Jonathan Swift. Gulliver's Travels. Retold by Scotia Victoria Gilroy. w o r y g i n a l e c z y t a m y. Page 2. 2. © Mediasat Poland Bis Mediasat Poland Bis sp. Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. Table of Contents. Gulliver's Travels (Fiction, , pages). This title is. Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels / 3. Objectives: Introduction. The character of Gulliver. Analysis of Gulliver's Travels. Book I. Book II .
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Travels. By Jonathan Swift edition. The author of these Travels, Mr. Lemuel Gulliver, is my an- . should be a second edition: and yet I cannot stand to them;. oxford world' s classics GULLIVER'S TRAVELS Jonathan Swift (–) was born World's Classics paperback New edition All rights reserved. Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift; editions; First published in ; Subjects: In August , Saddleback Educational Publishing, Inc. Borrow · DAISY for print-disabled Download ebook for print-disabled (DAISY).
I took with me six Cows and two Bulls alive, with as many Yews and Rams, intending to carry them into my own Country, and propagate the Breed. It does so while introducing noble. Samuel Nixon. David Woolley, 4 vols. Rodino, Richard H. There is no such mouthpiece for Swift in the last Voyage, though there is a figure like Glumdalclitch.
In the second part of the Argument, Swift turns around and broadens his comic irony. He pretends not to answer objections to nominal Christianity but to present its advantages, those conveniences which would be lost if it were abolished.
But what he chooses to present as conveniences, are the elements of the Church of England; and he gives these elements the priesthood, the theology, the establishment absurd attractions: There is more in the Argument against Abolishing Christianity than a defence of the Sacramental Test and an attack on Occasional Conformity. Swift is saying that those who try to repeal the Test Act would like as well to disestablish the Church and finally to destroy Christianity.
The impulse against the Test Act is the impulse to do away with all religion. So he casually and sarcastically says, in his second paragraph, the opposite of what he believes—that Christianity is a danger to mankind: I hope, no Reader imagines me so weak to stand up in the Defence of real Christianity; such as used in primitive Times.
To offer at the Restoring of that, would indeed be a wild Project; it would be to dig up Foundations; to destroy at one Blow all the Wit, and half the Learning of the Kingdom. I hope you do not feel that Swift is baffling you like the children who say in the words of R.
And though you probe and pry With analytic eye, And eavesdrop all our talk With an amused look, You cannot find the centre Where we dance, where we play.
Here too Swift treats the enemies of his own ideal as if they were interchangeable, and he offers you his values so casually that you may miss them unless you start from the conviction that one must combine energy with subtlety to write Gulliver. Swift began to write this book about twenty-five years.
He considered anti-Anglicans to be heirs of the republicanism as well as the nonconformity of the Puritans. He could not believe that intelligence alone was enough to keep a man religious. William Wollaston.
In Swift thought the first threat to the Church of England came from the dissenters and the next from the Roman Catholics. In politics Swift correctly aligned the deists and the dissenters against the Tories.
Neither would he believe that the authority of the church and the revelation of Holy Scripture. He is utterly depraved. As Hooker says: Unto the word of God. To the authority of the true church and the revelation of Scripture the good Christian must add his own reason or intelligence. He can only live in fear and can only hope for grace. The deist breaks away in the other direction. By he had decided that the Roman Catholics were too weak to be considerable.
To act according to right reason. No man commeth unto God. Whosoever doth serve honor and obey God. In looking for salvation. To be governed by reason is the general law. Swift claimed that the Hanoverian new Whigs. By the enemy had changed. They insisted that good conduct which was the outcome of threats could not be real virtue. But neither of course did he suppose that the subhuman portrait of utter depravity belonged in the place of the sentimental theory.
In his experience he found no support for the theory that the threat of hellfire was not requisite to keep mankind on the hither side of wickedness. Writers like Shaftesbury. A more fashionable theology came in. Reason leads to revelation. Swift thought it fanatically absurd to pretend that the life of pure reason could stand as a moral ideal for the human species. Swift despised sentimentalism.
This doctrine is often called sentimentalism. The new fashion. Hulme11 and the modernist movement after the First War. Then wickedness must itself fall into the class of acquired traits. But there is no way to make such a motion possible unless one grants to mankind a power of goodness which is innate and natural.
If men are born good. In morality the change had got under way earlier. The only apology for their coherence would have to include religious toleration. Only benevolence voluntary and unforced belonged to the category of the admirable. In recent literature it bloomed with the Romantics. We are neither apes nor centaurs. The symbols shift their inclination within pages or paragraphs. Nothing but the underpinning of morality is consistent. Once again Swift hints at his values in casual ironic ways.
Gulliver is from the first chapter neither his spokesman nor an embodiment of his ideal. While the Lilliputians are walking across his prostrate body, Gulliver says: I was often tempted.
But one can sometimes not always guess at his approving or disapproving a principle by the use of a double rule. Usually Gulliver reports his observations without encouraging the reader to accept or to reject them; and usually he writes in an unemphatic and dispassionate tone. The degree or intensity of the belief may be exaggerated, but the direction will be reliable. If Swift feels that the education of English women is disgracefully inferior to that of English men, Gulliver will report that Lilliputian girls are educated like the boys.
You can never be sure whether a detached remark is serious or ironic except by referring it to the pattern; and you can only make out the pattern by half-consciously piecing the separate instances together as you read along. The process is simpler than I have made it sound. All of you have had sarcastic teachers and lecturers who would communicate their private opinions by such a method—never telling you outright that they frowned on one idea or smiled on another, but becoming emphatically ironical when they mentioned a darling generalization of their own which the modern age rejects.
All of you have had the experience of meeting a witty person and being doubtful, until you knew him well, whether many of his sayings were sober. Swift helps you by making many of his points more than once.
Gulliver introduces this paragraph, however, by saying: There are some Laws and Customs in this Empire very peculiar; and if they were not so directly contrary to those of my own dear Country, I should be tempted to say a little in their Justification.
In Brobdingnag we meet at last some persons who are wholly good: Glumdalclitch, the girl who takes care of Gulliver, and also the King of Brobdingnag himself. While Glumdalclitch never delivers herself of opinions on politics or on human nature, the King does so freely; and what he says is, sometimes with great exaggeration, what Swift thinks.
In the Third Voyage, Gulliver finds Lord Munodi of Balnibarbi, another wholly good individual, whose moral judgement is unexceptionable. There is no such mouthpiece for Swift in the last Voyage, though there is a figure like Glumdalclitch. But then you have your pattern. The ironies, the repetitions, the deeds of some characters, and the remarks of others weave a design to which you can refer the moral overtones of Houyhnhnmland.
Here least of all is Gulliver equivalent to Swift. He first mistakes the centaur-like Houyhnhnms for horses and the ape-like Yahoos for unknown beasts. Later he takes the Houyhnhnms as models for him and mankind to copy, and the Yahoos as degenerate men for him to repudiate. By now you have your moral underpinning, and by now you have found how unreliable Gulliver is.
A better beginning is to ask what the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos stand for. You will easily interpret the Houyhnhnms if you ask yourselves where in Graeco-Roman mythology one finds intelligent, horse-like beings, creatures of great wisdom who have equine bodies. The answer is of course centaurs. I know that centaurs commonly symbolize violence and passion; and I do not guarantee that Swift saw the thing exactly as I put it.
But I cannot believe that a man as deeply read in ancient literature as Swift was, and as fond of it, would not have associated his Houyhnhnms with Chiron, who was. Chiron was the son of Kronos by a daughter of Ocean. He aided Peleus father of Achilles , and he trained Aristaeus. He taught Aesculapius the art of healing.
Homer says that Chiron was the most righteous of the centaurs; other writers say he surpassed even men in justice. He brought up the young Achilles, training him to be strong and brave, teaching him medicine and music. A centaur is a fine symbol of pagan wisdom; and the Houyhnhnms do embody the moral gifts of pre-Christian sages like Socrates and Cato, whom Swift admired.
The four intellectual or natural virtues were available to them: But the three Christian virtues were not: Immortality, brotherly love, rewards and punishments, God—these are never mentioned by the Houyhnhnms.
But rational benevolence is constantly in their mouths. Friendship and Benevolence are the two principal Virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular Objects, but universal to the whole Race. To deserve the name of good or virtuous, a creature must have all his inclinations and affections, his dispositions of mind and temper, suitable, and agreeing with the good of his kind.
This affection of a creature towards the good of the species or common nature is. The Houyhnhnms symbolize, in fact, the deist conception of human nature; Shaftesbury, for example, is at pains to show that religion is not requisite to morality, and that man may be good without being Christian. The ape, in antiquity, was commonly used for ridicule and satire. Among the Greeks, apes were associated with ugliness, deceit, cowardice, and flattery. In popular Christian literature of the middle ages, you will find apes described as fearful in low places but arrogant in high; they are vicious and hateful in old age; wicked priests are called apes.
In this tradition the devil sometimes takes the form of an ape. Like the unclean animals of the Book of Leviticus—those whose carcasses pollute those who touch them, the Yahoos walk upon their hands. With certain exceptions, their food is that forbidden in Leviticus: In repudiating the Yahoo for the Houyhnhnm, Gulliver does not speak for Swift. Only a deist or atheist should be taken in by this gesture. A figure steps in as casually and ironically as the values in the Argument against Abolishing Christianity.
It is properly rejected by Gulliver, and it occurs at a significant point, just before the end of the book, even as in the Argument Swift states his values soon after the beginning.
The captain shows as much intelligence or reason as anyone in the Travels, but adds to this the charity of a good Christian. He nurses Gulliver, shelters him, gives him money, and sends him back to his family. You may never before have heard that compared with Glumdalclitch, the King of Brobdingnag, Lord Munodi, and Captain de Mendez, the Houyhnhnms are no more attractive than the Yahoos.
But Swift himself wrote a poem which clearly applies this principle. He was a dissenter himself and a Member of Parliament. His method is as usual to treat the dissenters and the deists as equivalent.
So in one stanza Swift clubs three categories together. The first class is of deists: Hobbes, Tindal, Woolston, Collins, and Toland.
The second class is of leaders in some late and extremely evangelical dissenting sects: Naylor, Muggleton, and Bradley. The last is the Yahoo politician himself. Knock him down, down, down, knock him down. Unluckily, the age was against Swift. This statement is false. There were enough hostile comments to prove that the book was misunderstood from the day it appeared. Here is one of the more violent condemnations: You may wonder why, if I am correct, it has taken so long to get at the obvious truth about this book.
Often scholars are like those English reporters in Piccadilly Circus last January, when the army of jumping spectators got in. Gulliver began to write his travels five years after returning from Houyhnhnmland.
I was right. However you may read Gulliver. By his own account. Yet it may be the most important for those of you who wish to write such a book. Within a single sentence. Scene in a fiction. Swift says that en route to Brobdingnag violent winds began April And what would happen if you took the geography of Gulliver seriously? In the Third Voyage.
Coming home from Lilliput. Gulliver boards a ship off the east coast of Australia. The time-sequence against which a plot moves must be a consistent scheme to mark the changes in a character.
Now a character in fiction is an imitation of our memory of a person. Probability in such a story is more important than truth. You come to the work with your own expectations.
Judged by these standards. But before you forgive him. But you analyse it in terms which Aristotle applied to epic and which we all use for narrative: For the ironies to succeed. So when you write this book. You must take him as either hero or villain. To carp at the inconsistencies would be like blaming the parable of the prodigal son for lacking verisimilitude.
Yet he boasts of the title of nobility granted him by the Lilliputian emperor. You enjoy it as the work of a perhaps unknown author comically acting naive and fallacious. You need not drag yourselves any further along this muddy path. His defenders try to minimize the inconsistencies. If you place it in the tradition of Humphrey Clinker and Tom Jones.
And [have] been byassed all their Lives against Truth and Equity. Then the alterations of attitude are not lapses in technique. Swift never meant to write a novel. His enemies busy themselves attacking the Houyhnhnms. Fielding continually offers his readers characters who stand for such alternatives. I can put the alternatives simply.
Let realism take care of itself. You do not make believe this book is by a pretended author who happens to be laughably naive and fallacious. This is a grotesque situation. This is no novel. The Pursuit of Love Harmondsworth. See also Michael Roberts. A Tale of a Tub. If Ehrenpreis refers to this book. Guthkelch and Smith. Guthkelch and D. The Poems of John Dryden. Nancy Milford Harmondsworth.
John Betjeman London. Georges Edelen Cambridge. Ehrenpreis quotes from a different edition. Prose Works. Hulme London. Books I to IV. Nichol Smith. See also Mitford. Ehrenpreis used the first edition. See Die Kirchliche Dogmatik. Herbert Read London. Ehrenpreis only gives this reference. The Life and Opinions of T. Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity: See Speculations: Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art.
Ehrenpreis quotes from the edition. Richard Hooker. James Kinsley. See Noblesse Oblige. See Aristotle. Forster Cambridge. See Roland Mushat Frye. See McDermott. See William Coffman McDermott. Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England Cambridge. This incident has defied all my efforts to identify it.
A Letter from a Clergyman to his Friend. See Moore. Characteristics of Men. Pollin presented Ehrenpreis with a copy of his article in February preserved at the Ehrenpreis Center. The Enquirer: Reflections on Education. Paul Odell Clark. See Prose Works. Indianapolis and New York. See John Robert Moore. Priestley Toronto. The Poems of Jonathan Swift. William Godwin.
Intended footnote missing. Manners and Literature. See Irvin Ehrenpreis. See G.
John Robert Moore. Martin Kallich. Harold Williams. Anthony Earl of Shaftesbury. John M.
Later on. Stanley Grean. Before this final. The Annual of the Ehrenpreis Center. He had decided to put an end to his life at sea after one last voyage which. Volume 19 The voyage on the Antelope with Captain William Prichard comes to an abrupt end when a storm throws the ship on a rock of the island of Lilliput in the South Pacific.
For Gulliver. Gulliver had never met with any serious accident. When he decides to go to sea again. The second journey. Gulliver and his fellow sailors encounter a far more distressing fate.
The crew eventually seize the ship to try their luck as pirates. He runs into a storm. Captain Pocock. The fourth and final voyage meets with the worst outcome of all. It had been the occasion of a popular broadsheet when the case of the mutineers was tried at the Old Bailey in Swift may have taken a few significant hints from a mutiny which was very much a subject of public debate at the end of the preceding century.
Gulliver loses many men on account of tropical fevers. Gulliver is a captain now. These were notorious haunts of gallows-birds and desperate men with whom Gulliver is foolish enough to entrust his destiny and the fate of his ship.
They chain Gulliver in his cabin and then maroon him on another unknown shore somewhere in the South Sea. As far as I am aware. The Brobdingnagians finally catch a terrified Gulliver. This time. Gulliver foolishly attempts to upbraid him as a fellow Christian.
This probably was and still is a not infrequent name for a ship. In Book Two. In neither of the other two voyages does Gulliver suffer such extremes of emotion on landing at an unknown island as in Books Two and Four. Mutiny on the Adventure 63 the trial.
It is tempting to infer that for Swift the name Adventure for a ship had somehow remained associated with the particularly dramatic events he had heard of. It will be noticed that in both cases the captain who was marooned A True Relation or cast adrift The Mutiny on the Bounty managed to reach England after a harrowing odyssey.
It is difficult to accept the commonly-voiced interpretation which suggests a mere oversight. In Book One. A True Relation is a remarkably detailed account of a mutiny and of the ensuing fate of both its victims and the mutineers. In Book Four. Of course. Gull iver and Pocock. The suggestion is all the more tempting. The victim of the mutiny was called Gullock.
The initial syllable associates Gullock and Gull iver as two disastrously gullible sailors—indeed. Captain Thomas Gullock. Captain Pocock is usually described by critics as modelled on the equally obstinate and dogmatic. In a recent. The precedent as well as that of Book Two suggest that it can only end in disaster. The almost inescapable inference would then be that Swift named his hero after Captain Gullock. Thus one of the most popular names in world fiction may very well have been inspired by that of an obscure.
His ship is not identified by name. More probably. Only a very few obvious typographical errors have been discreetly corrected. Mutiny on the Adventure 65 graphically at least. Yorick would add. Some of these travel books have detailed maps of the area referred to in the Relation. I ever heard. All ships had to sail through the delicate straits of the area to pass from one ocean to the other.
This transcript of A True Relation from the copy in the British Library reproduces the spelling of the original broadsheet. The first Adventure. He asked them what the matter. Thomas Hughs and others.
Joseph Bradish Boatswains mate desired Mr. Eight whereof miserably perished by Hunger and Hardship. Hill to let him have the Yaul to tow the Long boat off from the shoar. After the Long-boat was put off. THE Ship Adventure. John Lloyd. Together with some short Account of what passed at the Trial and Condemnation of those who Committed that Fact. Goats and green Trade.
Abraham Parrott the chief Mate. Hill sent him word the Water-cask were full. William Hill his second Mate. Mutiny on the Adventure 67 of it? They answered he need not trouble himself about that. Soon after the Ship was under Sail.
Dru Hacker. Moneys or Cloaths. George Reyner. Jonas Grizley. Eight have since perished by hunger and hardships. The number left in this deplorable state were 16 of their fellow Seamen. Rex Kempton. This distressed Company being thus left. But it pleased God none of them lost their Lives. This Boat pretended to belong to Padang.
The remaining part of this distressed Company got their Passage to Bencoolen. Antony Gillis a Native of India. George Rayner. The Captain went on shoar with the Yaul. Going with this Boat toward Sumatra they were chased with a Malaya Pirate. Two days after they went to Padang. But it pleased God to raise them up there a Friend indeed.
Coming near Priaman8 there is a Shoal upon which the Malayar ran his Boat. Robert Anby. Parrot at Batavia. Ralph Peck. These that were in health he endeavoured to keep so. Robert Anby and Mr. As to the health of their Bodies.
Mutiny on the Adventure 69 The foregoing Account is given. Nixon and Mr. Samuel Nixon Chirurgeon. Padang the Twenty Third of October. God Almighty knows our hearts that we speak the truth. In fine. Old Style. William Whitesides. Andrew Marten. Joseph Bradish. After they had seised the Ship. And now to return. John Westby. Abraham Parrott the ChiefMate. Abraham Parrott Chief-mate. Insomuch that I am ready. Also he so husbanded the Brandy allowed for them that they had Drams always when wet.
As for Abuses I never saw any or less striking in any Ship where I have been. William Griffeth the Trumpeter had taken upon him to have shot the Captain. John Pierce.
Sugar and Spice. Robert Amsden. William Whitesides the Boatswain. Not willing to venture our selves near any Factory. Abraham Parrott. I have heard them say sundry times.
That they had three Cans of Beer a mess every day till far beyond the Cape of good Hope. They should not rise up against them. When they came near the Coast of New-England 12 they agreed to destroy all the Journals and Writings aboard. On Wednesdays and Saturdays Fish and Burgoo. Also that they had 28 pound of Bread per Week every Mess. After this. As for the Victualling of his Ship. Mutiny on the Adventure 71 This being done.
That on Mondays and Fridays they had Pork and Pease. Notwithstanding their Separating themselves into several distant Parts. That he was sorry to see so many Men so remorseless. Divine Justice has pursued them. Edgell because that he being a Quarter-Master. As for Chastisement. And if Correction in such Cases be not used aboard Ships. And Witherell was beaten for striking the Boatswain of the Ship. Westby and Amsden said. Edward Ham purely for the welfare of those who complain against it.
That then they were at no Allowance for a Fortnight or three Weeks. Also that they had Drams Morning and Evening when fair. Also that every Mess had on Sundays a Can of strong Beer. The same Account John Westby. Westby confirmed upon oath. Edward Watts. Rowland Marten. The Names of the Prisoners which were Condemned. Mutiny on the Adventure 73 And these very Men themselves. Thomas Gullock. Thomas Simpson. Henry Barnet.
The Names of those left on shoar. Daniel Gravier. William Hill. Printed for Sam. Edward Ham. John Templer. Thomas Barrow. Cornelius Larking. All quotations are from the edition of Herbert Davis. William Griffeth. Thomas Davis. Real and Heinz J. Giles Brown. Samuel Nixon.
See Hermann J. Ellmore Clarke. Thomas Edgell. Thomas Hughs. The use of the same name for two different ships also underlines many important thematic parallels and echoes between the two books. Francis Read. Names of the Dead are Rex Kempton. Robert Knox. Tee Wetherell. John Hire. Robert Mason. Drew Hacker. In a letter written in July John Baker. Thomas Dean. Origin unknown. Usefull for Merchants and Mariners London: John Seller. See Henry R. Hydrographia Universalis: See also William Dampier.
Now Djakarta on Java. Volume II: A Supplement of the Voyage round the World. A New Voyage round the World London: James Knapton. Sold by him at the Hermitage in Wapping. Green vegetables. From the Arabic. Describing the Countreys of Tonquin. Voyages and Descriptions.
Samuel p. A Book of Maritime Charts. See also Monsieur Duquesne. A place on the western coast of Sumatra. William Dampier. A —Jonathan Swift1 Or else I will not ride one Inch of Ground. Pietro Pugliano. Volume It might be argued punningly that there Modern Language Review. Donkey regularly appeared on the Yahoo menu as a welcome addition to weasel and rat.
Number 1 January Swift seemed to share the reverence of a Gio. Perhaps it is simply Yahoo excrement. At first Gulliver. In that it offers a critique of representation. This almost phylogenetic concentration upon distinguishing characteristics. Considering that the Sorrel Nag. Gulliver is not slow to recognize super-equine characteristics such as language.
Visibly or rather. In this situation. Yet it is notable that Gulliver. Not until European and Yahoo are brought cheek by jowl at the order of the Master Horse does it become clear to Gulliver what the Houyhnhnms have already determined. I now apprehended. I have Reason to believe. And indeed. Lemuel Self-Translated 77 curiosity. For as to those Filthy Yahoos. At which times they would approach as near as they durst. As is repeatedly made clear to Gulliver. The Houyhnhnms recognize that Gulliver.
But this passage makes clear that two humanoid species are reflected in the mirror of their own mockery. Just as individual familial love is subordinated to a universal friendship and benevolence extended to the whole Houyhnhnm species.
Franklin of his own horrified realization of similitude. The equine beauty of their own shapes is shared by the. Even more significantly. Through a mixture of environmental. The horses see only an apparently irreversible process of degeneration. The instincts of this eleven-year-old Yahoo. Their freedom from sexual passion. Even while intent upon rubbing his neck in the dirt of misanthropy. And the distance between the smug species self-satisfaction of the horse and the empirical questioning of the character of humankind is apparent when.
Lemuel Self-Translated 79 asses—who differ only in a certain length of ears—and all can appreciate this similitude except the horses. Such brutish passion is viewed by the Houyhnhnms. Gulliver reveals the. Throughout the lengthy conversations between man and horse.
This is not to say that they viewed this attempted aquatic coupling as an example of the animal—human interbreeding which engrossed the fascinated repulsion of eighteenth-century natural historians. Gulliver requests permission to engage in field-work among the Yahoos. As for intellectual interaction. By recognizing. Both asses and Yahoos are brutes.
But from a hippocentric perspective. Although the Master understands its rationale. Amidst the cataloguing of the crimes of their slave species a bathetic list including oat-trampling. That the Inhabitants taking a Fancy to use the Service of the Yahoos. On one level this suggestion seems profoundly sensible: Franklin dynamic of intellectual curiosity which the reader cannot but contrast with the static inwardness of Houyhnhnm self-obsession.
As the Dunciad title-page illustrates. In his dedication to imitation he outdoes the Yahoos. Margaret Anne Doody has recently explored some interesting parallels between.
The Ass]. The Golden Ass. The mount of Absalom and Abigail has also felt the drunken sensual weight of Bacchus and Silenus. The lowly ass has laboured as an emblem of devotion. Lemuel Self-Translated 81 bad.
Ambivalence and ambiguity have characterized the symbolic associations of the ass. Had the Houyhnhnms been a literate species and. Although we learn that Friendship is a key topic of Houyhnhnm converse and poetry. Gulliver seems intent upon a bizarre and schizophrenic speciation. Genuine friendship demands a parity of feeling in which each self-reflexively appreciates self in the other.
Swift picks up that kind of psychic stress. It is not the hero who is transformed. Doody is certainly correct in implying that it is more than sufficient to provoke an identity crisis of severe proportions. Referring to Lucius. Always defined against his own self-image. I take for a great Compliment: Neither shall I disown. I fell to imitate their Gait and Gesture. I turned away my Face in Horror and detestation of my self.
Eric Partridge London: Deutsch, Swift vs. The Examiner and the Medley, ed. A Tale of a Tub, ed. Guthkelch and D. Nichol Smith, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Donoghue, Denis, Jonathan Swift: A Critical Introduction Cambridge: Downie, J. Political Writer London: Routledge, University Press of Virginia, Methuen, The Man, His Works, and the Age. Swift and His Contemporaries London: Swift London: Dean Swift London: Elliott, Robert C. Princeton University Press, University of Chicago Press, Johns Hopkins University Press, , paperback Ferguson, Oliver W.
University of Illinois Press, Fox, Christopher ed. Leavis, F. Chatto, ; Harmondsworth: Essay frequently reprinted in collections of critical essays on Swift. Lock, F. Duckworth, and Newark: University of Delaware Press, Mahony, Robert, Jonathan Swift: The Irish Identity New Haven: Johns Hopkins Press, Yale University Press, ; Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press Arcturus paperback, Doubleday, Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, An Introduction London: The best short introductory book, reliable and lively.
Select Bibliography li —— Two Augustans: John Locke, Jonathan Swift Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, Rawson, Claude ed. A Revised Focus Newark, Del.: Associated University Presses, Oxford University Press, , paperback Humanities Press, Nuttall, and Oliver Ferguson.
Rogers, Pat, Grub Street: Studies in a Subculture London: Methuen, ; abridged as Hacks and Dunces: Pope, Swift, and Grub Street London: Rosenheim, Edward W. Thackeray, W. The best-known and most controversial nineteenthcentury discussion. Williams, Kathleen ed. The Critical Heritage London: Collection of early criticism of Swift.
Brady, Frank ed. Prentice Hall, Mostly brief extracts rather than complete essays. Carnochan, W. University of California Press, Smith, Crane, R.
Studies in the History of Ideas, — New York: Columbia University Press, Contains important information crucial to a proper understanding of the Fourth Book. Eddy, W. A Critical Study Princeton: Despite its title, concerned mainly with sources. Magic, Ritual, Art Princeton: A brilliant book in general, with a lively study of Gulliver in particular see Biography and Criticism.
Foster, Milton P. Crowell, An important collection of essays on the interpretation of the Fourth Book. Goldgar, Bertrand A. The Relation of Politics to Literature, — Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Gravil, Richard ed.
A Casebook London: Macmillan, Collection of essays that usefully supplements Milton P. Foster, above. Open Guides, Keener, Frederick M. Kenner, Hugh, The Counterfeiters: An Historical Comedy Baltimore: Mezciems, Jenny. Essays on Travel Writing, ed. Philip Dodd London: Frank Cass, Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, vol. Included in several collections of essays on Swift: Rawson, Claude, God, Gulliver and Genocide: Barbarism and the European Imagination, — see Biography and Criticism.
Rielly, Edward J. Modern Language Association of America, Smith, Frederik N. University of Delaware Press; London: Includes essays by Paul K. Alkon, Louise K. Barnett, J. Paul Hunter, Maximillian E. Novak, William Bowman Piper, and others. Welcher, Jeanne K.
Delmar, NY: Contains various contextual materials, sequels, imitations, and other associated works. Gulliveriana VII is a valuable study by Welcher of visual illustrations, — Swift Swift goes to England with Lord Berkeley; publishes Contests lvi —9 —9 —14 Chronology and Dissensions in Athens and Rome; Temple, Miscellanea, iii, ed.
For, the same Gentleman did us the Favour to let us transcribe his Corrections. But I do not remember I gave you Power to consent, that any thing should be omitted, and much less that any thing should be inserted: And, indeed, to avoid so monstrous and 8 A Letter from Capt.
Pray bring to your Mind how often I desired you to consider, when you insisted on the Motive of publick Good; that the Yahoos were a Species of Animals utterly incapable of Amendment by Precepts or Examples: And so it hath proved; for instead of seeing a full Stop put to all Abuses and Corruptions, at least in this little Island, as I had Reason to expect: A Letter from Capt.
Neither have I any Copy left; however, I have sent you some Corrections, which you may insert, if ever there should be a second Edition: But I have since found that the Sea-Yahoos are apt, like the Land ones, to become new fangled in their Words; which the latter change every Year; insomuch, as I remember upon each Return to mine own Country, their old Dialect was so altered, that I could hardly understand the new.
I wrote for their Amendment, and not their Approbation. The united Praise of the whole Race would be of less Consequence to me, than the neighing of those two degenerate Houyhnhnms I keep in my Stable; because, from these, 10 A Letter from Capt. I have other Complaints to make upon this vexatious Occasion; but I forbear troubling myself or you any further. I must freely confess, that since my last Return, some Corruptions of my Yahoo Nature have revived in me by conversing with a few of your Species, and particularly those of mine own Family, by an unavoidable Necessity; else I should never have attempted so absurd a Project as that of reforming the Yahoo Race in this Kingdom; but I have now done with all such visionary Schemes for ever.
I have carefully perused them three Times: And if any Traveller hath a Curiosity to see the whole Work at large, as it came from the Hand of the Author, I will be ready to gratify him. He is shipwrecked, and swims for his Life; gets safe on shoar in the Country of Lilliput; is made a Prisoner, and carried up the Country.
The last of these Voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the Sea, and intended to stay at home with my Wife and Family. Twelve of our Crew were dead by immoderate Labour, and ill Food; the rest were in a very weak Condition. We rowed by my Computation, about three Leagues, till we were able to work no longer, being already spent with Labour while we were in the Ship. We therefore trusted ourselves to the Mercy of the Waves; and in about half an Hour the Boat was overset by a sudden Flurry from the North.
What became of my Companions in the Boat, as well as of those who escaped on the Rock, or were left in the Vessel, I cannot tell; but conclude they were all lost. I often let my Legs drop, and could feel no Bottom: But when I was A Voyage to Lilliput 17 almost gone, and able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my Depth; and by this Time the Storm was much abated.
I then advanced forward near half a Mile, but could not discover any Sign of Houses or Inhabitants; at least I was in so weak a Condition, that I did not observe them.
I was extremely tired, and with that, and the Heat of the Weather, and about half a Pint of Brandy that I drank as I left the Ship, I found my self much inclined to sleep. I attempted to rise, but was not able to stir: For as I happened to lie on my Back, I found my Arms and Legs were strongly fastened on each Side to the Ground; and my Hair, which was long and thick, tied down in the same Manner.
I likewise felt several slender Ligatures across my Body, from my Armpits to my Thighs. I heard a confused Noise about me, but in the Posture I lay, could see nothing except the Sky. I was in the utmost Astonishment, and roared so loud, that they all ran back in a Fright; and some of them, as I was afterwards told, were hurt with the Falls they got by leaping from my Sides upon the Ground. The others repeated the same Words several times, but I then knew not what they meant.
I lay all this while, as the Reader may believe, in great Uneasiness: I thought it the most prudent Method to lie still; and my Design was to continue so till Night, when my left Hand being already loose, I could easily free myself: And as for the Inhabitants, I had Reason to believe I might be a Match for the greatest Armies they could bring against me, if they were all of the same Size with him that I saw.
But Fortune disposed otherwise of me. When the People observed I was quiet, they discharged no more Arrows: But by the Noise increasing, I knew their Numbers were greater; and about four Yards from me, over-against my right Ear, I heard a Knocking for above an Hour, like People at work; when turning my Head that Way, as well as the Pegs and Strings would permit me, I saw a Stage erected about a Foot and a half from the Ground, capable of holding four of the Inhabitants, with two or three Ladders to mount it: From whence one of them, who seemed to be a Person of Quality, made me a long Speech, whereof I understood not one Syllable.
But I should have mentioned, that before the principal Person began his Oration, he cryed out three times Langro Dehul san: He appeared to be of a middle Age, and taller than any of the other three who attended him; whereof one was a Page, who held up his Train, and seemed to be somewhat longer than my middle Finger; the other A Voyage to Lilliput 19 two stood one on each side to support him. I answered in a few Words, but in the most submissive Manner, lifting up my left Hand and both mine Eyes to the Sun, as calling him for a Witness; and being almost famished with Hunger, having not eaten a Morsel for some Hours before I left the Ship.
I found the Demands of Nature so strong upon me, that I could not forbear shewing my Impatience perhaps against the strict Rules of Decency by putting my Finger frequently on my Mouth, to signify that I wanted Food. The Hurgo for so they call a great Lord, as I afterwards learnt understood me very well: I observed there was the Flesh of several Animals, but could not distinguish them by the Taste. There were Shoulders, Legs, and Loins shaped like those of Mutton, and very well dressed, but smaller than the Wings of a Lark.
I eat them by two or three at a Mouthful; and took three Loaves at a time, about the bigness of Musket Bullets. They supplyed me as fast as they could, shewing a thousand Marks of Wonder and Astonishment at my Bulk and Appetite. I then made another Sign that I wanted Drink. They brought me a second Hogshead, which I drank in the same Manner, and made Signs for more, but they had none to give me.
But the Remembrance of what I had felt, which probably might not be the worst they could do; and the Promise of Honour I made them, for so I interpreted my submissive Behaviour, soon drove out those Imaginations. After some time, when they observed that I made no more Demands for Meat, there appeared before me a Person of high Rank from his Imperial Majesty. It appeared that he understood me well enough; for he shook his Head by way of Disapprobation, and held his Hand in a Posture to shew that I must be carried as a Prisoner.
However, he made other Signs to let me understand that I should have Meat and Drink enough, and very good Treatment. Whereupon I once more thought of attempting to break my Bonds; but again, when I felt the Smart of their Arrows upon my Face and Hands, which were all in Blisters, and many of the Darts still sticking in them; and observing likewise that the Number of my Enemies encreased; I gave Tokens to let them know that they might do with me what they pleased.
Upon this, the Hurgo and his Train withdrew, with much Civility and chearful Countenances. Soon after I heard a general Shout, with frequent Repetitions of the Words, Peplom Selan, and I felt great Numbers of the People on my Left Side relaxing the Cords to such a Degree, that I was able to turn upon my Right, and to ease my self with making Water; which I very plentifully A Voyage to Lilliput 21 did, to the great Astonishment of the People, who conjecturing by my Motions what I was going to do, immediately opened to the right and left on that Side, to avoid the Torrent which fell with such Noise and Violence from me.
But before this, they had dawbed my Face and both my Hands with a sort of Ointment very pleasant to the Smell, which in a few Minutes removed all the Smart of their Arrows. These Circumstances, added to the Refreshment I had received by their Victuals and Drink, which were very nourishing, disposed me to sleep. These People are most excellent Mathematicians, and arrived to a great Perfection in Mechanicks by the Countenance and Encouragement of the Emperor, who is a renowned Patron of Learning.
Five Hundred Carpenters and Engineers were immediately set at work to prepare the greatest Engine they had. It was a Frame of Wood raised three Inches from the Ground, about seven Foot long and four wide, moving upon twenty-two Wheels.
Eighty Poles, each of one Foot high, were erected for this Purpose, and very strong Cords of the bigness of Packthread were fastened by Hooks to many Bandages, which the Workmen had girt round my Neck, my Hands, my Body, and my Legs.
Nine Hundred of the strongest Men were employed to draw up these Cords by many Pullies fastned on the Poles; and thus in less than three Hours, I was raised and slung into the Engine, and there tyed fast. All this I was told; for while the whole Operation was performing, I lay in a profound Sleep, by the Force of that soporiferous Medicine infused into my Liquor.
Here the Emperor ascended with many principal Lords of his Court, to have an Opportunity of viewing me, as I was told, for I could not see them. It was reckoned that above an hundred thousand Inhabitants came out of the Town upon the same Errand; and in spight of my Guards, I believe there could not be fewer than ten thousand, at several Times, who mounted upon my Body by the Help of Ladders. But a Proclamation was soon issued to forbid it, upon Pain of Death.
When the Workmen found it was impossible for me to break loose, they cut all the Strings that bound me; whereupon I rose up with as melancholly a Disposition as ever I had in my Life. But the Noise and Astonishment of the People at seeing me rise and walk, are not to be expressed. Learned Men appointed to teach the Author their Language.
He gains Favour by his mild Disposition. His Pockets are searched, and his Sword and Pistols taken from him. When I found myself on my Feet, I looked about me, and must confess I never beheld a more entertaining Prospect. The Country round appeared like a continued Garden; and the inclosed Fields, which were generally Forty Foot square, resembled so many Beds of Flowers. I had been for some Hours extremely pressed by the Necessities of Nature; which was no Wonder, it being almost two Days since I had last disburthened myself.
But this was the only Time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an Action; for which I cannot but hope the candid Reader will give some Allowance, after he hath maturely and impartially considered my Case, and the Distress I was in. But that Prince, who is an excellent Horseman, kept his Seat, until his Attendants ran in, and held the Bridle, while his Majesty had Time to dismount. When he alighted, he surveyed me round with great Admiration, but kept beyond the Length of my Chains.
He ordered his Cooks and Butlers, who were already prepared, to give me Victuals and Drink, which they pushed forward in a sort of Vehicles upon Wheels until I could reach them. However, I have had him since many Times in my Hand, and therefore cannot be deceived in the Description. He held his Sword drawn in his Hand, to defend himself, if I should happen to break loose; it was almost three Inches long, the Hilt and Scabbard were Gold enriched with Diamonds.
His Voice was shrill, but very clear and articulate, and I could distinctly hear it when I stood up. His Imperial Majesty spoke often to me, and I returned Answers, but neither of us could understand a Syllable. After about two Hours the Court retired, and I was left with a strong Guard, to prevent the Impertinence, and probably the Malice of the Rabble, who were very impatient to croud about me as near as they durst; and some of them had the Impudence to shoot their Arrows at me as I sate on the Ground by the Door of my House; whereof one very narrowly missed my left Eye.
But the Colonel ordered six of the Ring-leaders to be seized, and thought no Punishment so proper as to deliver them bound into my Hands, which some of his Soldiers accordingly did, pushing them forwards with the But-ends of their Pikes into my Reach: But I soon put them out of Fear; for, looking mildly, and immediately cutting the Strings he was bound with, I set him gently on the Ground, and away he ran.
I treated the rest in the same Manner, taking them one by one out of my Pocket; and I observed, both the Soldiers and People were highly obliged at this Mark of my Clemency, which was represented very much to my Advantage at Court. By the same Computation they provided me with Sheets, Blankets, and A Voyage to Lilliput 27 Coverlets, tolerable enough for one who had been so long enured to Hardships as I.
They apprehended my breaking loose; that my Diet would he very expensive, and might cause a Famine. Sometimes they determined to starve me, or at least to shoot me in the Face and Hands with poisoned Arrows, which would soon dispatch me: But again they considered, that the Stench of so large a Carcase might produce a Plague in the Metropolis, and probably spread through the whole Kingdom.
For the due Payment of which his Majesty gave Assignments upon his Treasury. An Establishment was also made of Six Hundred Persons to be my Domesticks, who had Board-Wages allowed for their Maintenance, and Tents built for them very conveniently on each side of my Door.
All these Orders were duly put in Execution; and in about three Weeks I made a great Progress in Learning their Language; during which Time, the Emperor frequently honoured me with his Visits, and was pleased to assist my Masters in teaching me. However, that I should be used with all Kindness; and he advised me to acquire by my Patience and discreet Behaviour, the Good opinion of himself and his Subjects. This I delivered, part in Words and part in Signs.
That he knew this could not be done without my Consent and Assistance; that he had so good an Opinion of my Generosity and Justice, as to trust their Persons in my Hands: That whatever they took from me should be returned when I left the Country, or paid for at the Rate which I would set upon them.
These Gentlemen, having Pen, Ink, and Paper about them, made an exact Inventory of every thing they saw, and when they had done, desired I would set them down, that they might deliver it to the Emperor. In the left Pocket, we saw a huge Silver Chest, with a Cover of the same Metal, which we, the Searchers, were not able to lift.
In his right Waistcoat-Pocket, we found a prodigious Bundle of thin white Substances, folded one above another, about the Bigness of three Men, tied with a strong Cable, and marked with Black Figures; which we humbly conceive to be Writings, every Letter almost half as large as the Palm of our Hands. In the large Pocket on the right Side of his middle Cover, so I translate the word Ranfu-Lo, by which they meant my Breeches we saw a hollow Pillar of Iron, about the Length of a Man, fastened to a strong Piece of Timber, larger than the Pillar; and upon one side of the Pillar were huge Pieces of Iron sticking out, cut into strange Figures; which we know not what to make of.
In the left Pocket, another Engine of the same kind. Some of the white, which seemed to be Silver, were so large and heavy, that my Comrade and I could hardly lift them. In the left Pocket were two black Pillars irregularly shaped: One of them was covered, and seemed all of a Piece; but at the upper End of the other, there appeared a white round Substance, about twice the bigness of our Heads.
Within each of these was inclosed a prodigious Plate of Steel; which, by our Orders, we obliged him to shew us, because we apprehended they might be dangerous Engines. He took them out of their Cases, and told us, that in his own Country his Practice was to shave his Beard with one of these, and to cut his Meat with the other.
There were two Pockets which we could not enter: We directed him to draw out whatever was at the End of that Chain; which appeared to be a Globe, half Silver, and half of some transparent Metal: And we conjecture it is either some unknown Animal, or the God that he worships: But we are more inclined to the latter Opinion, because he assured us if we understood him right, for he expressed himself very imperfectly that he seldom did any Thing without consulting it.
He called it his Oracle, and said it pointed out the Time for every Action of his Life. From the left Fob he took out a Net almost large enough for a Fisherman, but contrived to open and shut like a Purse, and served him for the same Use: We found therein several massy Pieces of yellow Metal, which if they be real Gold, must be of immense Value. In one of these Cells were several Globes or Balls of a most ponderous Metal, about the Bigness of our Heads, and required a strong Hand to lift them: Clefren Frelok, Marsi Frelock.
When this Inventory was read over to the Emperor, he directed me to deliver up the several Particulars. In the mean time he ordered three thousand of his choicest Troops, who then attended A Voyage to Lilliput 31 him, to surround me at a Distance, with their Bows and Arrows just ready to discharge: He then desired me to draw my Scymiter, which, although it had got some Rust by the Sea-Water, was in most Parts exceeding bright.
His Majesty, who is a most magnanimous Prince, was less daunted than I could expect; he ordered me to return it into the Scabbard, and cast it on the Ground as gently as I could, about six Foot from the End of my Chain. The Astonishment here was much greater than at the Sight of my Scymiter. Hundreds fell down as if they had been struck dead; and even the Emperor, although he stood his Ground, could not recover himself in some time. I delivered up both my Pistols in the same Manner as I had done my Scymiter, and then my Pouch of Powder and Bullets; begging him that the former might be kept from Fire; for it would kindle with the smallest Spark, and blow up his Imperial Palace into the Air.
I likewise delivered up my Watch, which the Emperor was very curious to see; and commanded two of his tallest Yeomen of the Guards to bear it on a Pole upon their Shoulders, as Dray-men in England do a Barrel of Ale. He was amazed at the continual Noise it made, and the Motion of the Minute-hand, which he could easily discern; for their Sight is much more acute than ours: He asked the Opinions of his learned Men about him, which were various and remote, as the Reader may well imagine without my repeating; although indeed I could not very perfectly understand them.
The Diversions of the Court of Lilliput described. The Author hath his Liberty granted him upon certain Conditions. My gentleness and good Behaviour had gained so far on the Emperor and his Court, and indeed upon the Army and People in general, that I began to conceive Hopes of getting my Liberty in a short Time. I took all possible Methods to cultivate this favourable Disposition. The Natives came by Degrees to be less apprehensive of any Danger from me.
I had now made a good Progress in understanding and speaking their Language. This Diversion is only practised by those Persons, who are Candidates for great Employments, and high Favour, at Court. They are trained in this Art from their Youth, and are not always of noble Birth, or liberal Education.
Very often the chief Ministers themselves are commanded to shew their Skill, and to convince the Emperor that they have not lost their Faculty. These Diversions are often attended with fatal Accidents, whereof great Numbers are on Record.
I my self have seen two or three Candidates break a Limb. But the Danger is much greater, when the Ministers themselves are commanded to shew their Dexterity: For, by contending to excel themselves and their Fellows, they strain so far, that there is hardly one of them who hath not received a Fall; and some of them two or three. One is Blue, the other Red, and the third Green.
These Threads are proposed as Prizes, for those Persons whom the Emperor hath a mind to distinguish by a peculiar Mark of his Favour. The Emperor holds a Stick in his Hands, both ends parallel to the Horizon, while the Candidates advancing one by one, sometimes leap over the Stick, sometimes creep under it backwards and forwards several times, according as the Stick is advanced or depressed.
Whoever performs his Part with most Agility, and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping, is rewarded with the Blue-coloured Silk; the Red is given to the next, and the Green to the third, which they all wear girt round about the Middle; and you see few great Persons about this Court, who are not adorned with one of these Girdles. The Horses of the Army, and those of the Royal Stables, having been daily led before me, were no longer shy, but would come up to my very Feet, without starting.
I had the good Fortune to divert the Emperor one Day, after a very extraordinary Manner. I desired he would order several Sticks of two Foot high, and the Thickness of an ordinary Cane, to be brought me; whereupon his Majesty commanded the Master of his Woods to give Directions accordingly; and the next Morning six Wood-men arrived with as many Carriages, drawn by eight Horses to each.
However, I would not trust to the Strength of it any more in such dangerous Enterprizes. I presently knew what they meant; and was glad at Heart to receive this Intelligence. I intreated his Imperial Majesty to give Orders it might be brought to me as soon as possible, describing to him the Use and the Nature of it: And the next Day the Waggoners arrived with it, but not in a very good Condition; they had bored two Holes in the Brim, within an Inch and a half of the Edge, and fastened two Hooks in the Holes; these Hooks were tied by a long Cord to the Harness, and thus my Hat was dragged along for above half an English Mile: But the Ground in that Country being extremely smooth and level, it received less Damage than I expected.
However, he was at length persuaded to comply; but prevailed that the Articles and Conditions upon which I should be set free, and to which I must swear, should be drawn up by himself. These Articles were brought to me by Skyresh Bolgolam in Person, attended by two under Secretaries, and several Persons of Distinction.
Monarch of all Monarchs: His most sublime Majesty proposeth to the Man-Mountain, lately arrived at our Celestial Dominions, the following Articles, which by a solemn Oath he shall be obliged to perform.
I swore and subscribed to these Articles with great Chearfulness and Content, although some of them were not so honourable as I could have wished; which proceeded wholly from the Malice of A Voyage to Lilliput 39 Skyresh Bolgolam the High Admiral: Whereupon my Chains were immediately unlocked, and I was at full Liberty: The Emperor himself, in Person, did me the Honour to be by at the whole Ceremony.
But he commanded me to rise; and after many gracious Expressions, which, to avoid the Censure of Vanity, I shall not repeat; he added, that he hoped I should prove a useful Servant, and well deserve all the Favours he had already conferred upon me, or might do for the future.
I stept over the great Western Gate, and passed very gently, and sideling through the two principal Streets, only in my short Waistcoat, for fear of damaging the Roofs and Eves of the Houses with the Skirts of my Coat. I walked with the utmost Circumspection, to avoid treading on any Stragglers, who might remain in the Streets, although the Orders were very strict, that all People should keep in their Houses, at their own Peril.
The Shops and Markets well provided. But this I was not able to do till three Days after, which I spent in cutting down with my Knife some of the largest Trees in the Royal Park, about an Hundred Yards distant from the City.
By this Contrivance I got into the inmost Court; and lying down upon my Side, I applied my Face to the Windows of the middle Stories, which were left open on Purpose, and discovered the most splendid Apartments that can be imagined. There I saw the Empress, and the young Princes in their several Lodgings, with their chief Attendants about them. Her Imperial Majesty was pleased to smile very graciously upon me, and gave me out of the Window her Hand to kiss.
It is alledged indeed, that the high Heels are most agreeable to our ancient Constitution: Now, in the midst of these intestine Disquiets, we are threatened with an Invasion from the Island of Blefuscu, which is the other great Empire of the Universe, almost as large and powerful as this of his Majesty. It began upon the following Occasion. It is allowed on all Hands, that the primitive Way of breaking Eggs before we eat them, was upon the larger End: Whereupon the Emperor, his Father, published an Edict, commanding all his Subjects, upon great Penalties, to break the smaller End of their Eggs.
The People so highly resented this Law, that our Histories tell us, there have been six Rebellions raised on that Account; wherein one Emperor lost his Life, and another his Crown. Many hundred large Volumes have been published upon this Controversy: This, however, is thought to be a meer Strain upon the Text: However, they have now equipped a numerous Fleet, and are just preparing to make a Descent upon us: I desired the Secretary to present my humble Duty to the Emperor, and to let him know, that I thought it would not become me, who was a Foreigner, to interfere with Parties; but I was ready, with the Hazard of my Life, to defend his Person and State against all Invaders.
A high Title of Honour is conferred upon him. Ambassadors arrive from the Emperor of Blefuscu and sue for Peace. I had not yet seen it, and upon this Notice of an intended Invasion, I avoided appearing on that Side of the Coast, for fear of being discovered by some of the Enemies Ships, who had received no Intelligence of me; all intercourse between the two Empires having been strictly forbidden during the War, upon Pain of Death; and an Embargo laid by our Emperor upon all Vessels whatsoever.
I trebled the Cable to make it stronger; and for the same Reason I twisted three of the Iron Bars together, bending the Extremities into a Hook. The Enemy was so frighted when they saw me, that they leaped out of their Ships, and swam to Shore; where there could not be fewer than thirty thousand Souls. While I was thus employed, the Enemy discharged several Thousand Arrows, many of which stuck in my Hands and Face; and besides the excessive Smart, gave me much Disturbance in my Work.
My greatest Apprehension was for mine Eyes, which I should have infallibly lost, if I had not suddenly thought of an Expedient. I had now fastened all the Hooks, and taking the Knot in my Hand, began to pull; but not a Ship would stir, for they were all too fast held by their Anchors; so that the boldest Part of my Enterprize remained.
They had seen me cut the Cables, and thought my Design was only to let the Ships run a-drift, or fall foul on each other: But when they perceived the whole Fleet moving in Order, and saw me pulling at the End, they set up such a Scream of Grief and Dispair, that it is almost impossible to describe or conceive.
They saw the Ships move forward in a large Half-Moon, but could not discern me, who was up to my Breast in Water. But he was soon eased of his Fears; for the Channel growing shallower every Step I made, I came in a short Time within Hearing; and holding up the End of the Cable by which the Fleet was fastened, I cryed in a loud Voice, Long live the most puissant Emperor of Lilliput!
This great Prince received me at my Landing with all possible Encomiums, and created me a Nardac upon the Spot, which is the highest Title of Honour among them. And I plainly protested, that I would never be an Instrument of bringing a free and brave People into Slavery: This open bold Declaration of mine was so opposite to the Schemes and Politicks of his Imperial Majesty, that he could never forgive me: Of so little Weight are the greatest Services to Princes, when put into the Balance with a Refusal to gratify their Passions.
Yet our Emperor standing upon the Advantage he had got by the Seizure of their Fleet, obliged them to deliver their Credentials, and make their Speech in the Lilliputian Tongue.
And it must be confessed, that from the great Intercourse of Trade and Commerce between both A Voyage to Lilliput 49 Realms; from the continual Reception of Exiles, which is mutual among them; and from the Custom in each Empire to send their young Nobility and richer Gentry to the other, in order to polish themselves, by seeing the World, and understanding Men and Manners; there are few Persons of Distinction, or Merchants, or Seamen, who dwell in the Maritime Parts, but what can hold Conversation in both Tongues; as I found some Weeks after, when I went to pay my Respects to the Emperor of Blefuscu, which in the Midst of great Misfortunes, through the Malice of my Enemies, proved a very happy Adventure to me, as I shall relate in its proper Place.
The Reader may remember, that when I signed those Articles upon which I recovered my Liberty, there were some which I disliked upon Account of their being too servile, neither could any thing but an extreme Necessity have forced me to submit. However, it was not long before I had an Opportunity of doing his Majesty, at least, as I then thought, a most signal Service.
I found they had already applied Ladders to the Walls of the Apartment, and were well provided with Buckets, but the Water was at some Distance. These Buckets were about the Size of a large Thimble, and the poor People supplied me with them as fast as they could; but the Flame was so violent, that they did little Good. By the luckiest Chance in the World, I had not discharged myself of any Part of it.
It was now Day-light, and I returned to my House, without waiting to congratulate with the Emperor; because, although I had done a very eminent Piece of Service, yet I could not tell how his Majesty might resent the Manner by which I had performed it: But I was a little comforted by a Message from his Majesty, that he would give Orders to the Grand Justiciary for passing my Pardon in Form; which, however, I could not obtain.
The Manner of Educating their Children. His Vindication of a great Lady. Although I intend to leave the Description of this Empire to a particular Treatise, yet in the mean time I am content to gratify the curious Reader with some general Ideas. They see with great Exactness, but at no great Distance. Their tallest Trees are about seven Foot high; I mean some of those in the great Royal Park, the Tops whereof I could but just reach with my Fist clinched.
The Learned among them confess the Absurdity of this Doctrine; but the Practice still continues, in Compliance to the Vulgar. It is only to be wished, that they were as well executed.
The Emperor doth also confer on him some publick Mark of his Favour; and Proclamation is made of his Innocence through the whole City. They look upon Fraud as a greater Crime than Theft, and therefore seldom fail to punish it with Death: And since it is necessary that there should be a perpetual Intercourse of buying and selling, and dealing upon Credit; where Fraud is permitted or connived at, or hath no Law to punish it, the honest Dealer is always undone, and the Knave gets the Advantage.
He likewise acquires the Title of Snilpall, or Legal, which is added to his Name, but doth not descend to his Posterity. And these People thought it a prodigious Defect of Policy among us, when I told them that our Laws were enforced only by Penalties, without any Mention of Reward. It is upon this account that the Image of Justice, in their Courts of Judicature, is formed with six Eyes, two before, as many behind, and on each Side one, to signify Circumspection; with a Bag of Gold open in her right Hand, and a Sword sheathed in her left, to shew she is more disposed to reward than to punish.
Upon these, and the like Reasonings, their Opinion is, that Parents are the last of all others to be trusted with the Education of their own Children: The Clothes and Food of the Children are plain and simple. The Nurseries for Children of ordinary Gentlemen, Merchants, Traders, and Handicrafts, are managed proportionably after the same Manner; only those designed for Trades, are put out Apprentices at seven Years old; whereas those of Persons of Quality continue in their Exercises until Fifteen, which answers to One and Twenty with us: For, their Maxim is, that among People of Quality, a Wife should be always a reasonable and agreeable Companion, because she cannot always be young.
Those intended for Apprentices are dismissed at seven Years old, the rest are kept to eleven. The meaner Families who have Children at these Nurseries, are obliged, besides their annual Pension, which is as low as possible, to return to the Steward of the Nursery a small Monthly Share of their Gettings, to be a Portion for the Child; and therefore all Parents are limited in their Expences by the Law.
For the Lilliputians think nothing can be more unjust, than that People, in Subservience to their own Appetites, should bring Children into the World, and leave the Burthen of supporting them on the Publick. As to Persons of Quality, they give Security to appropriate a certain Sum for each Child, suitable to their Condition; and these Funds are always managed with good Husbandry, and the most exact Justice. The Cottagers and Labourers keep their Children at home, their Business being only to till and cultivate the Earth; and therefore their Education is of little Consequence to the Publick; but the Old and Diseased among them are supported by Hospitals: For begging is a Trade unknown in this Empire.
Their Linnen is usually three Inches wide, and three Foot make a Piece. The Sempstresses took my Measure as I lay on the Ground, one standing at my Neck, and another at my Mid-Leg, with a strong Cord extended, that each held by the End, while the third measured the Length of the Cord with a Rule of an Inch long.
Three hundred Taylors were employed in the same Manner to make me Clothes; but they had another Contrivance for taking my Measure. I kneeled down, and they raised a Ladder from the Ground to my Neck; upon this Ladder one of them mounted, and let fall a PlumLine from my Collar to the Floor, which just answered the Length of my Coat; but my Waist and Arms I measured myself. I had three hundred Cooks to dress my Victuals, in little convenient Huts built about my House, where they and their Families lived, and prepared me two Dishes a-piece.
I took up twenty Waiters in my Hand, and placed them on the Table; an hundred more attended below on the Ground, some with Dishes of Meat, and some with Barrels of Wine, and other Liquors, slung on their Shoulders; all which the Waiters above drew up as I wanted, in a very ingenious Manner, by certain Cords, as we draw the Bucket up a Well in Europe.
My Servants were astonished to see me eat it Bones and all, as in our Country we do the Leg of a Lark. Of their smaller Fowl I could take up twenty or thirty at the End of my Knife. They came accordingly, and I placed them upon Chairs of State on my Table, just over against me, with their Guards about them.
This I solemnly declare to be a most infamous Falshood, without any Grounds, farther than that her Grace was pleased to treat me with all innocent Marks of Freedom and Friendship. I own she came often to my House, but always publickly, nor ever without three more in the Coach, who were usually her Sister, and young Daughter, and some particular Acquaintance; but this was common to many other Ladies of the Court.
And I still appeal to my Servants round, whether they at any Time saw a Coach at my Door without knowing what Persons were in it. I have passed many an Afternoon very agreeably in these Conversations: But I defy the Treasurer, or his two Informers. I should not have dwelt so long upon this Particular, if it had not been a Point wherein the Reputation of a great Lady is so nearly concerned; to say nothing of my own; although I had the Honour to be a Nardac, which the Treasurer himself is not; for all the World knows he is only a Clumglum, a Title inferior by one Degree, as that of a Marquess is to a Duke in England; yet I allow he preceded me in right of his Post.
These false Informations, which I afterwards came to the Knowledge of, by an Accident not proper to mention, made the Treasurer shew his Lady for some Time an ill Countenance, and me a worse: For although he were at last undeceived and reconciled to her, yet I lost all Credit with him; and found my Interest decline very fast with the Emperor himself, who was indeed too much governed by that Favourite. His Reception there. Before I proceed to give an Account of my leaving this Kingdom, it may be proper to inform the Reader of a private Intrigue which had been for two Months forming against me.
When I was just preparing to pay my Attendance on the Emperor of Blefuscu; a considerable Person at Court to whom I had been very serviceable at a time when he lay under the highest Displeasure of his Imperial Majesty came to my House very privately at Night in a close Chair, and without sending his Name, desired Admittance: The Chair-men were dismissed; I put the Chair, with his Lordship in it, into my Coat-Pocket; and giving Orders to a trusty Servant to say I was indisposed and gone to sleep, I fastened the Door of my House, placed the Chair on the Table, according to my usual Custom, and sat down by it.
You are to know, said he, that several Committees of Council have been lately called in the most private Manner on your Account: And it is but two Days since his Majesty came to a full Resolution.
This Preface made me so impatient, being conscious of my own Merits and Innocence, that I was going to interrupt; when he intreated me to be silent; and thus proceeded. That the said Quinbus Flestrin having brought the Imperial Fleet of Blefuscu into the Royal Port, and being afterwards commanded by his Imperial Majesty to seize all the other Ships of the said Empire of Blefuscu, and reduce that Empire to a Province, to be governed by a Vice-Roy from hence; and to destroy and put to death not only all the Big-Endian Exiles, but likewise all the People of that Empire, who would not immediately forsake the Big-Endian Heresy: He the said Flestrin did, like a false Traitor, aid, abet, comfort, and divert the said Embassadors; although he knew them to be Servants to a Prince who was lately an open Enemy to his Imperial Majesty, and in open War against his said Majesty.
That the said Quinbus Flestrin, contrary to the Duty of a faithful Subject, is now preparing to make a Voyage to the Court and Empire of Blefuscu, for which he hath received only verbal Licence from his Imperial Majesty; and under Colour of the said Licence, doth falsely and traitorously intend to take the said Voyage, and thereby to aid, comfort, and abet the Emperor of Blefuscu, so late an Enemy, and in open War with his Imperial Majesty aforesaid.
There are some other Articles, but these are the most important, of which I have read you an Abstract. In the several Debates upon this Impeachment, it must be confessed that his Majesty gave many Marks of his great Lenity; often urging the Services you had done him, and endeavouring to extenuate your Crimes. The Treasurer and Admiral insisted that you should be put to the most painful and ignominious Death, by setting Fire on your House at Night; and the General was to attend with Twenty Thousand Men armed with poisoned Arrows, to shoot you on the Face and Hands.
The General came into the same Opinion; so that for a long time there was a Majority against you. He allowed your Crimes to be great; but that still there was room for Mercy, the most commendable Virtue in a Prince, and for which his Majesty was so justly celebrated. He said, the Friendship between you and him was so well known to the World, that perhaps the most honourable Board might think him partial: Bolgolam, the Admiral, could not preserve his Temper; but rising up in Fury, said, he wondered how the Secretary durst presume to give his Opinion for preserving the Life of a Traytor: That he had good Reasons to think you were a Big-Endian in your Heart; and as Treason begins in the Heart before it appears in Overt-Acts; so he accused you as a Traytor on that Account, and therefore insisted you should be put to death.
It was strictly enjoined, that the Project of starving you by Degrees should be kept a Secret; but the Sentence of putting out your Eyes was entered on the Books; none dissenting except Bolgolam the Admiral, who being a Creature of the Empress, was perpetually instigated by her Majesty to insist upon your Death; she having born perpetual Malice against you, on Account of that infamous and illegal Method you took to extinguish the Fire in her Apartment.
I leave to your Prudence what Measures you will take; and to avoid Suspicion, I must immediately return in as private a Manner as I came. Yet, as to myself, I must confess, having never been designed for a Courtier, either by my Birth or Education, I was so ill a Judge of Things, that I could not discover the Lenity and Favour of this Sentence; but conceived it perhaps erroneously rather to be rigorous than gentle.
I sometimes thought of standing my Tryal; for although I could not deny the Facts alledged in the several Articles, yet I hoped they would admit of some Extenuations. Because if I had then known the Nature of Princes and Ministers, which I have since observed in many other Courts, and their Methods of treating Criminals less obnoxious than myself; I should with great Alacrity and Readiness have submitted to so easy a Punishment.
I seized a large Man of War, tied a Cable to the Prow, and lifting up the Anchors, I stript myself, put my Cloaths together with my Coverlet, which I carryed under my Arm into the Vessel; and drawing it after me, between wading and swimming, arrived at the Royal Port of Blefuscu, where the People had long expected me: Wherein, however, it soon appeared I was deceived. When the Ships came up, I stript myself, and waded till I came within an Hundred Yards of the Boat; after which I was forced to swim till I got up to it.
In this Necessity, I was forced to swim behind, and push the Boat forwards as often as I could, with one of my Hands; and the Tide favouring me, I advanced so far, that I could just hold up my Chin and feel the Ground. I rested two or three Minutes, and then gave the Boat another Shove, and so on till the Sea was no higher than my Arm-pits.
I did very much wonder, in all this Time, not to have heard of any Express relating to me from our Emperor to the Court of Blefuscu. But I was afterwards given privately to understand, that his Imperial Majesty, never imagining I had the least Notice of his Designs, believed I was only gone to Blefuscu in Performance of my Promise, according to the Licence he had given me, which was well known at our Court; and would return in a few Days when that Ceremony was ended.
This Envoy had Instructions to represent to the Monarch of Blefuscu, the great Lenity of his Master, who was content to punish me no further than with the Loss of mine Eyes: The Envoy further added; that in order to maintain the Peace and Amity between both Empires, his Master expected, that his Brother of Blefuscu would give Orders to have me sent back to Lilliput, bound Hand and Foot, to be punished as a Traitor.
The Emperor of Blefuscu having taken three Days to consult, returned an Answer consisting of many Civilities and Excuses. These Considerations moved me to hasten my Departure somewhat sooner than I intended; to which the Court, impatient to have me gone, very readily contributed.
Five hundred Workmen were employed to make two Sails to my Boat, according to my Directions, by quilting thirteen fold of their strongest Linnen together.
I was at the Pains of making Ropes and Cables, by twisting ten, twenty or thirty of the thickest and strongest of theirs. I had the Tallow of three hundred Cows for greasing my Boat, and other Uses.
In about a Month, when all was prepared. The Emperor and Royal Family came out of the Palace: I lay down on my Face to kiss his Hand, which he very graciously gave me; so did the Empress, and young Princes of the Blood.
The Ceremonies at my Departure were too many to trouble the Reader with at this time. I took with me six Cows and two Bulls alive, with as many Yews and Rams, intending to carry them into my own Country, and propagate the Breed. I would gladly have taken a Dozen of the Natives; but this was a thing the Emperor would by no Means permit; and besides a diligent Search into my Pockets, his Majesty engaged my Honour not to carry away any of his Subjects, although with their own Consent and Desire.
I advanced forward, and cast Anchor on the Lee-side of the Island, which seemed to be uninhabited. I then took some Refreshment, and went to my Rest. I hailed her, but could get no Answer; yet I found I gained upon her, for the Wind slackened.
It is not easy to express the joy I was in upon the unexpected Hope of once more seeing my beloved Country, and the dear Pledges I had left in it. This Gentleman treated me with Kindness, and desired I would let him know what Place I came from last, and whither I was bound; which I did in few Words; but he thought I was raving, and that the Dangers I underwent had disturbed my Head; whereupon I took my black Cattle and Sheep out of my Pocket, which, after great Astonishment, clearly convinced him of my Veracity.
I shall not trouble the Reader with a particular Account of this Voyage, which was very prosperous for the most Part. I had only one Misfortune, that the Rats on board carried away one of my Sheep; I found her Bones in a Hole, picked clean from the Flesh. The rest of my Cattle I got safe on Shore, and set them a grazing in a Bowling-Green at Greenwich, where the Fineness of the Grass made them feed very heartily, although I had always feared the contrary: Neither could I possibly have preserved them in so long a Voyage, if the Captain had not allowed me some of his best Bisket, which rubbed to Powder, and mingled with Water, was their constant Food.
So that I was not in any Danger of leaving my Family upon the Parish. But my Account of this Voyage must be referred to the second part of my Travels. The End of the First Part. His Reception there, with several Accidents that happened there. A Description of the Inhabitants. But he being a Man well experienced in the Navigation of those Seas, bid us all prepare against a Storm, which accordingly happened the Day following: When the Storm was over, we set Fore-sail and Main-sail, and brought the Ship to.
Our Provisions held out well, our Ship was staunch, and our Crew all in good Health; but we lay in the utmost Distress for Water. We thought it best to hold on the same Course rather than turn more Northerly, which might have brought us to the North-west Parts of the great Tartary, and into the frozen Sea.
I desired his leave to go with them, that I might see the Country, and make what Discoveries I could. I now began to be weary, and seeing nothing to entertain my Curiosity, I returned A Voyage to Brobdingnag 77 gently down towards the Creek; and the Sea being full in my View, I saw our Men already got into the Boat, and rowing for Life to the Ship. He waded not much deeper than his Knees, and took prodigious strides: But our Men had the start of him half a League, and the Sea thereabouts being full of sharp pointed Rocks, the Monster was not able to overtake the Boat.
I fell into a high Road, for so I took it to be, although it served to the Inhabitants only as a foot Path through a Field of Barley. Here I walked on for sometime, but could see little on either Side, it being now near Harvest, and the Corn rising at least forty Foot. I was an Hour walking to the end of this Field, which was fenced in with a Hedge of at least one hundred and twenty Foot high, and the Trees so lofty that I could make no Computation of their Altitude.
There was a Stile to pass from this Field into the next: