Read Ebook Basic Medical Sciences for MRCP Part 1, 3e PDF File . for other postgraduate exams such as PLAB, USMLE and MRCPCH. MRCPCH Foundation of Practice (FOP)/Theory and Science (TAS) passing the Foundation of Practice and Theory and Science exams (formerly MRCPCH 1) . From , the MRCPCH Part 1a and Part 1b exams were re-named Foundation The TAS theory exam tests the candidates on the basic principles that clinical. A revision book intended primarily for candidates sitting their MRCP Part 1 examination and which covers all the essential basic sciences. It focuses on the.
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Basic Medical Sciences for MRCP Part 1 - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File practice Best of Five MCQs in the basic sciences for MRCP are also available. clinical cases for MRCPCH PART 2 applied knowledge in practice. Basic Medical Sciences for MRCP Part 1 [PDF] Philippa J. Easterbrook. July 26, Medical books I'd like to thank you for clicking like and G+1 buttons. Basic Medical Sciences for MRCP Part 1 Study Guides, Medical Science, Paediatric Exams A Survival Guide (MRCPCH Study Guides) By (author) Paul Gaon Get Through MRCP Part 1: BOFs Medical Students, Author, Pdf, Study Guides.
The TAS theory exam tests the candidates on the basic principles that clinical practice is based upon, and places an emphasis on the essential and basic scientific, physiological, and pharmacological principles.
For the Foundation of Practice and Theory and Science papers, the difficulty levels are set to guarantee that all candidates have reached the required standard of someone entering specialist training. Online Books. Add to Basket Find Out More. See Full List.
Find Out More. More Details. Maha Boctor. Laura Mackinnon. Romel Caccam. Addresses an increasingly important topic in the exam. Addresses a topic that is vital to passing the exam, but which most candidates are poorly prepared for. Covers all the relevant basic science subjects plus includes clinical pharmacology.
Is the first book of its kind in the membership market and is now regarded as essential for exam preparation. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x Other books in this series. Add to basket. Table of contents 1. Genetics and molecular medicine 2. Microbiology 3. Immunology 4. Anatomy 5. Physiology 6. DNA-containing viruses: It is protease-resistant and accumulates in the brain.
Measles virus Multiple sclerosis Prion diseases transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Prion protein: Clinical features: In the familial forms. How CJD is transmitted from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy remains controversial.
Iatrogenic transmission of CJD has been well documented following human growth hormone therapy. PrPSc can bind to PrPc on cell surfaces and convert the normal form to the abnormal form. Marker of infectivity. DNA polymerase-associated 'e' antigen HBeAg is formed as the result of the breakdown of core antigen released from infected liver cells.
These transformed cells differ from normal cells in that they have lost their capacity for contact inhibition.
SV40 Malignant neoplasms in mice 0 r 0 G. Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test TPHA. Rapid plasma reagin APR. Treponemal tests These are more specific.: Combining these two tests. Venereal disease research laboratory VDRL test: Treponema pallidum immobilization test TPI When a positive test is obtained.. Rabies IG. HGV A: Oseltamivir Ribavirin Zanamivir B: American blastomycosis especially Mississippi and Ohio valleys: Polyene macrolides 2.
Central and S. Nystatin is used to suppress oral and vaginal candida. Amphotericin is a broad-spectrum antifungal used in serious systemic infections. Polyene macrolides amphotericin B and nystatin: Bind to membrane ergosteral altering membrane integrity. Meningitis and endocarditis may also occur. Triazole 4.
Used for widespread and intractable dermatophyte infection where topical therapy has failed. Used for candidiasis and dermatophyte infections and systemic mycoses ketoconazole.
Enteritis Pruritus ani Enteritis. Potent inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Depresses cell wall formation by inhibiting glycan synthesis. Inhibit fungal lipid synthesis in cell membranes. Interferes with microtubule formation or nuclear acid synthesis. Histoplasma and Blastomyces. Used for treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis.. Dermatophyte infections.
Triazoles fluconazole. Aspergillus and dimorphic fungi. Adjunct to amphotericin in cryptococcal meningitis. Asia Cutaneous leishmaniasis Africa.
Texas Visceral Latin America Onchocerciasis 'river blindness' Africa and Middle East Enteric schistosomiasis. Via larval penetration of skin Via cercarial penetration of skin Schistosoma japonicum Via cercarial penetration of skin Via cercarial penetration of skin Schistosoma haematobium Plasmodium falciparum.
Central America. These develop in the mosquito and sporozoites are formed which pass into the blood stream when a human is bitten. Cl l'i Di. The Anopheles mosquito is the intermediate host It is infected by blood-borne gametocytes from humans. GI GI Q.. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. These are taken up by the erythrocytes where they develop and divide schizogony.
Pyrimethamine and sulphadiazine.. Effective agai nst the erythrocyte form and formation of sporozoites. Some gametocytes are formed and are released into the blood where they can reinfect the mosquito. This coincides with the clinical attack of malaria fol lowing rupture of eryth rocytes. Sodium stibogluconate. The sporozoites pass to t '1e liver where they develop into merozoites. Used as suppressive treatment and for chnical attack..
St Louis. Norwalk-like virus Varicella zoster virus HIV. M ilk wat er Wat P.
Vaccination is recommended for all groups at risk. Intravenous drug users 3. Chronic renal failure patients on dialysis 5. Infants born to Hbs Ag-positive mothers at birth Contraindications to recombinant vaccine Allergies to yeast or to components of vaccine Persons with multiple sexual partners 8.
Partners of infectious Hep and Ag patients 7. Health care workers 6. Patients with clotting disorders 4. Homosexual men 2. Non-contraindications The following are not contraindications to immunization: Febrile illness. Family history of any adverse reactions following immunization 2. Hypersensitivity to egg protein contraindicates influenza vaccine. Over the age recommended in immunization schedule 9. No live vaccine No live vaccine should be used in cases of: Prematurity 5.
Previous history of pertussis. Family history of convulsions 3. Immunodeficiency 2. Replacement corticosteriods. History of jaundice after birth 8. Stable neurological conditions. High dose of. Recent or imminent surgery The characteristics of some agents used in sterilization and disinfection are presented in Table 2.
Spores are unaffected. Hand wash. Agglutination assays Coombs' antiglobulin test 2. Radioimmunoassay 6. Complement fixation tests 3. Bcl-2 A molecule expressed transiently on activated B cells which have been rescued from apoptosis. Alloantibody Antibody raised in one individual and directed against an antigen primarily on cells of another individual of the same species.
Plasma proteins are an example of antigenically dissimilar variants. APCs antigenpresenting cells A variety of cell types which carry antigen in a form that can stimulate lymphocytes. CD markers cluster of differentiation Used as a prefix and number.
Allotypes The protein of an allele which may be detectable as an antigen by another member of the same species. Adhesion molecules Cell surface molecules involved in cell-cell interaction or the binding of cells to extracellular matrix.
Allogeneic See page Apoptosis Programmed cell death: Autologous Originating from the same individual. Anchor residues Certain amino acid residues of antigenic peptides are required for interaction in the binding pocket of MHC molecules.
H and I. Antigenic peptides Peptide fragments of proteins which bind to MHC molecules and induce T-cell activation. Adjuvant Any foreign material introduced with an antigen to enhance its immunogenecity. Cell surface molecules of lymphocytes and platelets that are distinguishable with monoclonal antibodies. Usually about amino acids in size. Class switching Clonal selection The process by which B cells can express a new heavy chain isotype without altering the specificity of the antibody produced.
Each immunoglobulin domain consists of about amino acids. Genetic restriction Describes the phenomenon where lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells interact more effectively when they share particular MHC haplotypes. A set of cells present in tissues. Defensins A group of small antibacterial proteins produced by neutrophils.
Dendritic cells Derived from either the lymphoid or mononuclear phagocyte lineages. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue GALT Accumulations of lymphoid tissue associated with the gastrointestinal tract. Co-stimulation The signals required for the activation of lymphocytes in addition to the antigen-specific signal delivered via their antigen receptors. Domain Segments or loops on heavy and light chains formed by intrachain disulphide bonds. Epitope Part of an antigen that binds to an antibody-combining site or a specific T-cell surface receptor.
Fas ligand The ligand that binds to the cell surface molecule Fas CD95 which is normally found on the surface of lymphocytes. Cell adhesion molecules CAMs A group of proteins of the immunoglobulin supergene family involved in intercellular adhesion. Constant regions The relatively invariant parts of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains.
This occurs by gene rearrangement. Colony-stimulating factors CSFs A group of cytokines which control the differentiation of haemopoetic stem cells. Collectins A group of large polymeric proteins including conglutinin and mannose-binding lectin MBL that can opsonize microbial pathogens. When Fas ligand binds to its receptor. The fundamental basis of lymphocyte activation in which antigen selectively causes activation.
HLA See page Paul-Bunnell antigen which reacts with both sheep and beef erythrocytes. Iso type The class or subclass of an immunoglobulin common to all members of that species. Each isotype is encoded by a separate immunoglobulin constant region gene sequence that is carried by all members of a species.
Helper cells recognize antigen in association with class II molecules. Langerhans' cells Antigen-presenting cells of the skin which emigrate to local lymph nodes to become dendritic cells. Haplotype A set of genetic determinants coded by closely linked genes on a single chromosome. Heterologous Originating from a different individual or different inbred line. Hapten A substance of low molecular weight which is not itself immunogenic. VCAM and some of the Fe receptors. Hypervariable regions Amino acid sequences within the variable regions of heavy and light immunoglobulin chains and of the T-cell receptor which show the most variability and contribute most to the antigen-binding site.
Superantigens Antigens often bacterial. Lectin pathway A pathway of complement activation. Mixed lymphocyte reaction MLR Proliferative response when lymphocytes from two genetically different i. Syngeneic Genetically identical or closely related.
Memory cells Long-lived lymphocytes which have already been primed with antigen but have not yet undergone terminal differentiation into effector cells. They react more readily than narve lymphocytes when restimulated with the same antigen. It can form pores on the membrane of a target cell.
A vital test in matching donor and recipient prior to bone marrow transplantation. E-selectin CD62E. Natural killer NK cell Type of cytotoxic lymphocyte that has the intrinsic ability to recognize and destroy virally infected cells and some tumour cells. NfkB A transcription factor which is widely used by different leucocyte populations to signal activation.
Antigens must normally be processed in order to trigger the T-cell receptor. Perforin A granule-associated molecule of cytotoxic cells. Selectins Three adhesion molecules. Linkage disequilibrium The association of two linked alleles more frequently than would be expected by chance. Suppressor TS cell Functionally defined populations of T cells which reduce the immune responses of other T cells or B cells.
Specializes in killing cells that express little or no MHC molecule. P-selectin CD62P. It takes longer to mobilize but confers specificity and exhibits memory. Toll receptors A group of evolutionarily ancient cell surface molecules.
Titre The highest dilution of a given substance. The adaptive component results from antigen-dependent activation. TAP transporters A group of molecules which transport proteins and peptides between intracellular compartments. T-independent antigens Can directly stimulate B cells to produce specific antibody. Transforming growth factors TGFs A group of cytokines. The two are functionally interrelated in several critical ways. Humeral immune response effected by B cells Properties Properties 1.
Granulocytes 3. Macrophages 4. Natural kilter cells Cytokines Accessory molecules Other molecules 1. Complement system 1. No antigenic specificity. Dendritic cells 5. Produced in paracortical region of lymph nodes and spleen.
Inflammatory response with leakage of antibacterial serum proteins acute-phase proteins and phagocytic cells 3. Cell-mediated response effected by T cells 2. Phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages 4. Serum specific immunoglobulin levels. Antigen-recognition lymphoid cells B and T lymphocytes 2. Table 3. Produced in germinal centre of lymph nodes and Site of production: No memory.
Anatomical and physiological barriers 2. Humoral immunity.
Antigenic specificity i. T lymphocytes Functions: Site of production: Cell-mediated immunity. Immunological memory.
Assessment of function: Ts suppressor T cells.. TH helper T cells. Identified by: T-cell surface phenotypes identified by reaction with monoclonal Abs Table 3. MHC molecules. It is a T-cell costimulatory molecule which plays a major role in T cell activation. Recognizes antigen in association with class II MHC molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. TH1 and TH2 populations Fig. An isoform of CD45 associated with active T cells that respond poorly to recall antigen.
T DH delayed hypersensitivity T cells: Responds well to recall antigen. T-cell subpopulations Regulatory and effector T cells Regulatory cells: T 5 suppressor T cells: An isoform associated with memory T cells. Produces cytokines and helps generate cytotoxic T cells and cooperates with B cells in production of antibody responses. IL-6 and IL. It is associated at the cell surface with a complex of polypeptides known collectively as CD3 which is required for activation of T cells.
Also known as Fas. Present in highest amounts in activated T cel ls. T-cell antigen receptor TCR Fig. Effector cells: CD3 subunits t.. Replication of the virus. The na'lve T cells that emerge from the thymus are pre-cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Entry of virus into the target cell. The killing activity of neutrophils and macrophages is enhanced by highly reactive compounds: Bacteria are opsonized by lgM.
Langerhans cells of the skin. Mediate allergic and antiparasitic response due to release of histamine and other mediators. IL-6 and IL Functions C3b and C4b. Phagocytose microbes. Phagocytosis of microbes by neutrophils and macrophages 1. NADH oxidase or myeloperoxidase is stimulated by a powerful oxidative burst following bacterial phagocytosis. Secrete inflammatory mediators and complement components. Functions 1. Have phagocytic activify and release cytokines. Secrete numerous cytokines that promote immune responses IL Fe receptor for lgG.
Act rapidly. Binding of Fe receptors on NK cells to antibody-coated target cells initiates killing. Recognition of target differs from lymphocytes.
Fe receptors and C3b receptors and produce interleukin 1. Previously referred to as large granular lymphocytes IGL because of their appearance. Activate macrophages and natural killer NK cells. Alpha-interferon IFN-a produced by human leucocytes 2. Gamma-interferon IFN-y produced by human T lymphocytes in response to antigenic stimulation.
NK cells express two major classes of inhibitory receptors for MHC molecules: Similar function to lymphocytes. Interferons IFNs Table 3. Kupffer cells and skin Langerhans cells. Antitumour activity 3. Prevent viral replication 2. Tumour necrosis factor TNF Table 3. IL-1 is thus likely to play a role in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque.
Interleukins lls Table 3. B cells Suppression of macrophage functions and T" 1 cells Activation of B cells 3. T cells. May also play a role in the response to other infectious organisms. Colony stimulating factors CSFs fable 3. Activation of macrophages. The cell adhesion molecules CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily antigen presentation.
Chagas' disease T. Coreceptor activating molecules e. T cell Attracts macrophages. Adhesion molecules Table 3. Septic shock: IL-8 ll Subgroup CC-type e.
Toxic shock syndrome: Nitric oxide NO NO is an important transcellular messenger molecule which is involved in a diverse range of processes. Their principal function appears to be to act as molecular chaperones for damaged protein to direct it into degradation pathways such as ubiquitination.
OOH" peroxide radical. OH" hydroxyl radical. Protection against heart disease and cancer may be conferred by dietary antioxidants. It has a very short half-life. NO" nitric oxide. This leads to the production of specific heat shock proteins that alter the phenotype of the cell and enhance its resistance to stress. Vitamin E. Macrophage inducible NO synthase. Zn SOD Vitamin C. Endothelial constitutive NO synthase vasodi lator tone modulation.
The caspase proteolytic cascade then activates a cytoplasmic enzyme caspase-activatable DNAase CAD which can then migrate to the nucleus and cleave DNA into small fragments. Tissue damage in acute and chronic inflammation probably by interacting with oxygen-derived free radicals.
Fas interacts with several proteins in the 'death pathway' to activate a proteolytic enzyme. Atherosclerosis where NO synthesis may be impaired. This is because endotoxin release triggers the innate immune response when macrophages are directly activated through Toll-like receptors.
Macrophage activation results in the secretion of TNF. Binding of Fas ligand expressed on a killer T cell to Fas expressed on a target cell triggers a cascade of intracellular biochemical changes in the target cell.
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxic cell death in the CNS. Antiapoptotic genes could confer characteristics such as longer survival. Hepatorenal syndrome and the hypertension of chronic renal failure. Septic shock NO is released in massive amounts and results in decreased. There have been three main approaches to preventing septic shock: ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome. All have failed in clinical trials.
The only immunoglobul in that crosses the placenta. Principal immunoglobulin of the primary immune response 4.
Activates complement via the classical pathway. Blood group antibodies: Key defence role for mucosal surfaces 2. Distributed in blood and interstitial fluids 2. Agglutinates and opsonizes particulate antigens. Does not cross the placenta.
Activates complement via classical pathway lgA a dimer and secretory form 13 1. Most maternally transmitted lgG has disappeared by 6 monthst 4. Macroglobulin made up of five monomeric immunoglobulin subunits linked by a J-chain 2. Coats cells prior to killing by killer cells. Mainly intravascular 3.
Principal immunoglobulin in secretions of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and in sweat. Secreted through epithelia as the dimer bound to a secretory transport piece. Polymerizes to a dimer intracellularly by binding through a cysteine-rich polypeptide J-chain. Receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies have been developed as possible asthma therapies.
Nearly all immunoglobulin is present as cell surface receptor on human B cells and may be involved in B-cell activation lgE E 0. Precise functions are unknown 2. Possibly of benefit in controlling certain parasitic infections 2. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions: Serum levels correlate with severity of asthma 3.
Activates various cells involved in allergic and inflammatory disease. Five classes of immunoglobulin are recognized on the basis of the Fe fragment of the heavy chain.
Fe crystall izable fragment. Each immunoglobulin molecule has either two K or two A. Fab antigen-binding fragment. Two identical univalent antigen-binding fragments Fab. Molecular weight of approximately 23 Two types: Molecular weight of about twice that of light chains i.
One crystallizable fragment Fe. Heavy chain classes are also divided into subclasses of molecules. Light chain Site of papain: Monoclonal antibodies have the same idiotype. A constant region CH and CJ. Its presence implies proliferation of a single clone of cells. Each class of Jg heavy chains are identical in all members of a species 0 r 0 z Allotype Constant region Vary among individuals of the same species.
Identification of surface markers of cells in biopsy material. Affinity chromatography to isolate and purify material. Histological typing of neoplasms. Assays of peptide hormones.
Viral detection and subtyping: APUDomas and leukaemias. One-third are idiopathic. Uses 1.