HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Class.: I MBA being prepared by me and it meets the Computer Applications In Human Resource Management. GLOBAL HR PRACTICES. UNIT – I. CHAPTER – I. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS & GLOBALISATION. INTRODUCTION. Globalisation for better or worse has. MBA – II Semester. Paper Code: MBAC PAPER – VIII. Human Resources Management. Objectives ӹ To understand and appreciate the.
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Concept based notes. Human Resource Management. MBA (II SEM). Richa Khunteta. Surbhi Mathur. Dept of MBA. Biyani Institute of Science & Management, . human resource management semester notes week what is hrm? the focus of hrm is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. it involves. Download MBA Human Resource Management complete notes pdf. Here We Provide the Links to Download MBA 2nd sem HRM Study.
Based on the manpower demand and supply forecasts made. HRP helps prevent shortages of labor caused by attritions. Medical Tests. Sensitivity Trainings: Documentary Directional.
For traditional organizations past oriented analysis would be required. However more future oriented analysis may be derived based on past data.
For job analysis number of human and non-human sources is available besides jobholder himself. Following can be sources of data available for job analysis.
N o n-H um a n So urc es H um a n So ur c es Existing job descriptions and Job Analysis specifications Job Incumbents Equipment maintenance records Supervisors Equipment design blueprints Job Experts Architectural blueprints of work area Films of employee working Training manuals and materials Magazines, newspapers, literatures Co llec t ing I nfor m a t io n: Information collection is done on the basis of following 3 parameters. Chec klist s: It is more similar to questionnaire but the response sheet contains fewer subjective judgments and tends to be either yes or no variety.
Movements Machines. It is useful in large number of staffs and less time consuming. Preparation of checklist is a challenging job itself.
The PAQ contains job elements on which job is created depending on the degree to which an element is present. However this method lacks accuracy. PAQ is a highly specialized instrument for analyzing any job in terms of employee activities. Experience Methods of Data Collection: Once the job information is collected it needs to be processed. Specifically job related data would be useful to prepare job description and specifications. Services Job Context Physical. Job Analyst carefully observes the jobholder and records the information in terms of what.
It can be Structured or Unstructured Interview. Tec hnic a l Co nfer enc e: Here a conference of supervisors is used. Plus there is also a problem of bias. Again this is also a time consuming method in case of large organizations.
If done faithfully this technique is accurate and eliminates errors caused by memory lapses etc. However the accuracy of information leaves much to be desired. The questionnaire may contain job title. It is a simple and accurate method.
The analysts must be fully trained observers. These elements are grouped together into 6 categories. Quest io nna ir es: A standard questionnaire is given to jobholder about his job.
In this method jobholder is required to note down their activities day by day in their diary. The analysts initiate the discussions providing job details. Equipments and Work Aids List. Work Activities Tasks details Interface with other jobs and equipments Procedures. Work schedule Personal Requirement Skills. In this analyst interviews the jobholders. Highly structured questionnaire. It is a wo r ker or ie nte d jo b analyt ical appr o ach.
However PAQ needs to be completed by trained job analysts only rather than incumbents. This analysis provides a comparison of a specific job with other job classifications. Proper Job Title 3. State job requirements 7. Easily understandable 6. Job description is a broad statement of purpose. Up to date 2. It defines continuing work assignment and a scope of responsibility that are sufficiently different from those of the other jobs to warrant a specific title.
Job Identification 2. Job Summary 3. Clear duties and responsibilities 5.
Work conditions 7. Work hazards 8. Supervision specification 5. Indicates opportunities for career development Comprehensive Job Summary 4. Contents of Job Description 1. Specify reporting relationships 8. Job Duties and Responsibilities 4. Showcase degrees of difficulties 9. Demographic features Further the job specifications can be divided into three broad categories Essential Attributes Desirable Attributes Contra-Indicators — indicators hampering the success of job Job specifications seeks to indicate what kind of persons may be expected to most closely approximate the role requirements and thus it is basically concerned with matters of selection.
These specifications are needed to do job satisfactorily. Personal characteristics 4. Contents of Job Specifications 1. Responsibilities 5. Physical Characteristics 2. Psychological characteristics 3. Different factors are selected for different jobs with accompanying differences in degrees and points. Who should evaluate job?
Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation. Jobs are ranked on the basis of its title or contents. This establishes Job Hierarchies. A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee. Methods of evaluation to be used 2. Each of these factors are then ranked with other jobs. Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification only.
Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content. It is based on the job as a whole and the differentiation is made The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values. Establishing wage and salary differentials.
Job is not broken down into factors etc. Process of Job Evaluation: How much time involved? Job evaluation is a process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization. Employee Classification 4. The important factors are selected which can be assumed to be common to all jobs. Wage Survey 3. What are the criteria for evaluation? Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job. Remuneration also involves fringe benefits.
Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials. What training do the evaluators need? Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy. Defining objectives of job evaluation a. In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills.
Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: Workers become more competent in several jobs. On the positive side. Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. Further training costs also rise and it can To be more specific. Here jobs remain unchanged. Specification of Individual Tasks 2. When incumbents become bore of routine jobs. Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3. On the negative side. Job is simplified or specialized. Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task.
Definit io n 1: The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation.
Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization. As per the two-factor motivation theory. Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety. In other words. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. Full Ability Utilization 4. J ob Enla r gem ent: It means expanding the number of tasks. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice.
It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc. Benefits of Job Enlargement: Benefit s o f J ob enr ic hm ent 1. There is only horizontal expansion. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system. Redesigning existing work system required 3.
Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. High Training Costs 2. Unions demand pay—hike 6. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Task Variety 2. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation.
The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor.
Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Productivity may not increase necessarily 4. It should be Jobs may still remain boring and routine J ob Enr ic hm ent: An enriched job will have more responsibility. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Worker Paced Control 5.
Meaningful Work Modules 3. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power. Workload increases 5.
Unions resistance. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility. Empowerment results in self-directed work teams.
Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision. It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach.
Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility. Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design.
A self —directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment. Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs. Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do. It also improves workers self image. Considering above examples. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating.
All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated. Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more selfevaluation. Job design affects employee productivity. Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts. Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition.
Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators. Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks.
Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost. Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation. It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job. Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization.
How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one.
An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities. In short job satisfaction is a general attitude. Components of Job Satisfaction Personal factors: Fringe benefits.
Advancement opportunities and Working conditions. The attitudes related to job may be wages. Occupational status. Size of plant Management controlled factors: Job inherent factors: Type of work. Education and Personality. Measuring and quantifying activities "A measurement technique for the quantitative analysis of non-repetitive or irregularly occurring activity. When we are not adding value to the product.
Many studies make use of off-shift technicians or operators to take the observations. When enough samples are taken. Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine. Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle.
Advantages of Work Sampling It is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations. When properly used. How are our inter-dependent systems performing? Where should we focus our continuous improvement activities? We might then conclude. A brief example might be that 77 of observations showed a machine to be running.
The ratio of the number of observations of a given state of the activity to the total number of observations taken will approximate the percentage of time that the activity is in that given state. Note that random observations are very critical for a work sampling study. Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly 5. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications.
Identify and prepare potential job applicants 7. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost 3. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs. The result is a pool of application from which new employees are selected. Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over-qualified applications.
Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities 2. The Process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants. Meet legal and social obligations 6. Candidates already oriented towards 2.
Politics play greater roles 4. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. It abets raiding organization 3.
Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4. Old concept of doing things 2. Less Costly 1. Candidates current work may be 3. Besides this there are some other tests also like Interest Tests activity preferences. The basic objective is to reject misfits. Pr elim ina r y I nt er view: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms.
Interviews can be One-to-One. Panel Interview. Scope for resentment. Graphology Test Handwriting. Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews. Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Selection is concerned with picking up the right candidates from a pool of applicants.
Chances of creeping in false positive and false negative errors 4. On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise.
Benefits of new skills and talents 2. There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. Selection is the process of picking up individuals out of the pool of job applicants with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization.
The final decision has to be made out of applicants who Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is denied 2. Stress Interviews. Medical Tests. Selec t io n Test s: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests. A formal definition of Selection is as under Definit io n o f Selec t io n: Reference checks can be through formal letters.
Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selec t io n Dec isio n: After obtaining all the information. Behavioral Interviews. Selection 1. Psychometric Tests etc. Benefits of new experiences 3. Selection on the other hand is negative in its application in as much as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates.
Em plo ym ent Int er view: The next step in selection is employment interview. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it. Personality Tests. These tests can be Aptitude Tests.
Recruitment 1. Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates. Compliance with reservation policy becomes easy 4. Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs. It is costly method 3. Trained the selectors 3. Determine aids to be used for selection process 4. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people. Relia bilit y: A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision.
After the selection decision is made. Involve line managers at all stages 6. After the job offer is made and candidates accept the offer. Pr essur e: Pressure brought on selectors by politicians. Va lidit y: A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not.
J ob Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination. Here is a need to prepare a formal contract of employment. Detailed job descriptions and job specifications prepared in advance and endorsed by personnel and line management 2. Attempt to validate the procedure 7. However it does not predict the job success accurately. It is made by way of letter of appointment.
The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. Per c ept io n: We all perceive the world differently.
Fa ir ness: Barriers of fairness includes discrimination against religion. Check competence of recruitment consultants before retention 5. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature. The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment.
Development is not primarily skills oriented. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well understood by HR Specialists. No training program is complete without an element of education. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on part time basis. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes.
Any such program has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to discuss.
Development and Education. Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. Anyways education is common to all employees. The education is more important for managers and executives rather than low cadre workers. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education.
Development provides knowledge about business environment. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives. CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Making them Self-starters Committed Motivated Result oriented Sensitive to environment Understand use of power Creating self awareness Develop inspiring leadership styles Instill zest for excellence Teach them about effective communication To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization Difference between Training and Development Training Training is skills focused Training is presumed to have a formal education Training needs depend upon lack or deficiency in skills Trainings are generally need based Training is a narrower concept focused on job related skills Training may not include development Training is aimed at improving related efficiency and performance What are the Training Inputs?
Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisors Trainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done Methods of Training On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working.
Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience Following are the on-the-job methods. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings a. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities.
Following are the off-the-job methods. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Advantage — employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. No flexibility for different audience. Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Trainers are usually experienced enough to train It is systematically organized Efficiently created programs may add lot of value Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: It is not directly in the context of job It is often formal It is not based on experience It is least expensive Trainees may not be highly motivated It is more artificial in nature Off the Job Training Methods 1.
Disadvantages — One-way communication. It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards On the Job Training Methods 1.
Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job. It is not learning by practice.
Internships and Assistantships: The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations, and statistics and many.
Human resources management HRM is a management function concerned with hiring, motivating and maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. Human resource management is designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals. Evolution of human resource management — The importance of the human factor — Challenges — Inclusive growth and affirmative action -Role of human resource manager — Human resource policies — Computer applications in human resource management — Human resource accounting and audit.
Importance of Human Resource Planning — Forecasting human resource requirement —matching supply and demand — Internal and External sources. Recruitment — Selection — induction — Socialization benefits. Types of training methods —purpose- benefits- resistance. Executive development programmes — Common practices — Benefits — Self-development — Knowledge management. Method of performance evaluation — Feedback — Industry practices.
Promotion, Demotion, Transfer and Separation — Implication of job change. Strategy Implementation: Implement the Strategies 4.
Ensure the organizational objectives are met. HRM is in a unique position to supply competitive intelligence that may be useful in strategy formulation. Details regarding advanced incentive plans used by competitors, opinion survey data from employees, elicit information about customer complaints, information about.
When a team has been working on a problem. Adopt proactive HRD measures. Activities directed to competence building: HRD activities need to be geared up and directed at improving personal competence and productive potentialities of manpower resources.
Change Management: Manage change properly and become an effective change agent rather than being a victim of change itself.
Teams can bring to bear a wider range of skills and experience to solve a problem. Organizing and enhancing capacities to produce. It is important to remember that linking strategy and HRM effectively requires more than selection from a series of practice choices. Human resource development is a process to help people to acquire competencies and to increase their knowledge.
Using HRD strategies maximizations of efficiency and productivity could be achieved through qualitative growth of people with capabilities and potentialities to grow and develop. Definition 2: Bring possibility of performance and growth HRD means to bring about the possibility of performance improvement and individual growth.
In many situations teams can achieve more than individuals working on their own. HRD is always a function of proper utilization of creative opportunities and available environment through acquisition of knowledge.
Teams also produce better quality decisions. Unique HR capabilities serve as a driving force in strategy formulation. A team is defined as a reasonably small group of people. Teams can be very effective. A proactive HRD strategy can implement activities that are geared up and directed at improving personal competence and productive potentialities of human resources.
Role in Strategy Implementation: HRM supplies the company with a competent and willing workforce for executing strategies. HRD is a process of organizing and enhancing the physical. Maximize productivity and efficiency: Through qualitative growth of people with capabilities and potentialities to grow and develop thrive to maximize productivity and efficiency of the organization.
Long-term growth can also be planned by creating highly inspired groups of employees with high aspirations to diversify around core competencies and to build new organizational responses for coping with change. One should achieve a balance of 7. If the team members are pleased with their efforts. The team must work hard. What then are the factors that contribute towards an effective team? There are three areas of group behavior that must be addressed for teams to be effective.
Rewards are important. The effort that the team puts in to get the job done is dependent on whether the nature of the task motivates the members of the team and whether the goals are challenging. For teams who are trying to improve a process that cuts across department boundaries. One should avoid the destructive effect of trying to single out individuals from the group. Goals need to be challenging.
Providing a challenging job is the most important motivator to sustain group effort. This depends on developing a plan of attack and using appropriate techniques for analysis. They must have the opportunity to buy in and commit to achieving the goals.
It should affect others in the organization or impact on the external customer. It is also a question of carefully reviewing the job to determine what relevant skills is required and selecting staff so that the team has the right balance.
These skills include technical. It needs to be a whole piece of work with a clear and visible outcome so that people can feel a sense of ownership. Producing a quality output is not enough to judge the effectiveness of the team.
The team needs challenging goals. The task itself should be motivating. They also need to be measurable so that progress towards achieving them can be monitored and results confirmed. Providing relevant training then makes up any shortfall in skills. Meaningful feedback should be provided on the how well the team is performing. The team should have the right mix of skills. They should decide how the work is to be done. The following factors contribute to hard work.
The team must have the right mix of skills to bring to the table. The team must be able to develop appropriate approaches to problem solving. It should not be torn apart by dissension. When the group is new. Goals serve to focus the team's effort. One is the problem solving team. From the perspective of organisational improvement we are interested in three types of teams. To ensure that this is done.
This will ensure that the work is done well and done on time. The best way to do this is to have the problem solving team do the implementation. Over a period of time staff will become experienced in problem solving techniques and the organization will develop a repertoire of skills among the staff so this training will not always be necessary. This is not as obvious as it may sound.
Most people do not listen well. The team must develop effective problem solving strategies. Problem solving teams are set up with a clearly defined task to investigate a problem and recommend a solution. Many people do not speak to the point but ramble on or go off at a tangent.
Listening is much more than being quiet when some else is talking. The key to getting started is to ensure that the team is committed to achieving an agreed set of goals. It must then develop a problem-solving plan. Agree on a code of conduct. Special teams have special issues. Their skills and knowledge are not utilized and they waste their time.
It will not just happen. They have an ongoing function. This means avoiding having a preponderance of skills and experience in one specialized area. Sheer numbers may weigh the solution towards the dominant group. The implementers must be brought into the solution stage so that they develop a sense of ownership towards the solution and buy into it. Most people do not take criticism well and tend to be defensive about their own opinions. Sometimes the same team will go on to implement the solution.
Active listening is required. When a business is making its first venture into team based work. Whatever approach is used one should remember that the idea is to implement a solution and not to produce a report. The team needs to agree on a set of rules to ensure that their efforts are purposeful and that all members contribute to the work. When their task is completed the team is disbanded and members go back to their normal organisational duties.
One is getting started and the other is handing over the recommendations for implementation. They will need to develop broader skills for the new job. HRP helps prevent shortages of labor caused by attritions. To avoid the situations of surplus or deficiency of manpower in future. With growing trends towards global operations. They need to focus on the critical factors in their process and to control these factors to ensure a quality product. For this purpose a proper forecasting of futures business needs helps you to ascertain our future manpower needs.
Further HRP is also an answer to the problems of succession planning. In these situations only accurate human resource planning can help to meet the resource requirements.
Right numbers. HRP plays an important role to predict the right size of manpower in the organization. Creating highly talented personnel: Since jobs are becoming highly intellectual and incumbents getting vastly professionalized.
Further technology changes would further upgrade or degrade jobs and create manpower shortages. Cope with change: HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces. Protection of weaker sections: This is also because the process of meeting staffing needs from foreign countries grows in a complex manner.
From this angle. Such changes generate changes in job content. International strategies: International expansion strategies largely depend upon effective HRP. Foundation of personnel functions: HRP provides essential information for designing and implementing personnel functions such as recruitment. The growing resistance towards change and move. Management can anticipate imbalances before they become unmanageable and expensive.
Here HRP becomes very important and needs the resources to be planned carefully. Other benefits: Following are the other benefits of HRP. Better opportunities exists to include women and minorities in future growth plans 5.
Upper management has a better view of HR dimensions of business 2. More time is provided to locate talent 4. It is important that employees are used effectively throughout their careers. Better planning of assignments to develop managers 6. Increasing investments in HR: Another importance is the investment that an organization makes in human capital.
Major and successful demands on local labor markets can be made. HRP needs to sub-serve the overall objectives by ensuring availability and utilization of human resources. Work Study Techniques: It is possible when work measurement to calculate the length of operations and the amount of manpower required. Delphi Techniques: This technique solicits estimates from a group of experts. This can be bottom-up or top-down approach and judgments can be reviewed across departments.
The basis should be annual budget and long term corporate plans Demand forecasting should be based on following factors. The starting point can be production budget. Specific policies need to be formulated to address the following decisions. Internal Factors: In this techniques managers across all the levels decide the forecast on their own judgment.
Ration-Trend Analysis: This technique involves studying past ratios. Establish categories. Of separations p. Here demand is a function of replacing those who make a transition.
Determine the time required. Count annual movements. Reasons for Manpower Supply Forecasting: Existing Human Resources: HR Audits facilitate analysis of existing employees with skills and abilities. Manpower Supply Forecasting: Flow Models: This technique involves the flow of following components. Estimate probable transitions.
The existing employees can be categorized as skills inventories non-managers and managerial inventories managers Skill inventory would include the following. Most successful programs seem to include top managements involvement and commitment.
The focus is not more on career development but it is more A typical succession planning involves following activities. The HR Plan should include budgets. For these identifying and managing redundancies is very essential. The programs also cover the identification of resource personnel for conducting development program.
Finally the selected employees also need to be placed on proper jobs. Downsizing plans: Where there is surplus workforce trimming of labor force will be necessary. Retention Plan: Retention plans cover actions.
Based on the manpower demand and supply forecasts made. Retraining and Redeployment. Employees are hired against the job vacancies. Here some companies recruit employees for specific jobs while others recruit fresh trainees in large number and train them for future manpower needs.
Managerial Succession Planning. These plans may simply be reports on the numbers employed. HR Plan Implementation: Training and Development: The training and development program is charted out to cover the number of trainees. For this internal and external sources of manpower are utilized.
New skills are to be imparted to existing staff when technology changes or product line discontinued. Employees need to be redeployed to other departments where they could be gainfully employed. A formal selection board is established to interview and select the best of the candidates for the required vacancies.
Using compensation plans. Methods of managerial succession plans may vary. Objectives of Career Planning 1. It focuses on the basis of performance. For example in succession planning the key concern can be who will be next CEO or what will happen if the Marketing Manager retires in coming March.
Allow individual to achieve personal and work related goals. Further the organization is concerned about if it should employ more graduates. Reduce personal turnover expenses 4.
Career planning provides picture of succession plan for employees as per organizational needs. Ensure organizational effectiveness 6. Build commitment in the individual 2. Importance of Career Planning Career planning is important because it helps the individual to explore. In career planning. Career as a concept means a lifelong sequences of professional. Succession planning focuses on identification of vacancies and locating the probable successor.
It is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during his life. Lessen employee obsolescence 5. Career may also be defined as amalgamation of changes in values.
Process of Collecting Information Develop long-range perspective 3. Steps of Job Analysis 1. Each job has certain ability requirements as well as certain rewards associated with it. Training and development programs can be designed depending upon job requirement and analysis. It is a basic technical procedure that is used to define duties and responsibilities and accountabilities of the job. Strategic Choices Process 2: Collecting Information Process 3: Processing Information Job Analysis.
Job Analysis is a process used to identify these requirements. Job related information in the form of Job Analysis serves this purpose or use. The process of job analysis results into two sets of data.
It helps HR to locate places to obtain employees. Also selecting a good candidate also requires detailed job information. Job analysis also helps in determining wage and salary for all jobs. It also helps in better continuity and planning in staffing in the organization.
Job analysis is vital for building personnel information systems and processes for improving administrative efficiency and providing decision support. The numbers and types of personnel are determined by the jobs.
Checking the job information for accuracy 3. Selection of trainees is also facilitated by job analysis. Writing job description based on information collected to determine the skills. Performance appraisal. Recruitment precedes job analysis. This is possible with the help of job description and specifications. Job Analysis helps to uncover hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors so that corrective measures can be taken to minimize and avoid possibility of human injury.
Job evaluation means determination of relative worth of each job for the purpose of establishing wage and salary credentials. Collecting and recording job information 2.
Level of details of job analysis: The nature of jobs being analyzed determines the level of details in job analysis. Timing and frequency of Job Analysis: When do you do Job Analysis? However more future oriented analysis may be derived based on past data. Sources of Job Data: For job analysis number of human and non-human sources is available besides jobholder himself.
For traditional organizations past oriented analysis would be required. Experience Methods of Data Collection: If the purpose were for training programs or assessing the worth of job. Hence extent of involvement depends on the needs of the organization and employee. Following can be sources of data available for job analysis. Past-oriented and future-oriented Job Analysis: For rapidly changing organization more future oriented approach would be desired. Equipments and Work Aids List.
If the purpose is just clarification the details required would be less. Process 4: Job Description Process 5: Job Specification Strategic Choices: Extent of employee involvement is a debatable point. Besides it may also lead to inaccurate information. Too less involvement leads to suspicion about the motives behind the job.
Too much involvement may result in bias in favor of a job in terms of inflating duties and responsibilities. It is more similar to questionnaire but the response sheet contains fewer subjective judgments and tends to be either yes or no variety. I — Importance of Job 3. Specifically job related data would be useful to prepare job description and specifications. It can be Structured or Unstructured Interview. Quantitative Methods of Job Data Collection: Plus there is also a problem of bias.
A standard questionnaire is given to jobholder about his job. Technical Conference: Here a conference of supervisors is used. Preparation of checklist is a challenging job itself. P — Possibility of Occurrence of Job 5. If done faithfully this technique is accurate and eliminates errors caused by memory lapses etc. The questionnaire may contain job title. Diary Methods: In this method jobholder is required to note down their activities day by day in their diary.
However the accuracy of information leaves much to be desired. The PAQ contains job elements on which job is created depending on the degree to which an element is present.
A — Applicability of Job 6. In this analyst interviews the jobholders. The analysts must be fully trained observers. However this method lacks accuracy. Again this is also a time consuming method in case of large organizations. Who to Collect Data? However PAQ needs to be completed by trained job analysts only rather than incumbents. It is useful in large number of staffs and less time consuming.
It is a simple and accurate method. Functional Job Analysis: This analysis provides a comparison of a specific job with other job classifications.
The analysts initiate the discussions providing job details. Job Analyst carefully observes the jobholder and records the information in terms of what. These elements are grouped together into 6 categories. T — Time 4. It is a worker oriented job analytical approach.
Contents of Job Description 1. Comprehensive Job Summary 4. Job Identification 2. Proper Job Title 3. Work conditions 7. Showcase degrees of difficulties 9. Easily understandable 6. Job Duties and Responsibilities 4. Up to date 2. Job Summary 3. Work hazards 8. Indicates opportunities for career development State job requirements 7. Job specifications seeks to indicate what kind of persons may be expected to most closely approximate the role requirements and thus it is basically concerned with matters of selection.
Job description is a broad statement of purpose. Supervision specification 5. These specifications are needed to do job satisfactorily. Clear duties and responsibilities 5. Specify reporting relationships 8. It defines continuing work assignment and a scope of responsibility that are sufficiently different from those of the other jobs to warrant a specific title. How much time involved? Personal characteristics 4.
Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content. Each of these factors are then ranked with other jobs. Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Remuneration also involves fringe benefits. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy. What training do the evaluators need? Responsibilities 5. Process of Job Evaluation: Physical Characteristics 2.
Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification only. Job evaluation is a process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization.
Jobs are ranked on the basis of its title or contents. Who should evaluate job? Employee Classification 4. Factor Comparison Method: The important factors are selected which can be assumed to be common to all jobs. Defining objectives of job evaluation a. Psychological characteristics 3. Different factors are selected for different jobs with accompanying differences in degrees and points.
Wage Survey 3. Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation. This establishes Job Hierarchies. Establishing wage and salary differentials. What are the criteria for evaluation? Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials. Job is not broken down into factors etc. Methods of evaluation to be used 2.
Contents of Job Specifications 1. Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs. A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee.
Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job.