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Although academic scholarship on Indian comics has been scarce, empirical cast of Indian superheroes, including Nagaraj and Super-commando Dhruva. Raj Comics Hindi ( books found) dhruv comics in pdf Raj Comics Download Free Hindi Books Hindi Comics: The house for all Indian Super Hero Comics!!. Super Indian Comics. Once A Rez Boy, Now A Hero! . Happy ! New Comics Coming Soon! 1 year ago ReziumGuru2. blog · Indigenous Comic Con 2.


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Super Indian #rajcomics #superindian #indiancomics #art #poster. Comics · Comics Pdf, Hindi Comics, Comic Store, The Collector, Super Heros, Comic. RANNKAND (NAGRAJ & DHRUV) | Online Indian Comics Comics Pdf, Comics Online, Indian Comics, Mood Boards, Super Heros, Comic Books, Pdf, Comics, . PDF | 2+ hours read | With a focus on the Hindi language superhero comics of vernacular narratives, the Indian super-pantheon becomes an.

Devon Ke Dev…Mahadev [Television series]. Van der Merwe, K. The Ramayana is an epic that tells the journey of Rama, the prince of Ayodhya and his struggles after being wilfully exiled to live in a forest with his wife Sita and brother Lakshaman. According to Houtman and Aupers , membership of organized religion possibly declined not because fol- lowers had lost interest in religion or spirituality, but because organized religion was not meeting their Table 1. Writers such as Stan Lee have contributed to this digital shift by making cameo appearances in movies e. Crisp, R.

Through a cross-cultural comparison of Indian and Western comics, an attempt is made to explain why Indian comics never achieved the popularity enjoyed by their Western counter- parts. Through extensive literature review, the functional differences and similarities between Indian and Western comics are also explored.

Who and what are superheroes? Hero was derived from a Greek word, meaning warrior. The word hero, super or otherwise, has been continually redefined by scholars who study this cultural trope. Allison and Goethals claimed that the definition of a hero lies in the eye of the beholder. Loeb and Morris stated that though the concept of a superhero was problematic, they are nonetheless heroes who have risked their lives for the sake of others, and embody noble qualities. According to Goethals and Allison , the construct of a hero was not static; it functioned as a cognitive schema to aid in categorizing people.

Goethals and Allison suggested that although individuals agreed who a hero was and which qualities made a hero, they could not agree on a single unified example. Superpowers were not quintessential to the definition of a hero; it was the accompanying wisdom and a sense of morality that defined them Sternberg Comics are a unique medium that merges text and image, making them more appealing to audiences Latham Comics by DC and Marvel are abundant with an array of superheroes, who have engaged audiences since their introduction in India too has had its fair share of superheroes in comics, who filled the pages of various publications like Amar Chitra Katha ACK, immortal picture stories in literal translation from Hindi and Raj Comics, which appealed to the Indian audience.

History of Indian comics: Following the success of ACK, Raj Comics was founded in and aimed to satisfy the need for more secular and modern superheroes. They envisioned making comics more accessible to the aam aadmi, i. They have since created over titles featuring a large cast of Indian superheroes, including Nagaraj and Super-commando Dhruva McLain , who closely resembled Western superheroes Chandra Sadly, by the s the sales of comics dwindled, which only worsened in the s.

Yet, the appeal of mythological stories in India continued to remain strong during this period. Indian and Western superheroes had and have their roots in mythol- ogy and religion, with American superheroes often being referred to as modern-day Gods Gaitanos Mythology played an essential role in many cultures across the globe Campbell ; Greek, Latin and Biblical literature were once part of general education Campbell and Moyers Similarly, in India, education involved studying sacred texts and learning Sanskrit.

However, with the English Education Act in under the British colonial rule, Western concepts of education and curriculum were introduced, focusing more on science and technology rather than religious studies.

After inde- pendence in , with the aim of national integration this trend in education not only continued but became more widespread. Thereafter, teaching religious scriptures was restricted to the elders of the family, who ritualistically took to telling these legends as bedtime stories McLain Concerned with the increasing lack of knowledge about and interest in Hindu mythology, Pai introduced the ACK, its pages filled with stories from the two main mythological narratives — Mahabharata and the Ramayana Rao In India, Hindu mythology is more than just an epic or a fable; it is a serious structure adhered to by a majority in the form of organized religion McLain The Mahabharata and the Ramayana together comprise most narratives of Hindu mythology.

The Mahabharata is an epic narrative poem, describing the tales of two groups of cousins: The epic chronicles their lives and struggle for supremacy over the throne at Hastinapura. It also includes the Bhagvad Gita, the sacred text of Hindus. The Ramayana is an epic that tells the journey of Rama, the prince of Ayodhya and his struggles after being wilfully exiled to live in a forest with his wife Sita and brother Lakshaman.

The Ramayana also depicts the duties and responsibilities of an ideal human. Thus, presenting these sacred epics through comic and graphic narratives made the stories comprehensible and interesting for young readers.

Campbell divided mythology into four aspects: The mystical aspect was when one realized the vastness of the universe and was in awe of it. It was the understanding that the universe was more than oneself, a vast and mysterious place. The second aspect was cosmology, which involved attempting to understand and organize the mysteries of the universe in a manner relatable to the human mind.

Indian comics pdf super

Therefore, every story that attempted to narrate the notion of the universe, using the concept of God or otherwise, was the cosmology of that mythology. The third aspect — the sociological — offered a way to organize the structure of society. The final aspect of mythology was the pedagogical or psychological, where one was guided towards spiritual enrichment. Hindu mythology embodies these four aspects of mythology. Contrary to Greek mythology and Creationism proposed in Abrahamic religious texts, according to the Mahabharata, the universe always existed and will continue to, although in a state of flux.

This understanding of the universe is the cosmological aspect of Hindu mythology. Both epics serve as guidelines for a majority of the Indian society, and outline duties to oneself and others, fulfilling the sociological aspect of mythology. The pedagogical and psychological aspects of Hindu mythology impart enriching lessons to its followers.

In addition to classifying mythology into three aspects, Campbell [] also delineated stages of the adventure of a hero: Using these stages to explain super hero narratives, an overwhelming commonality was found in plots that connected myths, religion, and modern-day superheroes. According to Winterbach , the modern-day superhero was an intuitive assimilation of all myths through all ages. For instance, in the Mahabharata, the Pandavas were drawn into an adventure with their first win over Draupada, king of northern Panchala and friend-turned-foe of Drona.

As payment for training the Pandavas, a scorned Drona asked them to avenge an insult made by Draupada towards him. The heroes in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata did not engage in this phase; they seldom cared for self-interest above the interests of their elders, teachers, or kingdoms. This was followed by the third phase — Supernatural Aid, during which a protective figure guided the hero.

For the Pandavas, this was Drona, their mentor.

During Phase 5 — Belly of the Whale — the hero was swallowed into the unknown, and appeared to be either lost or dead. The hero must go inward, to be ultimately born again. Herein they encountered new obstacles, overcame them, and as a result become stronger. Phase 1 — Road to Trials — consisted of trials, tests, and ordeals. She was a source of strength and inspiration for her sons and often functioned as their moral compass. The temptress in the Mahabharata was Draupadi. To avenge his defeat, Drona had children through sorcery, who would bring destruction to the Pandavas.

This came true after Arjuna married Draupadi. Eventually, the Kurukshetra war was triggered by the disgrace brought upon Draupadi by the Kauravas. In the former, the hero completely abandoned his own self-ego and reconciled with his father; while the latter was characterized by the divine state that a human ego acquired.

While in exile in the forest, Arjuna met his father Lord Indra for the first time and spent the next five years with him. During this time, he was taught combat and mastery against demons.

Just before the start of the Kurukshetra war, Arjuna refused to fight his own cousins; he questioned the ultimate pur- pose of the war. These phases were played out together in the Mahabharata when Lord Krishna reminded a faltering Arjuna of his duty as warrior to fight irrespective of the outcome, by reciting the Bhagvad Gita.

After listening to the Bhagvad Gita, Arjuna realized that war and death were not ends, but only a small step in the endless cycle of life. Upon real- izing this, Arjuna overcame his dilemma and valiantly fought the war that the Pandavas ultimately won.

In India, Hindu mythology had and continues to have a pervasive influence on the collective psyche of society; given this, it was only natural that the first characters to appear in Indian comics would be mythological ones. Therefore, using Hindu Gods as the first superheroes seemed to be a good formula for success. Further, Propp [] proposed that specific narratives were embedded in the human psyche that led to their continual reproduction.

This consistency in narratives and conceptualization of super heroes led to the establishment of the American superhero archetype having six essential features McLain Hindu Gods were not only established symbols for large sections in Indian society, but also possessed various superpowers. Heroes from Hindu mythology that featured in various comic book series, pos- sess similar features; Rama from the Ramayana and Arjuna from the Mahabharata have extraordinary powers, particularly their archery skills.

They have had their share of devious enemies; for the former it was the infamous Raavan, and for Arjuna, it was the Kauravas and their uncle, Shakuni. Both have also demonstrated their roles as moral characters. Although secret dual identity was not played out like in Western comics, in both epics, the protagonists of royal birth lived as commoners during their respective exiles. While fighting evil, Indian superheroes were never masked, as the need for a symbolic costume never arose.

With respect to origin stories, there is an overwhelming similarity between Western and Indian superheroes, and Biblical characters. Being orphaned or abandoned and raised by foster parents were recurring plot- lines as seen through the instances of Superman, Spiderman, Batman, Lord Krishna, Karna, and Moses.

Despite these similarities between Western comics and Hindu mythology, why did Indian comics with predominantly mythological plot- lines fail to sustain the interest of readers when compared to Western comics? An attempt to explain this predicament is made by comparing the comics and functions served by Hindu mythology with functions served by American superheroes. Superhero comics in the West and India: Therefore, these elementary ideas and archetypes influenced how local heroes were shaped and the functions they served.

In the West, when the need arose for a figure stronger than a human, superheroes were introduced, derived from religion and mythology; they took different forms depending on existing cultural schemas and the prevailing conception of God Lunning In the West, superheroes serve as cultural symbols Johnson Knowles claimed that superhero comics were a new type of modern mythology — one that closely resembled the monotheistic religions from which they were derived Mills After the Renaissance in Europe, religion increasingly lost its footing in Western society and people needed something to make them feel alive Campbell and Moyers In the West, people took solace in other secular faith communities to fill the void left by religion Roof and McKinney This void was filled through the introduction of superheroes, first in Knowles With the weakening foothold of religion and myth, comics as a new form of mythology enjoyed widespread social appeal Atchison Possamai suggested that superheroes of the West served as alternate religions, fulfilling the same functions that organized religion once did.

According to Houtman and Aupers , membership of organized religion possibly declined not because fol- lowers had lost interest in religion or spirituality, but because organized religion was not meeting their Table 1. Outline of similarities and differences between Indian and Western comics. Areas Indian comics Western comics 1.

Raj Comics

Religious influences Hindu mythology Abrahamic religions and Greek mythology 2. Superheroes serve as cultural symbols: Superpowers e. Immortality, shape-shifting, flight, e. Immortality, shape-shifting, flight, healing, time travel healing, time travel 4.

Type of cultural capital Institutionalized: Cultural orientations Reflects collectivistic beliefs of Indian Reflects individualistic beliefs of Western society society 6. SANIL spiritual needs; people were leaning towards alternative forms of spirituality in search of meaning in life.

Comics ceased this search for many readers in the West. Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books. University of Hawaii Press. DNA India. The Hindu Business Line.

Raj Comics. Nagraj Dhruva. Aadamkhor Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Pages using deprecated image syntax Articles to be expanded from May All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 17 February , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The third aspect — the sociological — offered a way to organize the structure of society. The final aspect of mythology was the pedagogical or psychological, where one was guided towards spiritual enrichment. Hindu mythology embodies these four aspects of mythology. Contrary to Greek mythology and Creationism proposed in Abrahamic religious texts, according to the Mahabharata, the universe always existed and will continue to, although in a state of flux.

This understanding of the universe is the cosmological aspect of Hindu mythology. Both epics serve as guidelines for a majority of the Indian society, and outline duties to oneself and others, fulfilling the sociological aspect of mythology.

The pedagogical and psychological aspects of Hindu mythology impart enriching lessons to its followers. In addition to classifying mythology into three aspects, Campbell [] also delineated stages of the adventure of a hero: Using these stages to explain super hero narratives, an overwhelming commonality was found in plots that connected myths, religion, and modern-day superheroes.

According to Winterbach , the modern-day superhero was an intuitive assimilation of all myths through all ages. For instance, in the Mahabharata, the Pandavas were drawn into an adventure with their first win over Draupada, king of northern Panchala and friend-turned-foe of Drona. As payment for training the Pandavas, a scorned Drona asked them to avenge an insult made by Draupada towards him.

The heroes in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata did not engage in this phase; they seldom cared for self-interest above the interests of their elders, teachers, or kingdoms. This was followed by the third phase — Supernatural Aid, during which a protective figure guided the hero.

For the Pandavas, this was Drona, their mentor. During Phase 5 — Belly of the Whale — the hero was swallowed into the unknown, and appeared to be either lost or dead.

Comics pdf indian super

The hero must go inward, to be ultimately born again. Herein they encountered new obstacles, overcame them, and as a result become stronger. Phase 1 — Road to Trials — consisted of trials, tests, and ordeals.

She was a source of strength and inspiration for her sons and often functioned as their moral compass. The temptress in the Mahabharata was Draupadi. To avenge his defeat, Drona had children through sorcery, who would bring destruction to the Pandavas. This came true after Arjuna married Draupadi. Eventually, the Kurukshetra war was triggered by the disgrace brought upon Draupadi by the Kauravas.

In the former, the hero completely abandoned his own self-ego and reconciled with his father; while the latter was characterized by the divine state that a human ego acquired. While in exile in the forest, Arjuna met his father Lord Indra for the first time and spent the next five years with him.

During this time, he was taught combat and mastery against demons. Just before the start of the Kurukshetra war, Arjuna refused to fight his own cousins; he questioned the ultimate pur- pose of the war. These phases were played out together in the Mahabharata when Lord Krishna reminded a faltering Arjuna of his duty as warrior to fight irrespective of the outcome, by reciting the Bhagvad Gita.

After listening to the Bhagvad Gita, Arjuna realized that war and death were not ends, but only a small step in the endless cycle of life.

Upon real- izing this, Arjuna overcame his dilemma and valiantly fought the war that the Pandavas ultimately won. In India, Hindu mythology had and continues to have a pervasive influence on the collective psyche of society; given this, it was only natural that the first characters to appear in Indian comics would be mythological ones. Therefore, using Hindu Gods as the first superheroes seemed to be a good formula for success.

Further, Propp [] proposed that specific narratives were embedded in the human psyche that led to their continual reproduction. This consistency in narratives and conceptualization of super heroes led to the establishment of the American superhero archetype having six essential features McLain Hindu Gods were not only established symbols for large sections in Indian society, but also possessed various superpowers.

Heroes from Hindu mythology that featured in various comic book series, pos- sess similar features; Rama from the Ramayana and Arjuna from the Mahabharata have extraordinary powers, particularly their archery skills. They have had their share of devious enemies; for the former it was the infamous Raavan, and for Arjuna, it was the Kauravas and their uncle, Shakuni. Both have also demonstrated their roles as moral characters. Although secret dual identity was not played out like in Western comics, in both epics, the protagonists of royal birth lived as commoners during their respective exiles.

While fighting evil, Indian superheroes were never masked, as the need for a symbolic costume never arose. With respect to origin stories, there is an overwhelming similarity between Western and Indian superheroes, and Biblical characters. Being orphaned or abandoned and raised by foster parents were recurring plot- lines as seen through the instances of Superman, Spiderman, Batman, Lord Krishna, Karna, and Moses. Despite these similarities between Western comics and Hindu mythology, why did Indian comics with predominantly mythological plot- lines fail to sustain the interest of readers when compared to Western comics?

An attempt to explain this predicament is made by comparing the comics and functions served by Hindu mythology with functions served by American superheroes.

Superhero comics in the West and India: Therefore, these elementary ideas and archetypes influenced how local heroes were shaped and the functions they served.

In the West, when the need arose for a figure stronger than a human, superheroes were introduced, derived from religion and mythology; they took different forms depending on existing cultural schemas and the prevailing conception of God Lunning In the West, superheroes serve as cultural symbols Johnson Knowles claimed that superhero comics were a new type of modern mythology — one that closely resembled the monotheistic religions from which they were derived Mills After the Renaissance in Europe, religion increasingly lost its footing in Western society and people needed something to make them feel alive Campbell and Moyers In the West, people took solace in other secular faith communities to fill the void left by religion Roof and McKinney This void was filled through the introduction of superheroes, first in Knowles With the weakening foothold of religion and myth, comics as a new form of mythology enjoyed widespread social appeal Atchison Possamai suggested that superheroes of the West served as alternate religions, fulfilling the same functions that organized religion once did.

According to Houtman and Aupers , membership of organized religion possibly declined not because fol- lowers had lost interest in religion or spirituality, but because organized religion was not meeting their Table 1.

Outline of similarities and differences between Indian and Western comics. Areas Indian comics Western comics 1. Religious influences Hindu mythology Abrahamic religions and Greek mythology 2. Superheroes serve as cultural symbols: Superpowers e. Immortality, shape-shifting, flight, e. Immortality, shape-shifting, flight, healing, time travel healing, time travel 4.

Type of cultural capital Institutionalized: Cultural orientations Reflects collectivistic beliefs of Indian Reflects individualistic beliefs of Western society society 6.

Related Post: INDIAN GEOGRAPHY PDF

SANIL spiritual needs; people were leaning towards alternative forms of spirituality in search of meaning in life. Comics ceased this search for many readers in the West. These modern mythologies and God-like superheroes functioned like a formalized religion, being a source of strength and inspiration for readers.

Western superheroes were typically derived from Abrahamic religions like Judaism and Christianity, and from Greek mythology Garrett Religion is integral to culture and provides parameters within which people attempt to understand the inexplicable Van der Merwe This was evident in American comics, where the Jewish worldviews of writers like Jack Kirby and Stan Lee influenced the conceptualization and narratives of superheroes Atchison Contrary to the West, an Indian conception of alternate spirituality is rather weak.

In India, a religion that was already widely followed, simply took another more popular medium of dissemination — comic books. Indian comics and superheroes, rather than simply being a derivative of Hindu mythology, became a medium by which mythological stories reached the public.

Indian comics with mythological content were published when they were most required — to educate the urban youth, who were gradually losing interest in culture and heritage. Pritchett stated that Indian comics were particularly pop- ular among the Indian diaspora. Once it seemed like comics had fulfilled this function, their novelty and usefulness began to fade.

Additionally in the face of fierce digital competition and through the means of television and the Internet, the same content became more easily and widely accessible.

Therefore, while Western and Indian comic narratives and characters were influenced by religion and mythology, Western superheroes were created to be God-like and Indian superheroes were quintessen- tially various Gods from Hindu mythology who are sacredly revered. The concept of a hero similar to Western superheroes in Indian comics was introduced only with the publication of Raj Comics.

Raj Comics - Wikipedia

Unlike in the West, there seemingly never arose a need for new mythology for the majority in India. The tales and characters from Hindu mythology are engaging and continue to permeate the lives of its followers; comics in India only served as an additional medium by which these stories were told. Superpowers possessed In another comparison between Western comics and Hindu mythology, it was interesting to note that superpowers such as flight, enhanced vision, teleportation, time travel, and super-strength were already possessed by different Gods in Hindu mythology before the conception of superhero com- ics.

For instance, Hanuman, the monkey-God, possessed both flight and super-strength; Lord Krishna possessed psychic-persuasion. Hindu Gods also possessed healing, self-sustenance, and immortality. Therefore, with these powers, Hindu Gods doubled up as modern-day superheroes, serving the dual purposes of restoring faith and educating the next generation. Types of cultural capital According to Campbell and Moyers , great novels and stories could be instructive, teaching various themes of human life.

With mythologies, individuals gained perspective and insight into their lives; they taught one how to behave in society, and were instruments of socialization Arlow American comics aided in forming the identities of readers and were a medium by which societal values were reflected and learned Johnson Similarly in India, both epics became guidelines for how Indian society should function, reiterating the importance of upholding family values and vows McLain Bourdieu introduced the concept of cultural capital, which was a form of power to be exchanged and negotiated in a cultural identity market.

Some forms of cultural capital had more versatile exchange value and were not specific, like superhero cul- ture. In India, I propose that cultural capital is religion. However, religion and superhero culture were two different kinds of cultural capital. The latter is an objectified state of cultural capital in the form of cultural goods that was created to provide a unitary symbol in the absence of religion, whereas Hindu mythology was part of the institutionalized form of cultural capital as organized religion that could also take the objectified state in the form of comics.

Tales from Hindu mythology formed the central theme for Indian superhero comics. Cultural orientation represented Additionally, comics also reflect the cultural orientations of the society they are part of. For instance, tales from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were of large joint families; very rarely were there instances of only one individual saving the day, underscoring the collectivistic beliefs of Indian culture Hofstede, Hofstede, and Minkov Both epics impart to its readers the importance of family and dependency, sharing and cooperation.

The Pandavas were able to defeat the Kauravas with the support of Lord Krishna. Western superhero stories followed suit and chronicled the trials and tribulations of a single character, reflecting the individualistic beliefs of Western society. Current popular medium of dissemination for superhero content For ardent comic fans, superhero comics went beyond graphic narratives. Such stories also gave rise to alternative spiritualities that Bauman termed post-modern religions, in particular consumer reli- gions.

In the absence of consumer religions, traditional religion in India has nonetheless been repeatedly commoditized for decades. India has a history of using religion to promote sales of consumer products, such as calendars, stationery, comics, and even soap operas. The Mahabharata first appeared on Indian television in , and the Ramayana in