing just the abstract, usually in comparison with severat other abstracts, as they are doing a titerature search. Readers frequently decide on the basis of the abstract whether to read the entire arti- cle. The abstract needs to be dense with information. By embedding key words in your abstract, you enhance the user's ability to find it. Ensure that the abstract correctty reflects the purpose and content of the manuscript.
Do not inctude information that does not appear in the body of the manuscript. If the study extends or replicates previous research, note this in the abstract and cite the author's tast name and the year of the relevant report. Comparing an abstract with an outtine of the manuscript's headings is a usefut way to verify its accuracy. Report rather than evaluate; do not add to or comment on what is in the body of the manuscript.
Write in ctear and concise tanguage. Use verbs rather than their noun equivalents and the active rather than the passive voice e.
Use the present tense to describe conctusions drawn or resutts with continuing appticability; use the past tense to describe specific variables maniputat- ed or outcomes measured. Be brief, and make each sentence maximally informative, especially the tead sentence.
Begin the abstract with the most important points. Do not waste space by repeating the title. Inctude in the abstract onty the four or five most important con- cepts, findings, or imptications.
Use the specific words in your abstract that you think your audience will use in their electronic searches. An abstract for a theory-oriented paper should describe: Word limits vary from journal to journal and typically range from to words. When preparing your manuscript, begin the abstract on a new page and identify it by with the running head or abbreviated title and the page number 2.
The label Abstract in- should appear in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered, at the top of the page. Type the abstract itself as a single paragraph without paragraph indentation. The body of a manuscript opens with an introduction that pres- ents the specific problem under study and describes the research strategy. Because the introduction is clearly identified by its position in the manuscript, it does not carry a heading labeling it the introduction.
Before writing the introduction, consider the following questions: If other aspects of this study have been reported previously, how does this report differ from, and build on, the earlier report?
I What are the primary and secondary hypotheses and objectives of the study, and what, if any, are the links to theory? A good introduction answers these questions in just a few pages and, by summa- rizing the relevant arguments and the past evidence, gives the reader a firm sense of what was done and why.
State why the problem deserves new research. For applied research, this might involve the need to solve a social problem or treat a psychological disorder. When research is driven by the desire to resolve controversial issues, all sides in the debate should be represented in balanced measure in the intro- duction. Avoid animosity and ad hominem arguments in presenting the controversy.
Conclude the statement of the problem in the introduction with a brief but formal statement of the purpose of the research that summarizes the material preceding it. For literature reviews as well as theoretical and methodological articles, also clearly state the reasons that the reported content is important and how the article fits into, the cumulative understanding of the field.
Describe relevant scholarship. Discuss the relevant related literature, but do not feel compelled to include an exhaustive historical account.
Assume that the reader is knowledgeable about the basic problem and does not require a complete accounting of its history. A scholarly description of earlier work in the introduction provides a summary of the most recent directly related work and recognizes the priority of the work of others.
Citation of and specific credit to relevant earlier works are signs of scientific and scholarly responsibility and are essential for the growth of a cumula- tive science. In the description of relevant scholarship, also inform readers whether other aspects of this study have been reported on previously and how the current use of the evidence differs from earlier uses.
At the same time, cite and reference only works pertinent to the specific issue and not those that are of only tangential or gen- eral significance. When summarizing earlier works, avoid nonessential details; instead, emphasize pertinent findings, relevant methodological issues, and major conclusions. Refer the reader to general surveys or research syntheses of the topic if they are available.
Demonstrate the logical continuity between previous and present work. Develop the problem with enough breadth and clarity to make it generally understood by as wide a professional audience as possible.
Do not let the goal of brevity lead you to write a statement intelligible only to the specialist. State hypotheses and their correspondence to research design.
After you have intro- duced 'the problem and have developed the background material, explain your approach to solving the problem. In empirical studies, this usually involves stating your hypotheses or specific question and describing how these were derived from theo- ry or are logically connected to previous data and argumentation.
Clearly develop the rationale for each. Also, if you have some hypotheses or questions that are central to your purpose and others that are secondary or exploratory, state this prioritization. Explain how the research design permits the inferences needed to examine the hypoth- esis or provide estimates in answer to the question.
In preparing your manuscript, begin the introduction on a new page, identifying it with the running head and the page number 3. Type the title of the manuscript in uppercase and lowercase letters centered at the top of the page, and then type the text.
The remaining sections of the article follow each other without a break; do not start a new page when a new heading occurs. Each remaining manuscript page should also carry the running head and a page number. Different types of studies will rely on different methodologies; however, a complete description of the methods used enables the reader to evaluate the appropriateness of your meth- ods and the reliability and the validity of your results. It also permits experienced investigators to replicate the study.
If your manuscript is an update of an ongoing or earlier study and the method has been published in detail elsewhere, you may refer the reader to that source and simply give a brief synopsis of the method in this sec- tion see also section 1.
The following is an example of such a synopsis: We present cross-sectional and 3-year longitudinal data from a study of adults aged 55 to The memory tasks were those used in our previous research. Zelinski et al. Identify subsections. It is both conventional and expedient to divide the Method sec- t- tion into labeled subsections.
Identify subsections. It is both conventional and expedient to divide the Method sec- t- tion into labeled subsections. These usually include a section with descriptions of the T participants or subjects and a section describing the procedures used in the study.
The e latter section often includes description of a any experimental manipulations or inter- y ventions used and how they were delivered—for example, any mechanical apparatus used to deliver them; b sampling procedures and sample size and precision; c meas- urement approaches including the psychometric properties of the instruments used ; and d the research design.
If the design of the study is complex or the stimuli require if detailed description, additional subsections or subheadings to divide the subsections may be warranted to help readers find specific information. Insufficient detail leaves the reader with questions; too much detail burdens 0 the reader with irrelevant information.
Participant subject characteristics. Appropriate identification of research partici- pants is critical to the science and practice of psychology, particularly for generalizing the findings, making comparisons across replications, and using the evidence in research syntheses and secondary data analyses. If humans participated in the study, report the eligibility and exclusion criteria, including any restrictions based on demo- graphic characteristics. Describe the sample adequately. As a rule, describe the groups as specifically as possible, with particular emphasis on characteristics that may have bearing on the interpretation of results.
For example, the following is a useful characterization of a sample: To determine how far the data can be generalized, you may find it useful to identify subgroups: The Asian sample included 30 Chinese and 45 Vietnamese persons. Even when a characteristic is not used in analysis of the data, reporting it may give readers a more complete understanding of the sample and the generalizability of results and may prove useful in meta-analytic studies that incorporate the article's results.
When animals are used, report the genus, species, and strain number or other spe- cific identification, such as the name and location of the supplier and the stock desig- nation. Give the number of animals and the animals' sex, age, weight, and physiolog- ical condition. Sampling procedures.
Describe the procedures for selecting participants, including a the sampling method, if a systematic sampling plan was used; b the percentage of the sample approached that participated; and c the number of participants who selected themselves into the sample. Describe the settings and locations in which the data were collected as well as any agreements and payments made to participants, agreements with the institutional review board, ethical standards met, and safety monitoring procedures.
Sample size, power, and precision. Along with the description of subjects, give the intended size of the sample and number of individuals meant to be in each condition, if separate conditions were used. State whether the achieved sample differed in known ways from the target population. Conclusions and interpretations should not go beyond what the sample would warrant. State how this intended sample size was determined e.
If interim analysis and stopping rules were used to modify the desired sample size, describe the methodology and results. When applying inferential statistics, take seriously the statistical power considera- tions associated with the tests of hypotheses.
Such considerations relate to the likeli- hood of correctly rejecting the tested hypotheses, given a particular alpha level, effect size, and sample size. In that regard, routinely provide evidence that the study has suf- ficient power to detect effects of substantive interest. Be similarly careful in discussing the role played by sample size in cases in which not rejecting the null hypothesis is desirable i.
Use the resulting confidence intervals to justify conclusions concerning effect sizes e.
Measures and covariates. Include in the Method section information that provides def- initions of all primary and secondary outcome measures and covariates, including measures collected but not included in this report. Describe the methods used to col- lect data e. Provide information on instruments used, including their psychometric and biometric properties and evidence of cultural validity.
Research design. Specify the research design in the Method section. Were subjects placed into conditions that were manipulated, or were they observed naturalistically? Jf multiple conditions were created, how were participants assigned to conditions, through random assignment or some other selection mechanism?
Was the study con- ducted as a between-subjects or a within-subject design? Different research designs have different reporting needs associated with them.
Information that should be reported for all studies that involve experimental manip- ulations or interventions is summarized in Table 2 of the Appendix, Module A: When reporting studies that are not of the manipulation or intervention variety e. Experimental manipulations or interventions.
If interventions or experimental manipu- lations were used in the study, describe their specific content. Include the details of the interventions or manipulations intended for each study condition, including control groups if any , and describe how and when interventions experimental manipula- tions were actually administered.
The description of manipulations or interventions should include several elements. Carefully describe the content of the intervention or specific experimental manipula- tions. Often, this will involve presenting a brief summary of instructions given to par- ticipants.
If the instructions are unusual or compose the experimental manipulation, you may present them verbatim in an appendix or in an online supplemental archive. If the text is brief, you may present it in the body of the paper if it does not interfere with the readability of the report.
Describe the methods of manipulation and data acquisition. If a mechanical appara- tus was used to present stimulus materials or collect data, include in the description of procedures the apparatus model number and manufacturer when important, as in neu- roimaging studies , its key settings or parameters e.
When relevant—such as, for example, in the delivery of clinical and educational interventions—the procedures should also contain a description of who delivered the intervention, including their level of professional training and their level of training in the specific intervention. Present the number of deliverers along with the mean, standard deviation, and range of number of individuals or units treated by each deliverer.
Provide information about a the setting where the intervention or manipulation was delivered, b the quantity and duration of exposure to the intervention or manipulation i.
When an instrument is translated into a language other than the language in which it was developed, describe the specific method of translation e. Provide a description of how participants were grouped during data acquisition i. Describe the smallest unit e. If the unit used for sta- tistical analysis differed from the unit used to deliver the intervention or manipulation i. Report the data in sufficient detail to justify your conclusions.
Mention all relevant results, including those that run counter to expectation; be sure to include small effect sizes or statistically nonsignifi- cant findings when theory predicts large or statistically significant ones.
Do not hide uncomfortable results by omission. Do not include individual scores or raw data, with the exception, for example, of single-case designs or illustrative examples.
In the spirit of data sharing encouraged by APA and other professional associations and some- times required by funding agencies , raw data, including study characteristics and indi- vidual effect sizes used in a meta-analysis, can be made available on supplemental online archives.
See section 2. Discussing the implications of the results should be reserved for presen- tation in the Discussion section. Provide dates defining the periods of recruitment and follow-up and the primary sources of the potential subjects, where appropriate. If these dates differ by group, provide the values for each group.
Statistics and data analysis. Analysis of data and the reporting of the results of those analyses are fundamental aspects of the conduct of research. Researchers in the field of psychology use numerous approaches to the analysis of data, and no one approach is nal uniformly preferred as long as the method is appropriate to the research questions th e being asked and the nature of the data collected. The methods used must support their analytic burdens, including robustness to violations of the assumptions that underlie them, and they must provide clear, unequivocal insights into the data.
APA stresses that NHST is but a starting point and that additional reporting elements such as effect sizes, confidence intervals, and extensive description are needed to convey the most complete meaning of the results. The degree to which any journal emphasizes or de-emphasizes NHST is a decision of the individual edi- 'es- tor. However, complete reporting of all tested hypotheses and estimates of appropriate the effect sizes and confidence intervals are the minimum expectations for all APA jour- ich nals.
Do ire I not review basic concepts and procedures or provide citations for the most commonly used statistical procedures. If, however, there is any question about the appropriateness e ajl of a particular statistical procedure, justify its use by clearly stating the evidence that exists for the robustness of the procedure as applied.
For example, data might be described as missing completely at random as when values of the missing variable are not related to the probability that they are missing or to the value of any other vari- able in the data set ; missing at random as when the probability of missing a value on on a variable is not related to the missing value itself but may be related to other com- ail pletely observed variables in the data set ; or not missing at random as when the prob- un ability of observing a given value for a variable is related to the missing value itself.
It fi- is also important to describe the methods for addressing missing data, if any were used e. Because each analytic technique depends on different al aspects of the data and assumptions, it is impossible to specify what constitutes a "suf- al ficient set of statistics" for every analysis.
However, such a set usually includes at least the following: In the case of multivariable analytic systems, such as mul- 2 Issues dealing with the controversy over the use of NHST and its alternatives are complex and outside the scope of a publication manual.
For those interested in this controversy, a discussion of these and related issues can be found in the article by Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference ; 1-larlow, Mulaik, and Steiger's se What If There Were No significance Tests? Kline's Beyond Significance Testing: At times, the amount of information that constitutes a sufficient set of sta- tistics can be extensive; when this is the case, this information could be supplied in a supplementary data set or appendix see section 2.
For analyses based on very small samples including single-case investigations , consider providing the complete set of raw data in a table or figure. Your work will more easily become a part of the cumulative knowledge of the field if you include enough statistical information to allow its inclusion in future meta-analyses.
For inferential statistical tests e. When point estimates e. The inclusion of confidence intervals for estimates of parameters, for functions of parameters such as differences in means, and for effect sizes can be an extremely effec- tive way of reporting results. Because confidence intervals combine information on location and precision and can often be directly used to infer significance levels, they are, in general, the best reporting strategy.
The use of confidence intervals is therefore strongly recommended. As a rule, it is best to use a single confidence level, specified on an a priori basis e.
Wherever possible, base discussion and interpretation of results on point and interval estimates. For the reader to appreciate the magnitude or importance of a study's findings, it is almost always necessary to include some measure of effect size in the Results sec- tion. Effect sizes may be expressed in the original units e. It can often be valuable to report an effect size not only in original units but also in some standardized or units-free unit e.
Multiple degree-of-freedom effect-size indicators are often less use- ful than effect-size indicators that decompose multiple degree-of-freedom tests into meaningful one degree-of-freedom effects—particularly when the latter are the results that inform the discussion. The general principle to be followed, however, is to provide the reader with enough information to assess the magnitude of the observed effect.
Ancillary analyses. Report any other analyses performed, including subgroup analyses and adjusted analyses, indicating those that were prespecified and those that were exploratory though not necessarily in the level of detail of primary analyses. Consider putting the detailed results of these analyses on the supplemental online archive. Discuss the implications, if any, of the ancillary analyses for statistical error rates. Participant flow.
For experimental and quasi-experimental designs, there must be a description of the flow of participants human, animal, or units such as classrooms or Grissom and Kim provide a comprehensive discussion of effect sizes. Present the total number of units recruited into the d study and the number of participants assigned to each group. Provide the number of participants who did not complete the experiment or crossed over to other conditions and explain why.
Note the number of participants used in the primary analyses. The flowchart in the Appendix Figure 1 provides a useful device for displaying the flow of participants through each stage of a study see also Figures 5. Intervention or manipulation fidelity. If interventions or experimental manipulations were used, provide evidence on whether they were delivered as intended. In basic experimental research, this might be the results of checks on the manipulation.
In applied research, this might be, for example, records and observations of intervention delivery sessions and attendance records. Baseline data. In studies reporting the results of experimental manipula- tions or interventions, clarify whether the analysis was by intent-to-treat. That is, were n all participants assigned to conditions included in the data analysis regardless of whether they actually received the intervention, or were only participants who com- pleted the intervention satisfactorily included?
Give a rationale for the choice. Adverse events. Here you will examine, h interpret, and qualify the results and draw inferences and conclusions from them. Emphasize any theoretical or practical consequences of the results.
When the discus- sion is relatively brief and straightforward, some authors prefer to combine it with the d Results section, creating a section called Results and Discussion.
Open the Discussion section with a clear statement of the support or nonsupport for your original hypotheses, distinguished by primary and secondary hypotheses. If e hypotheses were not supported, offer post hoc explanations. Similarities and differ- ences between your results and the work of others should be used to contextualize, confirm, and clarify your conclusions. Do not simply reformulate and repeat points already made; each new statement should contribute to your interpretation and to the reader's understanding of the problem.
Your interpretation of the results should take into account a sources of potential bias and other threats to internal validity, b the imprecision of measures, c the over- all number of tests or overlap among tests, d the effect sizes observed, and e other limitations or weaknesses of the study. Acknowledge the limitations of your research, and address alternative explana- tions of the results.
Discuss the generalizability, or external validity, of the findings. For interventions, discuss characteristics that make them more or less applicable to circumstances not included in the study, how and what out- comes were measured relative to other measures that might have been used , the length of time to measurement between the end of the intervention and the measure- ment of outcomes , incentives, compliance rates, and specific settings involved in the study as well as other contextual issues.
End the Discussion section with a reasoned and justifiable commentary on the importance of your findings. This concluding section may be brief or extensive provid- ed that it is tightly reasoned, self-contained, and not overstated. In this section, you might briefly return to a discussion of why the problem is important as stated in the introduction ; what larger issues, those that transcend the particulars of the subfield, might hinge on the findings; and what propositions are confirmed or disconfirmed by the extrapolation of these findings to such overarching issues.
You may also consider the following issues: If the findings are valid and replicable, what real-life psychological phenomena might be explained or modeled by the results? Are applications warranted on the basis of this research? The responses to these questions are the core of the contribution of your study and justify why readers both inside and outside your own specialty should attend to the findings.
Your readers should receive clear, unambiguous, and direct answers. If appropriate, include for each study a short discussion of the results, or combine the discussion with the description of results e. Always include a comprehensive general discussion of all the work after the last study. Report only conceptually linked studies in a single paper. The arrangement of sections reflects the structure previously described.
For exam- ple, label a series of experiments Experiment 1, Experiment 2, and so forth. They, organize the subsections and make referring to a specific experiment convenient for the' reader. The Method and Results sections and the Discussion section, if a short discus- sion accompanies each study appear under each study heading. Refer to Figure pp. In the guidelines, it is assumed that the research synthesis being reported used rigs, quantitative procedures to combine the results of studies.
However, many of the guide- uia- lines e. The terms tue and issues should be familiar to researchers undertaking a meta-analysis and are ire- described in numerous texts.
The tue online supplemental archives of journals can be used to store supplemental materials vid- associated with the articles that appear in print. This supplemental material might you include, for example, the list of citations to the research included in a meta-analysis and the the table giving descriptive information for each included study, especially when the eld, number of included studies is large.
If the number of articles contributing studies to the I by meta-analysis is relatively small e. If the number of articles in the meta-analysis exceeds SO, then the references to the articles should be placed in a list hat and in a supplemental online archive. If an article is mentioned in the text of a meta- hat analytic article and the results reported in that article are included in the meta-analysis, Are the article should be cited both in the reference list and in the supplemental materials.
References are used to document statements made about the literature, just as data in the manuscript support interpretations and conclusions. The references cited in the manuscript do not need to be exhaustive but should be sufficient to support the need for your research and to ensure that readers can place it in the context of previ- ous research and theorizing.
The standard procedures for citation ensure that references are accurate, complete, and useful to investigators and readers. For detailed guidance on citing sources and preparing the reference list, consult Chapters 6 and 7. Start the reference list on a new page. The word References should appear in upper- case and lowercase letters, centered.
Double-space all reference entries. APA publishes references in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented.
Content footnotes. Content footnotes supplement or amplify substantive information in the text; they should not include complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential information. Because they can be distracting to readers, such footnotes should be included only if they strengthen the discussion. Another alternative is to indicate in a short footnote that the materi- al is available online as supplemental material.
In most cases, an author integrates an article best by presenting important information in the text, not in a footnote. I Copyright permission. Copyright permission footnotes acknowledge the source of lengthy quotations, scale and test items, and figures and tables that have been reprint- ed or adapted. Authors must obtain permission to reproduce or adapt material from a copyrighted source. See Chapter 8 for a discussion of what authors should know about permissions and copyright.
A numbered footnote is generally used to provide source material for long quota- tions. For tables, the source material is provided in a table note see section 5. Use the wording below for copyright permission footnotes. Author and C. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.
Reprinted [or adapted] with permission. Author, year, Place of Publication: Copyright [year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Number all footnotes consecutively in the order in which they appear in the man- uscript with superscript Arabic numerals. Footnote numbers should be superscripted, like this,1 following any punctuation mark except a dash.
The number falls inside a closing parenthesis if it applies only to matter within the parentheses, like this. Subsequent references to a footnote are by parenthetical note: Footnotes may alternatively be placed in consecutive order on a separate page after the references. Be sure that the number of the footnote corresponds with the appropriate text discussion. Material of this type can often be included in an appendix or in a supplemental materials section—the former being an element of the print version of the article, the latter being an online supplemental archive that the publisher of the archival source maintains.
In general, an appendix is appropriate for materials that are relatively en- brief and that are easily presented in print format. Some examples of material suitable an for an appendix are a a list of stimulus materials e. If your manuscript has only one appendix, label it Appendix; if your manuscript ta- F has more than one appendix, label each one with a capital letter Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.
Each appen- the dix must have a title. In the text, refer to appendices by their labels: Like the main text, an appendix may include headings and subheadings as well as tables, figures, and displayed equations.
Number each appendix table and figure, and number displayed equations if necessary for later reference; precede the number with the letter of the appendix in which it is included e. In a sole appendix, which is not labeled with a letter, precede all tables, figures, and equation numbers with the letter A to distinguish them from those of the main text.
All appendix tables and figures must be cited within the appendix and numbered in order of citation. If one table constitutes an entire appendix, the centered appendix label and title serve in lieu of a table number and title. Generally, treat multiple tables as separate appendices. If multiple tables but no text are combined into one appendix, number the tables. Begin each appendix on a separate page.
Center the word Appendix and the iden- tifying capital letters A, B, etc. Center the title of the appendix, and use uppercase and lowercase a letters. Begin the text of the appendix flush left, followed by indented paragraphs. Supplemental materials. Web-based, online supplemental archives tend to be more appropriate for material that is more useful when available as a direct download as well as materials that are not easily presented in standard print format.
Some exam- ples of materials suitable for inclusion in online supplemental archives are a lengthy computer code, b details of mathematical or computational models, c audio or video clips, d oversized tables, e detailed intervention protocols, f primary or supplementary data sets, g expanded methodology sections, and h color figures.
Because this content may be useful to the field, APA and many other publishers make it possible to provide them to a wide audience by posting them on the web, with a link to the published article. These files like an appendix then become part of the primary journal record and cannot be augmented, altered, or deleted.
Materials for inclusion in supplemental online archives should be submitted in for- mats that will be widely accessible. The following multimedia formats are generally widely available to most users and are preferred: Many users refuse to deal with executable files or operate from systems that refuse to access them.
For APA journals, the link to online supplemental archives that appears in the pub- lished article leads readers to a landing page that includes a bibliographic citation, a link to the published article, and a context statement and link for each supplemental material file see an example of a sample landing page at Supplemental materials should include enough information to make their contents interpretable when accompanied by the published text.
For more information on sup- plemental materials, see Chapter 8. Most journals make supplemental materials subject to peer review and require that they be submitted with the initial manuscript. Once accepted, the supplemental mate- rials will be posted with no further editing or polishing. Include an appendix or supplemental materials only if they help readers to under- stand, evaluate, or replicate the study or theoretical argument being made.
Be sure that all relevant ethical standards have been followed for appendices and supplemental materials, including copyright protection, accurate representation of data, and protec- tion of human subjects e. Sample Papers These sample papers illustrate three kinds of manuscripts: The three manuscripts have been adapted for the Publication Manual from articles published in APA journals.
Running head: Lcclerc and Etizabeth A. Kenain Abstract the abstract Correspondence co Age differences were examined in affective processing, in the contexi of a viauat search task. Younger adults were fatter to detect potitive high arousal targets compared with other categories. Together, these findings auggesi that otder adutta do not ditptay valence -based effects on affective processing at relatively automatic stages.
Leclerc and E. Kensinger, , Psychology and Aging, 23, pp. Copyfight by the American Psychological Association. II is therefore ofgreat importance for one's attentional processes to select only Ihe moat salient infomalion in the environment to which one ahould attend. Previous research has suggested that emolional informalion ia privy 10 attentional selection in young adulls e. In half!
Reaulta indicated that images were more quickly detected ihan Thbtetl fear-irrele were Running head: Is is less clear whether these effecis are preserved across the adult life apan.
The focua ofihe current research is on determining she exient to which tO aging influences the early, relatively automatic deteciion ofemolionat inforiaiaiion. Thus, isis plausible that Ihe detection ofemosional information remains relatively alable as adults age. However, despite the preservation of emotion-proceaaing regions with age or perhapa because of the contrast between the preservation of these regions and age-related declines in cognitive-processing regions; Good et al.
Studies influence ofemotiun on memory Charles. Similar results have heen found when words: We hypotheuiced thnt op. On the basis of the existing literature, the first two previously discussed To do so, we employed hypotheses seemed to be more plausible than the third alternative.
Indeed, a couple of prior studies have provided evidence for intact early processing of emotional iscisl expressions with aging. Mather and Knight esstnined young and older adstts' abilities to detect happy, sad, angry, or neutral faces presented in a complex visual may.
Hahn et at. In the current research, ttaerefoee, we compared young attd older adults' detection of fonr cstegorieu ofemotionat information positive high arousal, positive tow arouaat, negative high Prefixed Words that srousal, and negative tosv arouuat with their detection of neutral information.
Ttse wire hyphens, 'Table 4. Patticipanta were presented with a visual search task from these different categories e. Foe half ofthe multi-image strays, alt of the images were ofihe tame item.
Parlicipants were Running head: ElehierltsoflilQ Method categories. Older aduttu 15 women, 9 men,M. There were 30 additional patlicipsnts, recruited in the tsar way aa Mothod sectiOn, 2. Alt Using numerals to OXflfOSS participants were asked to hring cotrective eyewear if needed, resulting in normal orcoasreted to I numbers representing age, 4. There were tO different types of itemu 2 each of five Valence as Arousal categories: A total of 90 images wear used, each appearing an a target sad as a mtmber ofa distracting amsy.
A total of matrices were presented to each paslicipatat; halfcoutaintd a target item i. Within the ISO target trials, each of the five emotion categories e.
Further, within each of the 36 trials for each emotion category, 9 trials weue created for each of the combinations with the remaining four other emotion categoeiea e. Location of the target was randomly varied such that no target within an emotion category was presented in the same location in arrays of more than one other emotion category i. Each image depicted a photo ofihe actual object.
For the remaining images, an additional 20 high arousal pilot participants rated the emotional valence and arouaal of the objects and assessed the degree - arousal.
Negative objects Ipants made these received mean valence ratings of 2. High arousal ed how aimilar objects received mean arousal ratings greater than 5, and low arousal objects including all the mushrooms neutral stimuli received mean arousal ratings of less than 4. We selected categories for which on within. Oar object selection alto assured that the categories differed from one another los similar degree e. Procedure Earh trial began with a white fixation cross presented on a black screen for 1, ma; the matrix was then presented, and it remained on the ecreen until a participant responte was recorded.
Participants were instructed to respond as quickly as posaible with a button marked yes if there was a target present, or a button marked no if no target was present. Response latencies sad accuracy for each trial were automatically recorded with E-Prime Version 1. Before beginning the actual task, patticipants performed 20 practice trials to assure compliance with the task instructions.
Elements Qttl a Results4 Results section 2 07 Analyses focus on participants RTs to the trials in which a target was present and was from a different emotional category from the diatractor e.
Median RTs were then calculated for each of the five emotional target categoeiet, collapsing acrosa assay type see Table 2 for mw RT values for each ofthe two age groups. This allowed us to examine, for. Because our main interest was in ;letters,4ii. These difference scores were then examined with a 2 x 2 x 2 Age [young,,. There was no significant mails effect for valence, nor was there an interaction valence snd arousal.
Thua, the arousal-mediated effects on detection time appeared stable in young and older adults. The results described above suggeated that there was no influence of age on the influences ofemotion.
Thus, these results provided tome evidence that older adults may show a broader advantage for detection of any type ofemotional infonnation, wheeeas young adults' benefit may be more narrowly reatricted to only certain categories of emottonal tnformntton Elements of the Discussion a section, 2. Given the relative preservation o Running head: Although the pattern of results for the young adults has the five categoties of differed across studies—in the present study and in some past research, young adulls have shown high arousal images a facilitated information e.
The lack of a positivity focus in the older adults is in keeping with the proposal e. Rather, when Ihit effect is observed in older adulta, it is likely due to age-related changes in emotion regulation goala that operate at later stages ofprocessing i.
First, in their previous work, Ohman et at. Use of parallel construction with coordinating conjunctions compared RTs with both 2 at 2 and 3 at 3 arrays. No signirtcant RT differences based on ': Second, in both Ohman et al's study and the present study, analyses were performed to examine the influence of target location on RT. Across both studies, and across both age groups in the cureent work, emotional targets were delected more quickly than were neutral targets, regardless ofiheir location.
Together, these findings suggest that task performance is dependent on relatively automatic detection processes rather than on controlled search processes.
Discussion sectton ending with comments on Although further work is required to gain a more complete understanding of the Importance of findings 2 08 related changes in the early processing ofemolinnal information, our findinga4dicste that young and older adultu Running head: Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness.
Neural taiks require relatively correistes of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Armony, J. Modulation of spatial attention by stimuli: An event. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulling and Clinical Psychology, 56, —