Space, Time and Architecture: The Canon of Modern Architecture . ture Moderne) he was involved with modern architecture on a personal level, know-. “Most of the buildings did not seem to amount to much more than bad copies, or copies of copies.” 5 Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen When Modern Architecture Went Viral. AR Modernisms Essay by Vasileios Iliopoulos January 19th, Modernist questions for a modern architecture: The issues of context and user “Modern.
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PDF | The physical and affective bases of the differences between architects' Fifty-nine objective features of 42 large modern office buildings were related to. Collectively, the four editions of Modern Architecture represent twenty Otto Wagner*s Modern Architecture is one of a handful of books in the literature of. Transformations in modern architecture. Arthur Drexler. Author. Drexler, Arthur. Date. Publisher. The Museum of Modern Art: Distributed by New York.
Words and buildings. One of the most characterizing elements of his work is his response to context through his schemes. This bridge is made of concrete and is cladded with timber. Download pdf. By the author Figure 4 — First floor plan of the complex. Eero Saarinen modern architecture apart and put it together again, making it made the frank assessment that there was no shame or stigma a more subtle instrument. Log In Sign Up.
On display were worthy of study.
The Museum of Modern Art Archives: Mali Olatunji. By MoMA had clearly succeeded in its mission: Modern nothing. To underscore this prolifer- liferated simply by multiplying its own formal and material code ation, Drexler densely packed some ive hundred black-and-white fragment by fragment. The visitor was left to wonder whether photographs into four horizontal rows and mounted them on a this state of afairs was desirable since most of the buildings did slightly concave panel that wrapped around the perimeter of the not seem to amount to much more than bad copies, or copies room without giving any additional information about the name of copies.
The It is interesting to note that the show took place shortly format created a somewhat dizzying efect; the viewer was en- after Richard Dawkins wrote the book The Selfish Gene in , veloped by images, his or her eye wandering from photograph to about how ideas, a behavior, or a style can go viral within culture.
It was equally clear that the original meanings itated the proliferation and ultimate domination of certain formal and ideals, if any, had been lost in the course of the various itera- motifs over others. In more ways than one, Transformations was an unusual The climax of the exhibition took place in an octagonal room exhibition for MoMA, which like all museums is committed to the built in the middle of the gallery space, dedicated to curtain-wall preservation and display of unique objects.
The architecture buildings depicted on backlit photo transparencies aixed to the department had previously fulilled this mission by presenting black walls ig. Here, loss of original meaning became fully each project thoroughly with models, plans, and photographs and apparent as the installation demonstrated how the once pioneer- by indicating the criteria for inclusion with appropriate narrative ing, now ubiquitous glass curtain-wall system had replicated itself framing, whether biographical e.
Architecture and Fur- throughout the globe. Drexler unambiguously saw the second and third generation of Modern architects as mere information processors who de- signed by multiplying and mashing together the bounty of ideas and forms passed to them throughout history, sometimes rather randomly.
USA, , or typological e. The devaluation of once lofty and supposedly There was no question that something had changed since profound ideas. How do forms proliferate, and Modern Architecture: International Exhibition. The press release what happens to them on the way? Obviously unique, I have decades involves sorting out, developing, and transforming invented this all by myself. It simply means that an idea is in the air, the ur-father for all subsequent glass buildings.
In the exhibition people discuss it, and it is regarded as more or less catalog Drexler acknowledges that during this process of trans- common property. From left to right, top to bottom: Houston, Tex. Drexler windows. A Theory of Poetry , in which the with the remaining elements. To adoxically never by mere imitation but in the agonistic misprision make the point that Modern architects had somehow lost this art, performed upon powerful forerunners. Drexler makes a similar argument about when he made that statement, these were clearly not approved by architecture: The case of Mies versus his followers exempliied the perfect paradox at the heart of the show: Part of their value is that they of an idea en masse can lead to its ultimate demise.
Two previous MoMA each problem without prior commitments—as if the wheel shows ofered historical points of comparison. Architecture with- had to be perpetually reinvented—any successful solution to out Architects , curated by Bernard Rudofsky in collaboration an architectural problem embodies a previous success, and with Drexler, celebrated the transmission of ideas and techniques, is itself successful in that it can be imitated. Indeed, Modern archi- architecture was mediocre because its architects avoided the tecture represented an anomaly against this historical background.
The catalog singles out three so- good work.
He seemed to have taken ate the formal language of their predecessors. Eero Saarinen modern architecture apart and put it together again, making it made the frank assessment that there was no shame or stigma a more subtle instrument.
Mixed together, they make the broth which is modern some isolated elements useful in design. For instance, architecture was what had caused the link between the sign and signiied to in South America and Italy is primarily made up out of the erode to the point that forms no longer had the vitality celebrated fundamental principles plus Corbu. This forms a diferent by Kubler. It can present to you far more images simultaneously than sense of direction could be detected in the contemporary archi- you can absorb in any other way.
The answers veered for and against on the stylistic an overlow of images might have played a part in the collapse of the eclecticism of contemporary architecture.
The juxtaposi- diferent idioms, the latter insisting on sticking to what he consid- tions must not depend on words. Words can be used to help along ered the universal principles of all good architecture, by which he the examination of images but cannot trigger the connections certainly was referring to his own. A Fundamental Approach to Art , associations.
Yale art historian George Kubler, of photographic prints in an exhibition. Nor was he the irst to an expert on pre-Columbian and Ibero-American architecture, acknowledge that this made for a completely diferent way of ab- broke away from the conventional art historical approach that tied sorbing information than mounting original drawings on the wall, forms and artwork to the particular time and place of their cre- for example.
By laying the photographs out as an ever-expanding ation. In his inluential book The Shape of Time , Kubler matrix, he was surely indebted to his MoMA colleague Herbert argued that art history, when reduced to the study of coherent Bayer, who had pioneered the method in the Bauhaus styles, is unable to explain how forms circulate through time and exhibition.
Even today, it is widely used. Its use can be derived by the practicality of its shape, which diverts water, snow and hail away from it. It also has a very strong symbolic meaning: This is seen in many cultures, especially eastern ones.
This archaic gesture is intrigues a very strong collective memory, a conscience maybe, which most people, especially in England, are familiar with. It leaves no doubt that it is both formal and contextual. A building that even a child can relate to think of a childish drawing of a building , doubtlessly gives a sense of security, warmth and homeliness.
Now, the design strategies aimed to small-scale context. The large model of the Canterbury Cathedral takes its place in the small addition to the concrete shell.
This position is ideal for it, as the large glass planes on either side of it perpendicular to St. But then I realized that this approach would be very wrong. This would mean that the non-architect who users this building is intended for would have to experience an awkward and cheap building. A complex in which people would naturally and seamlessly flow through during their exploration of it.
A complex in which a continuum of beautifully framed vistas alternating with fine interiors creates a spectacular experience. A building where a staircase is the only thing connecting bright and dim light, in a very open generous space or in a more cozy one, respectively.
In order to better understand this scheme, it is important to compare it to modernist structures. For this comparison, we shall look to the other side of the Atlantic, more accurately, to Exeter, New Hampshire. There, we will find an excellent sample of modernist architecture, the Philips Exeter Academy Library, by Louis Kahn, finished in figure Louis Kahn is one of the most important modernist architects.
One of the most characterizing elements of his work is his response to context through his schemes. For his design for the Philips Exeter Academy Library, Kahn managed to create both contrast and direct association. Louis Kahn used Exeter brick for the exterior shell of the Library, a material most other campus buildings were made of as well. This was a direct association to the immediate context. We can then spot the two main attitudes in dealing with context in the choice of materials as well: Secondly, the massing of the two buildings was a conscious choice in accordance with context.
The library is situated in a suburban campus, with plenty open, green space. Of course, in both designs, the outmost care was given to creating a space as pleasant as possible for the people who will be using it.
For example, timber served this purpose in both buildings, by achieving the creation of a warm and inviting environment. Apart from that, though, this comparison will show many differences, the biggest of which possibly being flexibility. The exhibition spaces, especially the ones housed in the bridge, can be easily changed, using temporary partition, the lighting conditions can be adjusted to will, using both natural and artificial lighting.
The seminar room can easily be opened to the courtyard, in order to create a larger space for when the weather allows. A dramatic atmosphere is achieved by directing the user through a consecution of alternating vistas both inside the complex itself and towards the surroundings. This can be seen in the narrow corridor between the shell and the existing building in which the reproduction of an ancient boat found by the trust is hung figure 12 that serves as a path towards the heart of the complex, as well as to the entrance to the shell.
Internally, maybe the most theatrical part of the complex is the staircase inside the shell, leading visitors inside the bridge figure Overall, the user is invited to take over the space and make it their own.
By Figure 12 — Rendering of the corridor leading to the courtyard. Of course, taking into account factors like the purpose of the Library and the technologies available then, many of these decisions can be justified to some extent —whether that is enough it is up to each individual to determine. After all, the final result is, in my opinion, aesthetically excellent. Colquhoun, A.
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Thames and Hudson. Goldhagen, S. Louis Kahn's situated modernism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Mallgrave, H. Rowe, C. Website of the Canterbury Archaeological Trust, canterburytrust.
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