Centro de Integração da Cidadania (CIC): uma experiência inovadora de A não-violência e os direitos humanosmore lesforgesdessalles.infoe. Direitos humanos: novas dimensões e desafios. Corporate author: UNESCO Office Brasilia , Brazil. Ministry of Justice Special Secretary of Human Rights . Violências e direitos humanos: espaços da educação. Corporate author: Catholic University of Brasilia . Person as author: Caliman, Geraldo . ISBN.
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10 fev. PDF | On Sep 1, , Ricardo Ernesto Vasquez Beltrão and others published Cidadania e Direitos Humanos. ALVES, Roseli Teresinha Michaloski. Direitos humanos das mulheres: considerações em torno da conquista da cidadania feminina. Disponível em: < http://. Educação para a cultura da paz, os direitos humanos, a cidadania, da paz, os direitos humanos, a cidadania, a democracia e a integração lesforgesdessalles.info
Bauman, Zygmunt , Liquid Modernity. HolandaMaschietto Bradford. This applies to private national or transnational corporations business enterprises , 10 for they also have a responsibility to respect the rights of human rights defenders. However, to whom belongs the legal obligation to protect human rights defenders? As they challenge dominant groups that control the economic and political powers, human rights defenders are frequently victims of state and non-state violence and, consequently, they are in constant need of effective protection.
The individual pursuit of brighter prospects and living conditions also motivates migration in situations that can be as dramatic as those of refugees themselves.
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Revista Internacional de Direito e Cidadania ; 5: In addition to the legal hurdles in obtaining personal documents, there has been a lack of strategies and policies to receive and shelter the immigrants, besides discriminatory attitudes and countless difficulties with their social integration. Civil society actors mobilized in defense of a new Immigration Law n. Some of the challenges are the sustainability of national health systems, real access to comprehensive healthcare for nationals and immigrants, the means and resources to deal with communicable and noncommunicable diseases that have local and global impacts, and the earmarking and disbursement of resources for research and scientific and technological development to serve the world population as a whole.
The financial crisis and health care systems in Europe: Trends in health sector reforms in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Refugee Populations and Health features three analyses that address the social injustices and inequalities in health perpetrated by political, economic, and cultural practices of domination and exploitation of territories and immigrant groups 5 5.
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State University of New York Press, The Problems and Practices of Peacebuilding. Held, David , Democracy and the Global Order: It argues for the existence of a series of rights that are crucial for human rights defenders to be able to conduct their works for democracy, human rights and social justice.
In international human rights law these rights are the right to be protected, the right to freedom of assembly, the right to freedom of association, the right to access and communicate with international bodies, the right to freedom of movement, the right to freedom of opinion and expression, the right to protest, the right to develop and discuss new human rights ideas, the right to an effective remedy, and the right to access funding.
Although the State bears primary responsibility for protecting human rights defenders, articles 10, 11, This applies to private national or transnational corporations business enterprises , 10 for they also have a responsibility to respect the rights of human rights defenders. It is important to consider that States should harmonize their domestic legal frameworks with the UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders.
See the report of the Special Representative on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, Mr. For more details see Mr. Thus, it is important States address the issue of impunity in order to ensure human rights defenders can continue doing their work in a safe environment. In spite of this, there have been restrictions to the right of assembly on the pretext of the need to maintain public order and under the auspices of counter-terrorism legislation, arguments and mechanisms.
Engel, , page See also ibid n 2.
According to article 22, paragraph 2 of ICCPR this could be permitted only under the following conditions: Without being able to freely move within States, they would be prevented from organizing and carrying out the fights for democracy, human rights and social justice. In the event of any intimidation or reprisal against these individuals or groups human rights defenders , States in cooperation with the UN should fully investigate and bring the perpetrators to justice.
Judgement of February 6, Series C, N.
See also OEA… n 46 , para. As the latter, it implies everyone collective be given full access to information and the ideas and thoughts freely expressed by others. These obligations are the abstinence from interfering with the enjoyment of the right; the protection of the right by preventing, punishing, investigating, and providing redress for harm caused by non-State actors; and the taking of positive measures for the realization of the right.
By exercising this right, human rights defenders impart their ideas and thoughts through their activities in the promotion and protection of human rights. Possibly because of this, this right has faced restrictions, particularly in regard to persecutions of defenders who criticize the government, the access to information, the misuse of the legal system to harass human rights defenders and hinder their work, among others.
This could be imposed to justify the pursuance of legitimate interests of other persons or society as a whole. November 13, Series A, N. See also ibid n 2 , See also OEA Freedom of expression Art.
Historically, demonstrations and protests have been an effective way in which human rights defenders can exert pressure on governments and, thus, bring about human rights change. The right to protest entails positive and negative obligations on the part of States.
By exercising this right, human rights defenders express their ideas, thoughts and dissent, which helps to strengthen democracy and promote and protect human rights. Thus, this right has faced restrictions, particularly in regard to bans on demonstrations; unjustified restrictions on demonstrations; unnecessary requirements to obtain authorizations that affect the enjoyment of freedom of assembly; arrest of protestors amounting to arbitrary detention; among others.
Restrictions to this right usually occur in relation to women human rights defenders and activists working on LGBTI rights. The end of impunity is the key for guaranteeing security for human rights defenders and their work for the promotion and protection of human rights locally, regionally and globally.
This domestic legislation must be in compliance with international human rights law and, thus, guarantee human rights defenders, individually or in association with others NGOs , the right to fully access either national or foreign funding for carrying out their work for the protection and promotion of human rights locally, regionally and globally. Therefore, it is paramount to emphasize that the aforesaid international human rights treaties can be applied to the protection of human rights defenders and their work.
The activity one develops on the promotion and protection of human rights is what makes them human rights defenders. In order to develop such activities one must exercise the aforementioned rights. Once one finds himself or herself threatened or vulnerable as a consequence of the activities for the promotion and protection of human rights, then there is a legal ground to demand protection from the State, which has the obligation to protect all persons under its jurisdiction against state or non-state violence according the abovementioned human rights instruments.
Although human rights defenders are usually included within the category of persons entitled to 82 ibid n At the global level the UN acknowledges the important work realized by persons, groups and institutions in the protection of human rights, including non- governmental organizations NGOs. These responsibilities and obligations apply to the Brazilian State, which has ratified the majority of international human rights instruments.
It also argues for the existence of a series of rights that are crucial for human rights defenders to be able to conduct their works for democracy, human rights and social justice. When this is the case, international human rights instruments can be effectively used to guarantee the protection of human rights defenders in the Americas. In general, the ideal is to work with both UN and OAS human rights systems in order to demand States to protect human rights defenders and their work for the promotion and protection of human rights.
In any case, under inter-American human rights law: There are not yet any specific inter-American human rights instruments to regulate the right to access and communicate with international bodies; the right to develop and discuss new human rights ideas; and the right to access funding.