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Computer Graphics BCA 33 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Pixel, frame, buffer, application of computer graphics, Raster Interactive Computer Graphics: Whenever the user has control over the image by providing him. Introduction to Computer Graphics. Version , January David J. Eck. Hobart and William Smith Colleges. This is a PDF version of a free on-line book that.
Sandeep Kour , Prof. Review Questions: This makes the mouse an efficient device for pointing, as experiments have shown. This feed back is done either by changing the color of the screen, modifying the brightness or by blinking. This concept is called clipping. So, what do we have?
The Colossus was developed to decrypt secret German codes during the war. It used vacuum tubes and paper tape and could perform a number of Boolean e.
Williams Tube used RAM for its computations. Another notable early electronic computer was nicknamed "The Baby" officially known as the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine. The First Commercial Computers The first commercially available computers came in the s. While computing up until this time had mainly focused on scientific, mathematical, and defense capabilities, new computers were designed for business functions, such as banking and accounting.
The J. Lyons Company, which was a British catering firm, invested heavily in some of these early computers. By November of that year, they were using the LEO to run a weekly bakery valuations job. Census Bureau. It was the first mass-produced computer, with more than 45 units eventually produced and sold. The IBM was another notable development in early commercial computing; it was the first mainframe computer produced by IBM.
It was around the same time that the Fortran programming language was being developed for the A smaller IBM was developed in the mids, and was popular due to its smaller size and footprint it still weighed over kg, with a separate kg power supply. Transistor Computers The development of transistors led to the replacement of vacuum tubes, and resulted in significantly smaller computers. In the beginning, they were less reliable than the vacuum tubes they replaced, but they also consumed significantly less power.
These transistors also led to developments in computer peripherals. Remote terminals also became more common with these second-generation computers. The Microchip and the Microprocessor The microchip or integrated circuit is one of the most important advances in computing technology. Many overlaps in history existed between microchip- based computers and transistor-based computers throughout the s, and even into the early s.
Photo by Ioan Sameli The microchip spurred the production of minicomputers and microcomputers, which were small and inexpensive enough for small businesses and even individuals to own. The microchip also led to the microprocessor, another breakthrough technology that was important in the development of the personal computer.
There were three microprocessor designs that came out at about the same time. The first was produced by Intel the The first processors were 4-bit, but 8-bit models quickly followed by Personal Computers The first personal computers were built in the early s.
Most of these were limited-production runs, and worked based on small-scale integrated circuits and multi-chip CPUs. The Commodore PET was a personal computer in the 70s.
The Altair was the first popular computer using a single-chip microprocessor. It was also sold in kit form to electronics hobbyists, meaning purchasers had to assemble their own computers. Clones of this machine quickly cropped up, and soon there was an entire market based on the design and architecture of the It also spawned a club based around hobbyist computer builders, the Homebrew Computer Club.
These three computer models eventually went on to sell millions. The Apple II was the only one with a full-color, graphics-capable display, and eventually became the best- seller among the trinity, with more than 4 million units sold. The Early Notebooks and Laptops One particularly notable development in the s was the advent of the commercially available portable computer. Osborne 1 was small and portable enough to transport. The first of these was the Osborne 1, in It had a tiny 5" monitor and was large and heavy compared to modern laptops weighing in at Portable computers continued to develop, though, and eventually became streamlined and easily portable, as the notebooks we have today are.
These early portable computers were portable only in the most technical sense of the word. Generally, they were anywhere from the size of a large electric typewriter to the size of a suitcase. The first laptop with a flip form factor, was produced in , but the first portable computer that was actually marketed as a "laptop" was the Gavilan SC in Early models had monochrome displays, though there were color displays available starting in the Commodore SX Laptops grew in popularity as they became smaller and lighter.
By , displays had reached VGA resolution, and by they had color screens. Other hardware features added during the s and early s included high-capacity hard drives and optical drives. Laptops typically come in three categories, as shown by these Mac books.
Laptops are generally broken down into a three different categories: Standard notebooks usually have displays of " and are a good compromise between performance and portability. Subnotebooks, including net books, have displays smaller than 13" and fewer features than standard notebooks. The Rise of Mobile Computing Mobile computing is one of the most recent major milestones in the history of computers.
Many smart phones today have higher processor speeds and more memory than desktop PCs had even ten years ago. The Droid is a Smartphone capable of basic computing tasks such as emailing and web browsing. Mobile computing really got its start in the s, with the pocket PCs of the era. These were something like a cross between a calculator, a small home computer and a PDA. They largely fell out of favor by the s.
Most basic computing functions can now be done on a Smartphone, such as email, browsing the internet, and uploading photos and videos. Late s: Net books Another recent progression in computing history is the development of net book computers.
Net books are smaller and more portable than standard laptops, while still being capable of performing most functions average computer users need using the Internet, managing email, and using basic office programs.
Some netbooks go as far as to have not only built-in Wife capabilities, but also built-in mobile broadband connectivity options. The Asus Eee PC was the first netbook to enter mass production. The first mass-produced net book was the Asus Eee PC , released in They were originally released in Asia, but were released in the US not long afterward. Other manufacturers quickly followed suit, releasing additional models throughout and Some mobile broadband providers have even offered net books for free with an extended service contract.
Comcast also had a promotion in that offered a free net book when you signed up for their cable internet services. Most net books now come with Windows or Linux installed, and soon, there will be Android-based net books available from Asus and other manufacturers.
The history of computing spans nearly two centuries at this point, much longer than most people realize. From the mechanical computers of the s to the room-sized mainframes of the midth century, all the way up to the net books and smart phones of today, computers have evolved radically throughout their history.
The real answer is that many inventors contributed to the history of computers and that a computer is a complex piece of machinery made up of many parts, each of which can be considered a separate invention. This series covers many of the major milestones in computer history but not all of them with a concentration on the history of personal home computers.
Mauchly 20, vacuum tubes later Mauchly able to pick presidential winners. Microsoft begins the friendly Microsoft Windows war with Apple.
What is a Computer! A computer is an electronic machine that accepts information, stores it until the information is needed, processes the information according to the instructions provided by the user, and finally returns the results to the user. The computer can store and manipulate large quantities of data at very high speed, but a computer cannot think.
A computer makes decisions based on simple comparisons such as one number being larger than another.
Although the computer can help solve a tremendous variety of problems, it is simply a machine. It cannot solve problems on its own. Computer has the following characteristics: Mainframe Computers 2. Minicomputers 3. Microcomputers 4.
Supercomputers Mainframe computers are very large, often filling an entire room. They can store enormous of information, can perform many tasks at the same time, can communicate with many users at the same time, and are very expensive.
The price of a mainframe computer frequently runs into the millions of dollars. Mainframe computers usually have many terminals connected to them. These terminals look like small computers but they are only devices used to send and receive information from the actual computer using wires. Terminals can be located in the same room with the mainframe computer, but they can also be in different rooms, buildings, or cities. Large businesses, government agencies, and universities usually use this type of computer.
Minicomputers are much smaller than mainframe computers and they are also much less expensive. The cost of these computers can vary from a few thousand dollars to several hundred thousand dollars. They possess most of the features found on mainframe computers, but on a more limited scale. They can store a tremendous amount of information, but again usually not as much as the mainframe.
Medium and small businesses typically use these computers. Microcomputers are the types of computers we are using in your classes at Floyd College. These computers are usually divided into desktop models and laptop models.
They are terribly limited in what they can do when compared to the larger models discussed above because they can only be used by one person at a time, they are much slower than the larger computers, and they cannot store nearly as much information, but they are excellent when used in small businesses, homes, and school classrooms. These computers are inexpensive and easy to use.
They have become an indispensable part of modern life. Computer Architecture Computer architecture refers to the definition of basic attributes of hardware components and their interconnections, in order to achieve certain specified goals in terms of functions and performance. The architecture basically defines the logical structure of a computer system. Without the CPU, you have no computer.
Computer CPU's processors are composed of thin layers of thousands of transistors.
Transistors are tiny, nearly microscopic bits of material that will block electricity when the the electricity is only a weak charge, but will allow the electricity pass through when the electricity is strong enough. The transistors transition from being a non-conductor resist the electricity to a conductor they conduct electricity when the electrical change is strong enough.
The material the transistor is made of loses its resistance to electricity and becomes a conductor when the electricity gets strong enough. The ability of these materials called semi-conductors to transition from a non-conducting to a conducting state allows them to take two electrical inputs and produce a different output only when one or both inputs are switched on.
A computer CPU is composed of millions and soon billions of transistors. Because CPU's are so small, they are often referred to as microprocessors. So, the terms processor, microprocessor and CPU are interchangeable. Modern CPU's are what are called 'integrated chips'. Each transistor is a receives a set of inputs and produces output. When one or more of the inputs receive electricity, the combined charge changes the state of the transistor internally and you get a result out the other side.
This simple effect of the transistor is what makes it possible for the computer to count and perform logical operations, all of which we call processing. A modern computer's CPU usually contains an execution core with two or more instruction pipelines, a data and address bus, a dedicated arithmetic logic unit ALU, also called the math co-processor , and in some cases special high-speed memory for caching program instructions from RAM.
Generations CPU manufacturers engineer new ways to do processing that requires some significant re-engineering of the current chip design. When they create this new design that changes the number of bits the chip can handle, or some other major way in which the chip performs its job, they are creating a new generation of processors. As of the time this tutorial was last updated , there were seven generations of chips, with an eighth on the drawing board.
CPU Components A lot of components go into building a modern computer processor and just what goes in changes with every generation as engineers and scientists find new, more efficient ways to do old tasks. A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately.
Input Unit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device.
Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions. Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed.
It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast.
This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program. The primary memory is temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the computer is switched off. In order to store the data permanently, the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. Therefore most computers have limited primary storage capacity.
Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. It stores several programs, documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run.
Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory.
Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc. All digital computers use the binary system, i. Each character or a number is represented by an 8 bit code. The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space.
A numeric occupies 2 byte space. Byte is the space occupied in the memory. The size of the primary storage in a typical PC usually starts at 16MB. Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world.
Other commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, and magnetic tape drive. Arithmetic Logical Unit: It also does comparison and takes decision. Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done, the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results.
There are 4 types of arithmetic operations that the CPU can perform Addition 2. Subtraction 3. Multiplication 4. This is simply a comparison operation. It can compare numbers, letters, and some special characters.
The CPU will then take action based on the outcome of this operation. This is central to the CPU and allows it to be able to tell you things like Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer. The control unit instructs the input unit, where to store the data after receiving it from the user. It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU. It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit. The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working.
Central Processing Unit: The CPU is like brain performs the following functions: Related Posts: What are its functions?
The computer will be of no use unless it is able to communicate with the outside world. Input Devices: Output Devices: It consists of a set of keys mounted on a board. The functions assigned to these keys differ from one software package to another.
These keys are also user programmable keys. Special-function Keys These keys have special functions assigned to them and can be used only for those specific purposes. Functions of some of the important keys are defined below. It is used to enter a space at the current cursor location. This key is used to move the cursor one position to the left and also delete the character in that position.
It is used to delete the character at the cursor position. Insert key is used to toggle between insert and overwrite mode during data entry. This key is used to type capital letters when pressed along with an alphabet key. Also used to type the special characters located on the upper-side of a key that has two characters defined on the same key. Caps Lock: Cap Lock is used to toggle between the capital lock features.
Tab is used to move the cursor to the next tab position defined in the document. Also,it is used to insert indentation into a document. Also like the control key, Alt key is always used in combination with other keys to perform specific tasks.
This key is usually used to negate a command. Also used to cancel or abort executing programs. Numeric Keypad: This keypad is provided to support quick entry for numeric data. Cursor Movement Keys: These are arrow keys and are used to move the cursor in the direction indicated by the arrow up, down, left, right.
The mouse is a small device used to point to a particular place on the screen and select in order to perform one or more actions. It can be used to select menu commands, size windows, start programs etc. The most conventional kind of mouse has two buttons on top: Mouse Actions Left Click: Used to select an item.
Double Click: Used to start a program or open a file.
Right Click: Usually used to display a set of commands. Drag and Drop: It allows you to select and move an item from one location to another. To achieve this place the cursor over an item on the screen, click the left mouse button and while holding the button down move the cursor to where you want to place the item, and then release it.
Joystick is used as an input device primarily used with video games, training simulators and controlling robots d Scanner Scanner is an input device used for direct data entry from the source document into the computer system.
It converts the document image into digital form so that it can be fed into the computer. Capturing information like this reduces the possibility of errors typically experienced during large data entry.
Hand-held scanners are commonly seen in big stores to scan codes and price information for each of the items. They are also termed the bar code readers. Bar Code Readers are used to input data from bar codes. Most products in shops have bar codes on them. Bar code readers work by shining a beam of light on the lines that make up the bar code and detecting the amount of light that is reflected back.
It is quite like the mouse in its functionality but uses a light pen to move the pointer and select any object on the screen by pointing to the object. Common examples of touch screen include information kiosks, and bank ATMs. Pictures taken using a digital camera are stored inside its memory and can be transferred to a computer by connecting the camera to it.
A digital camera takes pictures by converting the light passing through the lens at the front into a digital image.
To operate it we require using a microphone to talk to the computer. Also we need to add a sound card to the computer. A speech recognition program can process the input and convert it into machine- recognized commands or input. The monitor is associated with a keyboard for manual input of characters and displays the information as it is keyed in.
It also displays the program or application output. Like the television, monitors are also available in different sizes. Its advantages like low energy consumption, smaller and lighter have paved its way for usage in portable computers laptops. Based on the technology used, they can be classified as Impact or Non-impact printers. Impact printers use the typewriting printing mechanism wherein a hammer strikes the paper through a ribbon in order to produce output. Dot-matrix and Character printers fall under this category.
Non-impact printers do not touch the paper while printing. They use chemical, heat or electrical signals to etch the symbols on paper. Inkjet, DeskJet, Laser, Thermal printers fall under this category of printers. When we talk about printers we refer to two basic qualities associated with printers: Print resolution is measured in terms of number of dots per inch dpi.
Print speed is measured in terms of number of characters printed in a unit of time and is represented as characters-per-second cps , lines- per-minute lpm , or pages-per-minute ppm. It interprets computer commands and makes line drawings on paper using multicolored automated pens. It is capable of producing graphs, drawings, charts, maps etc. Sound Cards and Speakers: The Audio output is the ability of the computer to output sound.
Two components are needed: Sound card — Plays contents of digitized recordings, Speakers — Attached to sound card. It gives a detailed listing of the various types of input devices and the output devise. First Generation Computers: The First Generation Computers was marked by the use of vacuum tubes for the electronic components and by the use of electrostatic tubes or mercury delay lines for storage. The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.
Census Bureau in Their outstanding features were: Quite large, generated lot of heat and required special housing. The medium of internal storage was magnetic drum. Punched cards and paper tapes were used for secondary storage. Continuous maintenance is required; produces lot of heat hence requires special air conditioning.
Applications-pay roll and other single applications in large companies. Uses batch processing technology, to process the data. Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce of Texas Instruments manufactured the first integrated circuit, or chip, which is a collection of tiny little transistors.
Second Generation Computers: The second generation computers are initially marked by either magnetic drum or magnetic core storage and later by the use of the transistor in the place of vacuum tubes. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s.
The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.
Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. Main features of the second generation computers are: Magnetic core was used as primary storage device and tape as secondary storage.
Used transistor circuits, hence the size of the computer was small compared to that of first generation computer. Greater reliability and higher speed, when compared to that of first generation computers. Uses high level procedural languages viz. They are small, faster and required less power to operate. Payroll, Inventory, Accounts Receivable, in large and medium sized companies: Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny. Third Generation Computers The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.
Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
The following are the features of this generation: Further reductions in size of computer. Increased internal core memory capacity. Processor speeds are rated in nano seconds. The use of high level languages became common e. Multiprogramming operating system was developed. Magnetic disk was used as secondary storage. Transistors were replaced with integrated circuits — hence increased miniaturization. Computers were capable of performing both scientific and business tasks with high speed and reliability.
Input and Output devices are improved. Order Processing, air line reservation, real-time inventory control etc. Uses online, real time processing and multiprogramming operating system. The Internet is started. Ted Hoff developed the famous Intel microprocessor G chip.
Intel released the first microprocessor, a specialized integrated circuit which was able to process four bits of data at a time. It also included its own arithmetic logic unit. Fourth Generation Computers: The introduction of micro technology and significant software developments, Micro technology gave rise to the development of micro computers, work processors and intelligent terminals. The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. In IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in Apple introduced the Macintosh.
Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.
Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. Features of this fourth generation are: Integrated Circuits are replaced with very large scale integrated circuits.
Semiconductors used as primary storage. Dramatic decrease in the size of computer — development of micro computers, personal computer. Development of electronic spread sheet. Development of database management systems. Development of distributed data bases and virtual storage operating system. Increased use of data communications and computer networks. The computers are compact, faster, and cheaper and are more reliable. Corporate modeling, decision support system, electronic funds transfer, electronic spread sheet, word processing and small business applications.
So they did and from the sale, Microsoft was born. Cray developed the Cray-I supercomputer G. Jobs and Wozniak designed and built the first Apple II microcomputer. Apple III was also released. Time magazine chooses the computer instead of a person for its "Machine of the Year. Apple introduced the Macintosh computer, which incorporated a unique graphical interface, making it easy to use. Compaq released the DeskPro computer, the first to use the microprocessor.
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