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Download: GMAT in a Nutshell (PDF | kb) To better assist you in your GMAT preparation, Manhattan Review has developed an exclusive Vocabulary List. purchased this book from the Manhattan GMAT online store or at one of our . During review, study the fast and easyway to do each problem. gmat guide (the green one) and the Manhattan books in PDF. good to start with official material and then switch to other materials.

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Where can I free download Manhattan Prep GMAT Strategy Guides latest edition ? . You can get different editions of manhattan gmat prep books pdf free. Our Manhattan GMAT Strategy Guides are based on the continuing . Many GMAT test-takers study for hours per day for months, while work ing 70+. Critical Reasoning GMAT Strategy Guide, 6th Edition (Manhattan Prep GMAT This book, The Official Guide for GMAT® Review , is designed to help you.

In this case, start comparing the answers to find splits. Dan McNaney and Cathy Huang provided design and layout expertise as Dan managed book production, while Liz Krisher made sure that all the moving pieces, both inside and outside of our company, came together at just the right time. If you have two claims, X and y, ask yourself: This choice denies the reverse causation possibility: What does this mean in practice? By their nature, unit nouns are countable: This way, you'll learn to be prepared for anything!

What clues did you miss? Consider making flash cards for those clues. Eliminate All Incorrect Choices One of the most annoying moments in SC occurs when you've narrowed the answers down to two…and then you don't know how to decide. When this happens to you, don't waste time going back and forth repeatedly, agonizing over the answers. Pick one of the two and move on. Afterward, review the problem and learn how to make that choice.

Add the following analysis to your overall review of SC problems: Why is the right answer right? How would someone mistakenly justify eliminating the right answer? What is the trap that would lead someone to cross out the correct answer? How would someone mistakenly justify picking any of the wrong answers?

What is the trap that would lead someone to pick a wrong answer? When you learn how you or someone would fall into the trap of thinking that some wrong answer looks or sounds or feels better than the right one, you'll be a lot less likely to fall into that same trap yourself in future. Throughout this guide, you will encounter both wrong and right examples to teach you the precise differences: Don't just glance over those examples. Cement the wrongness of the wrong options in your brain by crossing or X-ing them out as you read and even adding a note as to why they're wrong: Rose or increase, not both.

A Closer Look Meaning: Does the sentence adhere to the rules of standard written English? Does the sentence clearly indicate the author's intended meaning? These principles are equally important and actually overlap quite a bit. Certain grammar rules exist in order to convey a logical and unambiguous meaning. You'll learn some of these principles in this chapter and others as you work your way through this guide.

Much of the language that you hear in everyday speech actually violates one rule or another. The GMAT tests your ability to distinguish between good and bad grammar, even when the bad grammar seems natural. Consider this example: Does everyone have their book?

You likely hear similar sentences all the time, but the question actually violates the rules of standard written English. It should read: Does everyone have his or her book? Confusing writing is bad writing. If you have to read a sentence more than once to figure out what the author is saying—or if the sentence lends itself to multiple interpretations—it is not a good sentence. It is true that the GMAT does not like to waste words.

If an idea expressed in 10 words can be expressed clearly and grammatically in 6, the GMAT prefers 6. However, this is a preference, not a rule. Test-takers focus far too quickly and broadly on concision. As a result, the GMAT often makes the right answer less concise than an attractive wrong answer. Furthermore, Official Guide OG explanations often label a sentence wordy or awkward without additional explanation; typically, these sentences have a meaning problem or an idiom error.

Each chapter will present a major grammatical topic in depth: You will learn both the overarching principles of each grammatical topic and the nitty-gritty details that will help you differentiate correct grammar from poor grammar. You will also complete practice exercises designed to hone your skills in that topic. For your reference, a glossary of common grammatical terms appears in Appendix B of this book. Do not be overly concerned with the names of the grammatical terms, as the GMAT will never require you to know what the rules are called.

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The terms are simply necessary to explain various grammatical rules. Focus on understanding and applying these rules, not on memorizing terms. The Five Grammar Terms You Need to Know We try to keep fancy terms to a minimum in this book, but there's no way to discuss grammar without using at least a few actual grammar terms.

Here are the five terms you absolutely need to know: Clause A clause is a set of words that contains a subject and a working verb. This is a clause: She applied for the job. She applied Who applied for the job? She did. What did she do? She applied.

She is the subject because she is the one performing the action. Applied is the working verb because it describes what the subject did. Independent clauses have, at the very least, a subject and a verb. Every correct sentence must have at least one independent clause. A dependent clause also contains a verb but cannot stand alone as a sentence. A complete sentence requires one independent clause, but more complex sentences will also include something else: Without an independent clause, you have a sentence fragment.

This is a fragment: Although she didn't have much work experience. Modifier A modifier provides additional information in a sentence, beyond the core subject and verb. The simplest example is an adjective. For example, in the phrase the happy child, the word happy, an adjective, is a modifier.

Modifiers can also be more complex: The large dog, which has black fur, is a Labrador. The modifier which has black fur is called a nonessential modifier. If you remove it from the sentence, the core of the sentence still makes sense: The large dog is a Labrador.

Compare that to this sentence: The job that she started last week is much harder than her previous job. In this sentence, that she started last week is called an essential modifier. Why is this one essential? Look what happens when you remove it from the sentence: The job?

What job? If you haven't already specified a particular job, then the meaning of the sentence is murky. This is the hallmark of an essential modifier: Sentence Core The core of a sentence consists of any independent clauses along with some essential modifiers.

This is the bare minimum needed in order to have a coherent sentence. Any nonessential modifiers are stripped out of the sentence core. See more on sentence core in Chapter 4 of this guide. Conjunction Conjunctions are words that help to stick parts of sentences together. He worked hard, and a raise was his reward. Coordinating conjunctions, such as and, can glue two independent clauses together.

Both he worked hard and a raise was his reward are independent clauses. Modifiers can be connected to independent clauses by subordinating conjunctions. You saw an example of this before: Although she didn't have much work experience, she was offered the job.

The word although is a subordinating conjunction. Other examples include because, while, though, unless, before, after, and if. You'll learn more about conjunctions in Chapters 3 and 4 of this guide. Marker This one is not an official grammar term, but it's important. On occasion, this book will talk about certain kinds of markers. For example, the word unlike is a comparison marker; when you see unlike, you should think about comparisons.

Keep a list, make flash cards, record it however you prefer— but do record and study the fact that this particular marker should have made you think about a certain grammar issue.

That's all to start. Yes, technically, we did sneak more than five terms into that list. The terms are all related, though. If you run across other unfamiliar terms, you can look them up in the glossary at the end of this guide. A Closer Look A clear sentence is transparent—the author's intended meaning shines through. On the GMAT, however, either the original sentence or its variations may muddy the waters. One of your tasks is to choose the answer choice that conveys a logical and clear meaning.

Consider this sentence: Tomorrow, she bought some milk. No grammar rule is violated in that sentence, but the sentence doesn't make any sense! Either she bought the milk in the past or she will buy the milk in the future.

You know the sentence is wrong because the meaning is illogical. If the meaning of the original sentence is clear, start looking for grammar issues. If, however, the original sentence is confusing, you will need to discern the author's intent.

Fortunately, this intent will not be buried too deeply. After all, the correct sentence has to be one of the five choices. Most instances of meaning errors fall into one of three major categories: Choose your words 2.

Place your words 3. If a word has more than one meaning, is the author using that word correctly, to indicate the right meaning? The GMAT rarely tests you on pure vocabulary, but very occasionally, it tries to pull a trick on you by switching a particular word and its cousin. For example: The second sentence, which is shorter and punchier, may look preferable. Unfortunately, it is wrong! But the appropriate phrase is economic considerations—that is, monetary considerations. Certain helping verbs, such as may, will, must, and should, provide another way for the GMAT to test meaning.

These helping verbs express various levels of certainty, obligation, and reality. Simply by swapping these verbs, the GMAT can completely change the meaning of the sentence. Notice that the second sentence cannot be correct. On the other hand, the use of must in the first sentence indicates a legally binding obligation imposed upon the plaintiff. Thus, you should go with must, whether the original sentence used must or not.

Example 2 Actual: The first sentence could be said by someone who is unsure whether Chris and Jad have actually met: Place Your Words Beware of words that move from one position to another. The placement of a single word can alter the meaning of a sentence. ALL the children are covered in mud. The children are ALL covered in mud. In these sentences, changing the placement of all shifts the intent from how many children all of them to how the children are covered in mud all over.

Consider another example: In the first sentence, only indicates that the council alone votes on Thursdays as opposed to the board, perhaps, which can vote any other day, but not Thursdays. In the second sentence, only indicates that the council does not vote on any day but Thursday.

If a word changes its position in the answer choices, consider whether the change has an impact on the meaning of the sentence. Look out especially for short words such as only and all that quantify nouns or otherwise restrict meaning.

At a broader level, pay attention to overall word order. All the words in a sentence could be well-chosen, but the sentence could still be awkward or ambiguous.

What does the phrase to city officials mean? Did the city officials receive the right to make legal petitions? Or did someone else receive the right to make petitions to the officials? Either way, the correct sentence should resolve the ambiguity: Match Your Words Sentences generally contain pairs of words or phrases that must match. As you saw in an example earlier in this chapter, a verb must match the time frame of the overall sentence.

These matches also have grammatical implications. What's wrong with the following comparison? Unlike Alaska, where the winter is quite cold, the temperature in Florida rarely goes below freezing. It's illogical to compare a state to the temperature in another state. A similar matching principle holds for other grammatical connections e. Future chapters will explore each type of connection in turn; for now, remember to test the meaning of any potential connection.

Connected words must always make sense together. Avoid Redundancy Another aspect of meaning is redundancy. Each word in the correct choice must be necessary to the meaning of the sentence.

If a word can be removed without subtracting from the meaning of the sentence, it should be eliminated. Redundancy goes beyond mere concision—redundancy confuses the meaning, causing the reader to ask: A common redundancy trap on the GMAT is the use of words with the same meaning: Since rose and increase both imply growth, only one is needed.

Since sum and total convey the same meaning, only one is needed. Pay attention to expressions of time. It is easy to sneak two redundant time expressions into an answer choice especially if one expression is in the non- underlined part, or if the two expressions do not look like each other: This does not mean that you can never repeat time expressions in a sentence; just be sure that you are doing so for a meaningful reason.

Also pay attention to transition words, such as contrast words. What is wrong with the sentence below? Although she studied night and day for three months, yet she did not do well on her exam. The word although already conveys the coming contrast; it is unnecessary to use the second contrast word, yet. Each sentence is followed by a boldface sample answer choice that may change the meaning. Select A if the original version is correct, B if the boldface version is correct, C if neither is correct, and D if both are correct.

If you select A , explain what is wrong with the boldface version. If you select B , explain how the boldface version corrects the original version. If you select C , explain why both versions are incorrect.

Some questions refer to rules and distinctions that will be discussed in upcoming chapters. No matter how much work it may require, getting an MBA turns out to be a wise investment for most people.

Even though it requires much work 2. The driver took the people for a ride who had been waiting. Rising costs to raw materials may impel us to rise prices farther.

She is the most dedicated gardener on the block, watering the more than 50 plants in her yard every day. Hector remembers San Francisco as it was when he left 10 years ago. Students at Carver High School are encouraged to pursue only those extracurricular activities from which stems success in college applications. Look for issues outlined in this chapter. It is possible that the earthquake may have caused the building's collapse.

The original sentence does not say that getting an MBA requires a lot of work. The expression no matter how much work it may require simply says that the amount of work whether large or small does not matter. The revised version eliminates the word may, so that the new sentence does say that an MBA requires a lot of work.

In the original sentence, the modifier who had been waiting does not clearly modify the people. It appears, illogically, to modify the closer noun the ride. The boldface version moves who had been waiting next to the people, thus making clear that it is the people who had been waiting.

The boldface version makes several changes to the meaning of the original sentence. Costs to X are what X has to pay, whereas costs of X are how much somebody must pay to buy X. The latter meaning makes much more sense here, because raw materials are being paid for, not doing the paying. Raise is a verb that always takes a direct object: The Fed subject raised the interest rate object in March. Rise is used only in contexts where there is no direct object: Interest rates subject rose in March.

In this sentence, prices are a direct object, so the verb must be raise. Farther refers only to distance I can throw a javelin farther than you can whereas further refers to degree of something other than distance We need further time and money for this project. The original version contains the phrase the more than 50 plants. Here the words more than modify the number The sentence therefore means that she waters her plants, of which there are more than In the boldface version, the phrase changes to watering more than the 50 plants.

Here the words more than are separated from the number 50, and therefore do not modify that number. The new version says that she waters something more than i. Both versions potentially make sense though one implies she is a very dedicated gardener , so either version could be correct.

The boldface version changes to the original version, but the new version could make sense. Another important change in meaning comes because the revised version takes out the words it i. Both versions are correct! There is no change in meaning. Eliminate redundancy.

You do not need both dropped and decrease, since both words convey the same idea. For the same reason, you do not need both after and subsequently.

The earthquake may have caused the building's collapse. It is possible that and may both express the same level of uncertainty, so you can remove one of them without changing the intended meaning. No Though at the beginning of the sentence. Using both Though and yet is redundant. It is preferable to keep yet in order to delineate the contrast clearly; otherwise, you might mistakenly consider the phrase with the rise of fuel costs as part of the first clause.

The verb grew already conveys the idea of an increase, so there is no need to use the noun rise. The subject is the noun that performs the action expressed by the verb: The subject, the dog, is performing the action of running. Moreover, the subject and the verb must agree in number: How does the GMAT make things more complicated? Subject and Verb Must Both Exist If a sentence is missing the subject or the verb, the sentence is a fragment; in other words, it is not a complete sentence!

On the GMAT, the correct answer must be a complete sentence, or independent clause. The GMAT might disguise the error by dropping the verb: The cat sitting by the stairs. Wait a minute, what about sitting? Sitting certainly looks like a verb. It is not, however, a working verb, a verb that can run a sentence by itself. Here's an example of a working verb: In this sentence, the word watched is a working verb.

Here's another example of a working verb: In this sentence, the words was sitting make up the full verb form. For now, just remember that an -ing word by itself is never a working verb: The cat sitting by the stairs is not a sentence. These are also not complete sentences: WHICH will be approved tomorrow. Because and which are connecting words.

They add extra information to a sentence, but they are not sentences by themselves. They're examples of modifiers, which you will learn about in the next chapter. The correct answer must contain at least one independent clause; if an answer choice does not, eliminate it!

The dog runs out of the house. A plural subject requires a plural verb form: The dogs run out of the house. You already know this; you would never write the dog run out or the dogs runs out.

The GMAT, therefore, has to try to obscure these errors so that some people will fall into a trap. The GMAT might hide the subject, so that you are unsure whether the subject is singular or plural.

If you do not know the number of the subject, then you will not be able to select the verb form that agrees with it. What is the subject, discovery or new medicines? It makes as much sense to say the discovery was vital as it does to say the new medicines were vital. In this case, The discovery…was is the correct subject—verb pair because the noun medicines is part of the prepositional phrase of new medicines. A noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence.

Are these sentences both correct? Lin and Guy drive to work. Lin, as well as Guy, drive to work every day. The first sentence is a correct example of a compound subject: Lin and Guy together function as the subject of the sentence.

Compound subjects are always plural because at least two nouns function as the subject. A compound subject must be connected by the word and, but the second sentence uses the modifier as well as Guy. Only Lin qualifies as the subject, so the sentence is incorrect. LIN, as well as Guy, drives to work every day.

Subject Modifier Verb A sentence can also contain a compound verb two or more verbs that all point to the same subject. That last sentence contains both a compound subject and a compound verb.

If the writer inserts enough distance between the two portions of a compound subject or verb, it could be easy to make a mistake. Read on to learn how the GMAT does this. If you learn to ignore these words when looking for a subject, you'll be much less likely to pick the wrong noun as the subject. Further, the GMAT often puts a significant number of words in front of the subject you want. In these cases, you have to ignore the warmup that comes before the subject of the sentence.

There are a few common types of middlemen and warmups. Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words headed by a preposition. A list of common prepositions is included in Appendix B.

Prepositions are followed by nouns or pronouns, which complete the phrase. Prepositional phrases modify or describe other parts of the sentence. A noun in a prepositional phrase will never be the main subject of the sentence. In the example above, the subject is houses plural and the correct verb is are also plural. Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses, which begin with connecting words such as who or because, cannot stand alone as sentences.

Nor are they part of the main subject or main verb; rather, they are always attached to independent clauses. Look at the first sentence in this paragraph: If a dependent clause is stripped out of a sentence, what remains is still a complete sentence.

Try another example: Because she studied hard, she earned a good score on the test. What is the dependent clause? What is the independent clause complete sentence? She earned a good score on the test. Other Modifiers Other words can also function as modifiers, which add extra information to the sentence. Modifiers will be covered in depth in Chapter 4.

Use Structure to Decide Consider the following sentence: However, new lands is in a prepositional phrase modifying the noun conquest.

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Since a noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence with limited idiomatic exceptions that you'll learn about later , the subject must be conquest: Do not fall for tempting nouns, such as new lands, inserted to distract you!

Now consider this example: You have to match up two subject—verb pairs on this one. First, find the main subject and match it with the appropriate verb: Next, match up the subject and the verb in the dependent clause: Mid-Chapter Quiz: Test Your Skills Fix the following sentences. The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, have inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence assigned by our instructor. The proliferation of computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections. Answer Key: Test Your Skills Changes made to the original sentence are underlined. The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, has inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

Omit the middlemen of burglaries and in addition to poor building maintenance. A simple fix is to add a form of the verb to be, such as was.

Computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections. The subject and verb have to make sense together, but the original sentence says that the proliferation… were first developed; this is illogical.

Rather, the computer games were developed. The corrected sentence is just one possible rewrite. Consider picking up this lesson again later today or tomorrow. Building Complex Sentences How else can the test writers add complexity to sentences? Take a look at this example: Despite some initial concerns, the teacher is confident that her students mastered the lesson.

The core structure of the sentence is this: In the real world, people will often drop the word that from the sentence structure: Wrong on the The teacher is confident her students mastered the lesson.

This is acceptable in the real world, but it doesn't follow the strictest grammar conventions. Technically, the missing that can make the sentence ambiguous; consider this example: I know Meryl Streep is an actor. Do you actually know Meryl Streep herself? Or do you know something about Meryl Streep?

I know that Meryl Streep is an actor. When a sentence is trying to convey something more complex, the word that signals to the reader that more information is coming.

The teacher isn't just confident in her students in general. She is confident that they mastered the lesson. Two Independent Clauses Two complete sentences can be connected into one long sentence. Lin drove to work is a complete sentence. So is Guy rode his bike. Two complete sentences can be connected using a comma plus a conjunction such as but to create a compound sentence. For And Nor But Or Yet So The English language contains many conjunctions; these seven are special because they are very common in the English language and because they can also be used to connect two independent clauses into one complex sentence.

It is not acceptable, however, to connect two sentences using only a comma: Any GMAT answer choice that connects two independent clauses via only a comma is incorrect. If you want to do a little studying first, so that you can familiarize yourself with the basic content and question types, then that's okay - but you shouldn't wait too long to take that initial CAT.

That score will give us a good sense of your natural strengths and weaknesses and will help provide a basis for comparison as you continue to study. Once you have those scores, you should report back here and we can come up with a study plan. I'd like to know a bit more about your timeline and goals: GMAT assassins aren't born, they're made, Rich. Hi First Read manhattan SC. Once you complete one topic then its has OG reference question topic wise.

Same for CR and RC. In parallel you can read manhattan quant books and then solve OG questions. Good Luck. Many Test Takers find that they actually end up needing more study time than they initially plan for - and that initial practice CAT score will help to define how much time you might need, so we should start there.

Stanford '21 , Wharton '21 , Booth '21 , Darden ' Hi Kalian, Two months should be good enough to improve your score. You can know your weaknesses and work on them. If you are willing to study dedicatedly for Three months, you are sure to achieve your goal. If you are willing, there are some great GMAT prep companies that can help you with your preparation.

In order to make an informed decision I would highly encourage you to go to their websites and try on their free trial and decide for yourself which one do you like better. I must add that if you are particularly looking to discover and improve on your weak areas in quant; a subscription to GMATCLUB tests is the best way to do that. They are indeed phenomenal and will not only pinpoint your weak areas but also help you improve on them. Further taking multiple mocks might help.

Further another advantage of taking many mocks is to build up your stamina. Lastly I would also encourage you practice all the questions twice from the latest version of OG and the verbal review. Here is a link that will help you with your decision. All the best. Is it necessary to buy the latest version? Manhattan SC - book is available free online..

Hi, I suggest to start with official guide first. Later you can switch to Manhattan PDFs. Its always good to start with official material and then switch to other materials. Print view. First unread post. Display posts from previous: All posts 1 day 7 days 2 weeks 1 month 3 months 6 months 1 year Sort by Author Post time Subject Ascending Descending. Search for: Apr 15 10 keys to nail Data Sufficiency and Critical Reasoning questions.

Question banks. My Bookmarks. Important topics. Gekko Intern B Joined: India Concentration: General Management, Technology Schools: Information Technology Computer Software. While doing the questions, focus on the followings: Why did you got a particular question wrong. What concept a question tested 3. What all you could learn from a question does not matter if you got a question right or wrong 4. Keep an error log as well. Please post if any further doubt.

Really useful! I'll start to prepare it from half July till the end of August due to the fact that I have not much time unfortunately.. I'm full of exams and have to graduate.. Hope for the best! Finance, Strategy Schools: Engineering Real Estate. Remember it is much better to understand why you got 10 questions wrong than to do and never go back to revise and analyze your mistakes.

These are the closest to the real thing. And always take the test in full. India sandeep: How to Diagram an Argument: The T.. Diagram Simply put, diagramming is simply a method of taking summary notes on the argument. Though we offer you one primary technique of diagramming, the form of the diagram is NOT essential.

Rather, what matters is the act of analyzing the argument and taking sum- mary notes. No matter how you diagram, a few principles should guide your work. Omit unnecessary words. You will only need to use your notes for about 90 seconds. Your short-term memory will naturally retain most of the information, so you can use very brief reminders.

For instance, if an argument contrasts small businesses with large businesses, you might write "SB" and "LB. This style of note-taking is much more truncated than the style of note-taking you probably developed over years in school. However, on the GMAT, you ate not taking notes so that you can study from them later for a quiz, You are taking notes to under- stand an argument right now and answer an exam question within 2 minutes.

Avoid changing terms if you can. If necessary, rephrase a point slightly as you take notes, so that you grasp the meaning. The specific method of diagramming that we recommend is called the "T-Diagram. A T-Diagram is visually First, draw a large T on your scratch paper. Make it somewhat like the build- asymmetrical, leaving more room on the left side, which ing analogy we encoun- tered in Chapter 1.

The will be the "pro" side. In most arguments, you will have conclusion on top is very little on the "con" side on the right.

Second, look for the conclusion. The first place to look Step 2. If you do not Conclusion find it there, then read the argument. Once you find the conclusion, write it above the top line of the T, abbrevi- ating heavily. Third, read or reread the argument sentence by Step 3.

As you do so, follow the steps below: Most of the time, however, you will not record such information" since it is usually not critical to solving the problem. For exam- ple, if you think of an assumption the author must be making, you could write that at the bot- tom of your "pro" column. Do not forget the brackets! Otherwise, you might mistake this for an actual premise. EGY Chapter 2 Consider the following example: The proposal to hire additional dogcatchers in Newtown Is a mistake: Thougli there is sufficient room in the budget to pay the salaries of the dogcatchers, there are not enough resources available for the town to also pay for the hous- ing and care ofthe additional canines that the new dogcatchers wmbe expected to capture.

Which of the following, jf true, is the strongest reason to accept the opinion that the proposed plan is a mistake? The conclusion is in the question. Your T-diagram might look like this: Use the word BlIT in Plan: Diagramming Efficiently Certain notations can make your diagramming more efficient and effective.

Remember that you win only need to be able to deci- pher your notes for about 90 seconds. Turn long words and proper nouns-into abbreviations of just two or three letters.

Some examples are presented below, but do not limit yourself to these. As you develop your diagramming skills, keep in mind that you need to be able to keep all the important details straight as you work on the problems.

As you summarize each point, underline any words or details that you think may be key to the argument. In particular, you may wish to under- line "boundary words," which will be discussed later. If you spot a position or a plan, use a colon to indicate who is advocating the position or plan. Text T-Diagram The mayor claims that the fee will reduce congestion M: Words that signal a change in direction include however, despite, but, though, although, sur- prisingly, still yet, contrary.

Do not write these out! Just substitute the word BUT. Use your own abbreviations and note-taking When you diagram. Practice your techniques and keep them you should not simply consistent.

You must simplify as you go. Some students may benefit from more visually-oriented diagramming approaches that are less text-based and more graphic in nature.

You might put dates on a timeline, compare two phenomena in a table, or even draw pictures. It is appropriate to use whatever approach works best for you, as long as you practice it extensively so that you are comfortable using that approach. It typically takes two to three weeks of frequent practice before a student becomes adept at the technique.

The following model diagrams relate to arguments used as examples in Chapter 1. Now, instead of simply analyzing structure, we will actually diagram each argument.

Create your own diagram as you read, then compare your diagram to the samples given. Assess whether your diagram captures the argument's essential meaning and structure. Example 1 Some universities are changing the structure of financial aid awards given to students who cannot afford to pay full tuition.

In the past, the largest proportion of financial aid distributed to students was in the form of fed- eral, interest-deferred loans. Now, these institutions are awarding a higher proportion of grants, money that students do not need to pay back. Such lan- guage can be a clue that the conclusion is in thequestioll. Put that conclusion at the top of your T.

Next, summarize each distinct piece of information as you read it; without reading the whole argument first. Underline any important words. A sample diagram for this argu- ment is provided here: Also note soning in an argument, the optional point in brackets below the T-diagram. This is not information from the argu- ment. Rather, the GMAT test-taker noted down a speculation.

As he or she was reading, the following thought occurred to him or her: Perhaps that is why the author thinks that students will be able to afford to pursue lower-paying jobs. In fact, since the ques- tion asks for a way to weaken the argument, the correct answer choice may attack this assumption. Putting down your speculations is not necessary and may even be distracting. But if you have an important insight that you think might be key to answering the problem, go ahead and note it down-in brackets.

Example2 ' A program instituted by a state government to raise money allows homeowners to prepay their future property taxes at the current rate. Even if the government were to raise the tax rate in a subsequent year, any prepaid taxes would allow the homeowner to maintain taxes at the lower rate, lowering the overall prop- erty tax burden over time..

Scan to find that word or a synonym in the argument. We find the last sentence: For this reason. This sentence is the conclusion; add it to the top of your T-diagram. A diagram for this example might appear as follows: HO shd do program to prepay txs State prog: HO prepay- prop txs at today's rate Diagrams keep you reading actively.

Your abbreviations may not look like those in the sample diagram. Just make sure that you can decipher your own abbreviations. Also note the information shown in the brackets below the T-diagram. The test-taker won- dered what would happen if taxes went down. Would the homeowner still be locked into the old tax rate, which is now higher than the new one? If that is the case, this plan might not help homeowners.

The test-taker also wondered what would happen if the homeowner moved. Would he or she get a rebate for prepaid taxes? If not, then the new plan would be detrimental to homeowners.

Either of these speculations could be the basis of a correct assumption that could answer the question. Example 3 Transportation safety data indicate that trains are safer than cars, and that airplanes are safer than trains.

Injuries and deaths per passenger-mile of air- plane travel are less than one-tenth the figure for car travel. In this argument, the word therefore intro- duces the third sentence. An appropriate diagram for this example might appear as follows: Noticing problematic assumptions can make answering questions easier.

Example 4 Certain genetic diseases are more prevalent among certain ethnic populations. This question contains no information specific to the argument. When you quickly scan the text, no conclusion keywords are apparent. In this case, do not write down anything for the conclusion.

Rather, scan the passage point by point, and build your T-diagram. Consider whether any of the points are claims. In this case, the statements are not arguable; indeed, the passage consists entirely of premises.

In addition, the wording of this question indicates that it is a "Draw a Conclusion" question. That is, you will have to find the conclusion in the answer choices.

This question type will be discussed in more detail later in Chapter 5. Do not get bogged information. Critical reasoning questions revolve more often around logic, rather than around how some technical fact works, so it is unlikely you would have to understand the phrase the build- up of gangliocides in nerve cells. As such, it is not necessary to spend time detailing this sort of technical information. The most you need to understand is that the basic cause for this disease is given.

If the question does ask about the cause, then you can take the time to re-read and try to understand that technical phrase. Your skills on a variety of different passages. The passages below exhibit a representative sampling.

These are structured similarly to the passages used in the previous problem set. Diagram each pas- sage in a notebook: Time yourself and aim to complete each diagram inapproximatdy 60 to 90 seconds although your first few diagrams may take considerably longer as you get comfortable.

By the time you. After you are done with the entire set, view the sample diagrams that follow. Diagrams will vary, of course. Your diagrams do not need to look exactly like the samples, but carefully consider any large discrepancies. The national energy commission's current plan calls for the construction of six new nuclear power plants during the next decade.

Thecommismon argues that these plants are extremely safe and will have minimal environmental impact on their surrounding communities. However, all six nuclear power plants will be located far from densely popu- lated areas. Clearly, the government is tacitly admitting that these plants do pose a serious health risk to humans. Which of the following, if true,most seriously weakens the environmentalist's claim of an unspoken government admission?

All of the diamonds extracted from the Kugura mine are certified as "conflict free" by a specially appointed government panel. Therefore, con. Which of the following, if true, most significantly strengthens the conclusion above? Recently, the tuition at most elite private colleges has been rising faster than inflation. Even before these increases, many low and middle income families were unable toafford the full tuition costs for their children at these institutions of higher learning.

With the new tuition increases, these colleges will soon cater solely to students with affluent family backgrounds. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument that the colleges in question will give strongly preferential treatment to wealthy students?

Studies show that impoverished families give away a larger percentage of their income in charitable donations than wealthy families do. As a result, fundraising consultants recom- mend that charities direct their marketing efforts toward individuals and families from lower socioeconomic classes in order to maximize the dollar value of incoming donations.

Which of the following best explains why the consultants' reasoning is flawed? Estimated mileage for a new vehicle assumes that the operator will never exceed sixty miles per hour, encounter traffic, or operate the air conditioner. Because these things do happen in practice, the actual mileage of the vehicle is often significantly lower than the estimates noted on the vehicle's window sticker.

To rectify this discrepancy, the Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that by , window stickers must reflect actual, rather than theoretical, mileage, a change that is expected to result in an average decline of twelve percent for city driving and eight percent for highway driving.

Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements above? A study on higher education states that when parents pay percent of their child's education costs, the child has a twenty-five percent chance of graduating from college. However, if the students themselves pay the entire cost of their education, they have a seventy-five percent graduation rate. Thus, in order to improve graduation rates, parents should refuse to financially contribute to the college educations of their children.

Two-dimensional bar codes are omni-directional, meaning that, unlike one-dimensional bar codes, they can be scanned from any direction. Additionally, two-dimensional bar codes are smaller and can store more data than their one-dimensional counterparts. Despite such advantages, two-dimensional bar codes account for a much smaller portion of total bar code usage than one-dimensional bar codes.

Which of the following, if true, would best explain the discrepancy above? Whenever a consumer product is declared illegal but the product remains available, a black market inevitably develops. In the United States during the 's, for example, a black market for alcohol developed during the Prohibition period.

During this period, many organized crime groups grew tremendously more powerful through their black market activities distributing alcohol.

If the statements above are true, which of the following most significantly weakens the contention that a black market will develop if a product is declared illegal when it still remains available?

College officials have recognized that students who do not declare a major by sophomore year are more likely to leave school without graduating. As a result, many colleges around the country are devoting more time and money to help students choose a major.

In fact, some schools are spending more than half a million dollars annually to ensure their stu- dents do not remain undecided. Which of the following, if true, taken together with the information above, best supports the assertion that colleges are saving money by encouraging their underclassmen to choose a major?

The rash of recent shootings has highlighted the lack of security in our schools. However; arming teachers is a poor solution to this serious problem. Because distraught students will be aware that their teachers possess weapons, permitting guns in the classroom will increase the chances that a conflict that could have been resolved through dialogue will escalate to violence. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the editorial's conclusion?

NOT confl. Soon, priv. You may use a question mark or simply leave the top line blank; you do not need to write out "no conclusion given. To l' grad rate, parents shd NOT pay for kids Study: Is the chain of logic represented by A or B below? A There is a higher chance that conflict will escalate to violence; therefore, we should not arm teachers B We should not arm teachers; therefore there is a higher chance that conflict will escalate to violence From the language in the argument, the author believes that A reflects the proper chain of events.

Thus, the final claim in sequence A is the conclusion we should not arm teachers. You can expect several types of questions on the GMAT. The four major question types are as follows: Clearly, the conclusion is the most important part of each argument!

When reading any question stem, you should try to classify the problem. You will become familiar with each question type in later chapters. When the question stem makes the ques- tion type evident, you should be able to adopt the appropriate approach right away.

For example, consider the following question stem: This question stem identifies the question as a Find the Assumption question. Thus,as we diagram, we should proactively think about assumptions, or unstated gaps necessary to con- nect the premises to the conclusion.

Here is another common question stem: Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the informa- tion above? As we dia- gram, we know that we will not be given a conclusion. Some or all of the premises must support a conclusion that will be provided in one of the answer choices.

The vast majority of question stems will provide some value, and for this reason the question stem should be read first. However, some question stems may not be as helpful in determining the correct approach to the problem. If the question stem is not immediately helpful or the question type is difficult to identify, do not dwell on the issue. Simply go ahead and diagram the argument; afterwards, you can re-examine the question. In these cases, the process of diagramming will generally clarify the question stem.

This is not a new question type. In order to clarify the question stem, rephrase the easier to understand. Four answer choices help to explain event X and one does NOT. Which one does NOT explain event X? Four answer choices weaken the conclusion and one does NOT. Which one does NOT weaken the conclusion? Four answer choices strengthen the conclusion and one does NOT. Which one does NOT strengthen the conclusion?

Four answer choices make the argument logically correct and one does NOT. Which one does NOT make the argument logically correct? The statement might indeed weaken the conclusion.

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Alternatively, the state- ment could be neutral or beyond the scope of the argument, neither strengthening nor weakening the conclusion. Once again, this is nota new type of question.

These ques- tions are sometimes harder to categorize than the more typical examples. Once you recog- nize that a "Fill in the Blank" question is of a certain type, you can use the standard strate- gies associated with that type. These words and phrases narrow the scope of a premise. BouruIary wOrds limit the sC6peof an argu- Premise: The percentage of literate adults has increased. It restricts the meaning to answel' choices.

We do not know whether the actual number has increased. The boundary word ttdults also limits the scope of the premise. Finally, the word literate obviously restricts the category of aduftsthat has propor- tionally increased. Here is another example: Controversial speech should be allowed, provided it does not incite major violence.

The boundary phrase provided it does not incite major violence limits thescepe of the conclu- sion. Boundary words and phrases are vital because they provide nuances to the argument. These nuances will often be manipulated in the answer choices of Critical Reasonmgquestions. In other words, these. This will help you identify answer choices that try to trick you on the argument boundaries.

For example, in an argument that contains the premise the percentage of literate ttdults has increased, an incorrect answer choice may include a reference to the nwnber of literate adults, as opposed to the percentage.

For this question, make note of this and any other answer choice that attempts to trick you on the difference between numher and perce1Jt4ge. Extreme words, such as always, never, all, and none, are the opposite of boundary words- they make the argument very broad or far- reaching. Using extreme words opens up an argument unreasonably, making it very susceptible to attack.

Sugar is never healthy for anyone trying to lose weight. The extreme word never unreasonably opens up this argument, placing no limitation on the claim that sugar is unhealthy. A more moderate conclusion would argue that sugar is usually unhealthy, or that excessive sugar is unhealthy.

The extreme word anyone further opens up Be sure to read all of the this argument. A more moderate conclusion might be that this claim applies to most people answer choices, even if trying to lose weight. You should note any extreme language used in premises or conclusions. Since good GMAT arguments rarely contain extreme words, any such words that you find will likely be very useful in responding to the question. You may even want to highlight these extreme terms somehow-for example, by putting an exclamation mark!

Correct answers 9! General Answer Choice Strategy: Process of Elimination For many Critical Reasoning questions, the correct answer may not be completely clear upon first inspection. However, after you apply criteria that we will discuss in later chapters, it will become clear to you that certain answer choices are incorrect.

For any Critical Reasoning question, it is important to practice the process of elimination using your scratch paper. DO NOT simply eliminate answer choices in your head! As you go through many different questions during the test, it is very difficult to keep straight which answer choices you have ruled out.

You do not want to find yourself re-evaluating answers that you have already eliminated! By the end of the verbal section of the GMAT, your scratch paper should be filled with columns or rows of "A-E" with incorrect answer choices crossed out and correct answers circled. You may find that another answer choice is potentially correct, and you will have to rethink your initial choice. They are just as important as boundary and extreme words in the body of the argument, though for a different reason.

Extreme words in the answer choices usually make those answer choices incorrect unless, of course, the argument justifies the use of extreme words. As long as we interpret the words legitimately, such a choice must be valid no matter which way we interpret it.

This principle gives us an Think about extreme approach to evaluating answer choices. When you see boundary or extreme words in an cumples when you answer choice, ask yourself, "What is the most extreme example I can think of that would evaluate answer choices still fit the wording of this answer choice?

For example, an answer choice might say: A Bees live longer than mayflies do. What are some ways of interpreting this information? Perhaps mayflies live for one second and bees live for one hundred years. This possibility is valid, because the statement bees live longer than mayflies is still true.

We could also say that mayflies live for one second and bees live for two seconds. Depending on the conclusion and the question, it may be useful to have either an extremely large difference in the life spans or a ridiculously small difference. Here is another possible answer choice: You might choose to address one of two different boundaries here.

The word some refers to some number of teachers but does not specify the size of the group. The phrase within three years refers to a period of time but does not specify the exact length of time. Either way, the statistics still flc the criterion that some teachers do this. Suppose the conclusion asserted that new teacher turnover is having a major impact on the industry. Alternatively, you could interpret within three years to mean that many teachers in this cate- gory leave after 1 day of teaching.

You could also imagine that many teachers in this catego- ry leave after 2 years and days of teaching. Again, either way, the statistics still ftt the criterion that new teachers leave the profession within 3years of beginning their careers. Depending upon the conclusion and the question, you would then try to disprove answer choices by using these extreme interpretations.

Extreme words, such as only or never, gn appear in correct answers. However, those same extreme words, or their equivalents,! W be in the original argument. If the answer choice uses an extreme word that is not explicitly supported by the text of the argument, you should eliminate that choice.

The question stem most commonly uses the words assumption or asstRM, though it may also use other words such as flaw or qUlStionabk, and it may take a number of forms: Which of the following is an assumption on which the commissioner'splan depends? The argument above relies on which of the following assumptions? The correct answer The question stem may also be slightly more subtle: The assumption is required in order for the conclusion to be valid. Close Ties to the Conclusion As you try to identify the appropriate assumption, you should look for the.

My cat won top prize at the cat show last year. Therefore, she wltl win again this year. The author makes many assumptions in this argument: The author's cat will be entered in this year's show. The author's cat will be eligible to win the top prize.

The author's cat will still be better than all of the other cats from last year's show, and it will heat out any new cats who may be entered this year. And so on. Anyone of the above assumptions could serve as the correct answer, because each one is necessary in order for the author to.

For instance, if the author's cat is eligible to win the prize this year, that does not mean it will definitely do so. The correct answer does not need to make the conclusion definitely true. Indeed, most of the time, the correct answer will only make the conclusion somewhat more likely to be true.

Consider the following example: When news periodicals begin forecasting a recession, people tend to spend less money on discretionary purchases. Therefore, the perceived threat of recession decreases the willingness of people to purchase products that they regard as optional or luxury goods. The only answer choice here that bridges this gap and thus validates the conclusion is D: Furthermore, the expressions perceived threat of reces- sion in the passage and perception of the threat of recession in the answer choice are essen- tially synonymous.

Finally, the answer choice logically fl. News periodicals publish the forecast of a recession Assumption: People spend less rneneyon discretionary items Conclusion: Therefore, the perceived threat causes people to spend less money You. Also, note what happens if we negate the. News periodicals publish the recession forecast Before reading the Negated answer choices, think Assumption: Houeuer; people's perception of the threat does NOT increase about assumptions upon Premise: As a result of the forecast, people spend less money on discretionary items which an arguments Conclusion: In this case, the conclusion becomes nonsensical.

As you can see, negating an assumption is a powerful technique. If an answer choice in a Find An Assumption question is. Answer choice A describes a possible result after a recession is forecast, but that possible result has nothing to do with whether people will reduce discretionary spending because of the news periodicals' reporting of the threat of a recession. Answer choice B describes a trend that may be true, but the. If people are not read- ing the periodicals, then it does not make sense to claim that people are changing their spending habits as a result of what the periodicals publish.

Answer choice E describes a possible result after a recession actually occurs. The conclu- sion is concerned with the perj;cived threat of a recession, not what might happen due to an actual recession. All of these answer choices can be properly eliminated because of their incorrect relation- ship to the conclusion.

For exam- ple, another assumption essential to this argument is that the underlying economic forces causing the periodicals to forecast a recession do not themsdves cause discretionary spend- ing to drop. In other words, there must not be an outside factor leading both to the fore- casts and the spending decrease. An argument might depend on several assumptions, any one of which could serve as the correct answer. However, only one of these correct assump- tions will be given to you in the answer choices.

It does not hurt to brainstorm possible assumptions in fact, it is often useful to do sol , but remember that the correct answer may be an assumption you did not think of ahead of time. Always keep an open mind as you eliminate answer choices. Categories of Assumptions The correct answer to Find the Assumption questions almost always falls into one of the following four categories. Logic gap assumptions help connect Point A 1. Assumptions can serve to flll in a logic gap. Most assumptions simply flll in gaps in the logic or sequence of an argument.

They provide additional premises that are needed to draw the conclusion, given the premises in the argu- ment. Only occasionally will the premises reflect an opinion or claim of some sort.

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The arguments will also tend to tie one particular premise to the conclusion with language such as therefore, for this reason, because, etc. The right answer will generally address the gap between a particular premise and the conclusion. Andrew weighs less than pounds. Therefore, he cannot have a success- ful career as a racecar driver. In order to make the logical leap from Point A to Point B-that Andrew is under pounds and therefore cannot have a successful career as a racecar driver-we must insert an additional premise.

This unstated premise is an assumption. The correct answer choice might be as follows: In order to have a successful career as a racecar driver, one must weigh at least pounds.

An assumption-call it A-sits between P and C. Note that if that assumption is not true, then the whole argument falls apart. Assumptions can establish the feasibilitY of the preniises obhe argument. Assumptions of this type indicate that the premises can actually occur in the way the argu- ment describes-regardless of how uncertain or tenuous these premises are in the original argument.

The right answer will address the assumption that these opinions are true or that a sequence of events can occur in the way the argument assumes it will. Sidney's get-rich-quick scheme is sure to succeed. He will buy undervalued properties in foreclosure. Then he will resell the properties to alocal real estate developer and generate large profits. Feasibility assumpdons generally revolve This argument assumes that undervalued properties in foreclosure actually exist and that around bolstering a Sidney can find them.

It also assumes that local real estate developers will want to buy such flimsy but necessary properties from Sidney and will be willing to pay more than he paid in the first place. Sidney is assuming these claims arid that the sequence of events will take place as described.