PDF | Traces the life and research techniques of Marie Curie's doctoral dissertation leading to the discovery and purification of radium from ore. Marie Curie was a remarkable woman whose discoveries broke new ground in aThis paper was originally presented at the symposium Marie Curie Nobel. Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw on November 7, In. , she and her husband, Pierre Curie, shared half of a Nobel Prize in.
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Real Academia de Ciencias. Madame Curie: Scientific. Contributions and Impact. ELVIRA Moya de Guerra. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 16 de enero. I think that Marie Curie would approve of the IYC motto, Chemistry–our life, our future, since it Much has been written about Marie Curie, so we simply hope this spe- cial issue will add a wint/lesforgesdessalles.info Harding, Warren G. Marie Curie's Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a Nobel Prize Robert L. Wolke University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh. PA Marie Sklodowska Curie's gender, .
Rays of the penetrating variety, "radioactivity". Ta sks. See Revue Scientifique, 4. Debierne and F. She states that the synthei- Curie perfectly well in her effort to isolate the unknown ic sample had a "normal" activitv of two-and-a-half times substance or substances, an effort that succeeded in the less than that of uranium. Have you submitted or are you in the process of submitting another proposal Have you submitted or are you in the process of submitting another proposal. We shall discuss the radium separation first and then analyze the reasons for her failure tiisolate polonium.
Becquerel, M. Curie, and P. Curie is awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for her work on radium and polonium. In the following discussion quotations from the thesis are accompanied by their page numbers in the French original.
Thesis "lntroductlon and Hlsiorlcal" Marie Curie began her work in order to study the phenom- enon in uranium that she was soon to name "radioactivitv". When she found evidence that other radioactive substances exist. In this quest she had the collaboration of her physicist husband, Pierre; who "put aside his work in progress" p 1 to join her Fig.
It was a time in which "the results of the various French and foreign researches [were] necessarily confused, as is the case with all new studies in the course of their development. The aspect of the question [of radioactivity] [was changing], so to speak, from day to day" p 2. Pierre and Marie Curie in their laboratory in Many new kinds of mysterious penetrating radiations, or rays, were heing reported.
Their emission, or supposed emis- sion, was almost invariably heing associated with excited luminescence, the only phenomenon of radiation i. I t its compounds.
On the other hand,she points out that uthcrs could readily be accepted that primary energy-the sun's- hud failed to confirm Recquerel's rtpurt that the urdnium was somehow being absorbed by the radioactive materials frays could be reflected, refracted, and polarized. His sup- and being re-emitted as another kind of radiation.
The sun, posed observation of these effects was indeed in error. But in Becquerel's phenomenon of radioactivity, human Thesis "Chapter I. Radioactivity of Uranium and Thorium. Thus did Marie Curie express the relationship that ty. These ac- emanating from zinc sulfide and calcium sulfide, but inas- complishments and their outcome, the understanding of much as those observations "have not been reproduced de- atomic transformation through radioactivity, far overshad- spite a number of attempts to that end" p 4 she rejects ow in importance the discovery of the new elements actin- them as unproven.
Many chemicals and even luminous in- ium, polonium, and radium. More than likely, such factors lower one. Penetrating a sheet of tween them. The current was opposed, or "bucked" by volt-. Curie then describes Becauerel's current. Pierre Curie himself had discovered the piezoelec- widely c o k r m e d observations that uranium, whether ele- tric effect in and was therefore well primed to think of mental or compounded and whether luminescent or not, its application in this way.
I aql l o asoql qdaaxa ahgas aq 03 auou punoj inq spunodmoa 'aaeyeal aaejrns quailard 03 rapio u! JO hq! IaleT qanm sem aqs se 'ro. L pue 9. Marie Curie'sdesk at the institut du Radium, of which she became the first director in Oddly, Curie does not com- ment on this point either, in spite of the fact that her major Figure The Radium Institute, a part of the Curie Institute, as it is today an clue to the existence of radium a little later on was to be the rue Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris.
Excessive activity in a supposedly pure compound of uranium was certainly unexpected; why In the thesis, Curie provides a table of the ionization did she not mention the anomalous activity of this "UpOs" currents observed from a variety of uranium compounds sample?
The thickness of the sample on the plate cnlrulation of proportlonnlity h e t w r n activity anti urmium was found not to matter; she concluded correctly that the content or to comment uvon the L ' O result in her lnhorato- major portion of the radiation being detected the alpha ry notebook.
Curie knew that the measured activities3 should be pro- portional to the uranium contents of the samples, inasmuch i s Becquerel had shown that radioactivity is an atomic prop- The word "activity" was used by Marie Curie in two senses: It is therefore curious that she did not any quantitative measure of the intensity of radiation being emitted from a sample and 2 the qualitative property of emifling radiation.
This dual usage, unfortu- ty in her table of data, being content to make a later general- nately, persists today. The word acfivityis being used above by the present author in Today, the tabulated data cannot be interpreted very ac- this auantitative sense.
But because uranium is so heavy compared with 'This point could be checked by direct referenceto the notebooks. See below. If there is any shadow of U02UOs. We now know that radium and other unstable uncertainty about a result, whether hers or someone else's, daughters of the uranium disintegration series are in radio- she refrains from using it to formulate a conclusion or even acti;e equilibrium with the uranium in any mineral until to frame a hypothesis.
In fact, conclusions per se are rare in such time as they are removed by a chemical purification the thesis and are largely relegated to a brief, separate sec- nrocess.
While her decision to ignore the carnotite result was pure uranium: These principal thrust of her work. These data were her now-historic clue to the existence in the minerals of What is a Mixture? This intuitive concept of a one-time admixture served withthatbf the naturalminerai. She states that the synthei- Curie perfectly well in her effort to isolate the unknown ic sample had a "normal" activitv of two-and-a-half times substance or substances, an effort that succeeded in the less than that of uranium.
This experiment was obviously discovery of polonium and radium. Thev had stance. By not exhibiting excessive activity, the synthetic not been laid down along with the uranium for miners to dig sample did indeed holster that suspicion.
And unknown show 2. The was either slightly - - impure - or substantially more highly. Time was therefore an all-important but unsuspected un- bodv6.
Actually, with the exception of Curl0 used the word corps ' body 'I to mean a pJre substance, the three pitchblende samples, her carnotite sample was the enher elemenr or compouno. An element was dual y referredto as a most active of 23 radioactive mineral samples that she re- "simple body". They were in that sense lucky. Method of Research. The title of this chapter modestly suggests the develop- ment of a new method of research: That is, she did not know that the relation- property of the hypothetical substance" p As her work Apparently, certain elements were capable of signalling led her to associate the chemical properties of radium and their presence by flying a new kind of flag: Curie was quick to use this fact to invent therefore, it must have seemed exceedingly strange that what is now known as the radiochemical, or tracer, method: How had the new ele- emboldened by her success to claim "[giving] rise to a [new] ments become associated with uranium in the rocks?
This scientific movement" p She could not have realized fully, however, how useful the tracer method would become during the ensuing nuclear age and beyond. In a comparison of the analytical sensitivity of radioactiv- erroneous and will be discussed below.
Figure Pages trom me Curisr' laboratory noreooox. The eh-hand page war wr. The insolu- to find radium in association with natural barium. I t was, ble, brown residue, which was dumped in a pine forest near after all, the close similarity in chemical properties between the mine, then became the Curies' starting material. The Austrian goveru- nevertheless unable to find anv trace of radium's intense ment, to whom the mine belongs, has graciously given us a radioactivity in ordinary barium chloride.
After fractionally ton of [it] for our research, and authorized the mine togiveus crystallizing50 kg oicommercial barium chloridedown to 10 several tons more. One shudders to think of the ores of harium" p She had, after all, searched for ra- 13 and Without com- these were subsequently separated from one another by an meting on this puzzling result, Curie abruptly ends Chapter elaborate fractional crystallization scheme.
In refraining from commenting upon this fundamental chemical nuzzle. I t was to he nearly a decade before a complete explanation was devised by Rutherford, Soddy, Fajans, and others for radium's close association in nature with uranium and only uranium: But she was forced to state that "after working for several years [to isolate radium and polonium], I have thus far succeeded only in [obtaining] the former" p We shall discuss the radium separation first and then analyze the reasons for her failure tiisolate polonium.
After some empirical experimentation during which ra- dium's chemical behavior was explored Fig. This is the portion of Marie Curie's research that has attracted the most atten- tion because of its enormous scale and grueling procedures.
Because pitchblende itself was prohibitively expensive, the Curies worked with the residues that were left after the primary removal of uranium a t the mine in Joachimsthal, Bohemia, now JBchymov in Czechoslovakia.
This primary It was fortunate,incidentally, that there was enough barium in the ore to "carry" the radium along with it, because the radium was not Figure Flow chart of Marie Curie's chemical separation of barium and present in sufficientamount to be precipitated by itself. This is " - silica and the sulfates of calcium. The fatter statement may in faciiefer to which the three radioactive elements sought were separated the same crystals of unspecified color referred to above.
The third use of the adiective beau or belle in the the basis of atomic weights that "radium is an element of thesis was to describe the red flame color of radium salts the series of alkaline earths. See Fig. Because "the salts of radium are absolutely analogous to the corresponding salts of barium" p , the crystallization scheme was based on the slightly lower solu- bility of radium chloride in water.
An earlier scheme based. Fioure Flow charl of Marie Curie's purificationof the crude bsrium and Figure Mecdeleev's periodic table as it was known when me thesis work radium sulfates. Fromref 3. The procedure was continued Marie Curie determined the atomic weight of radium by through a carefully worked-out if confusingly described "the classical method of weighing as silver chloride the chlo- series of fractionations, during which inactive solutions were rine contained in a known weight of the anhydrous chloride" discarded and crystals of the highest activity were with- p As she obtained purer and purer sam- drawn in order to keep the number of fractions from increas- ples of RaCI2, freer and freer of barium, the atomic weight ing exponentially beyond reason.
In the later stages, dilute rose regularly from barium's value of When a 0. Each stage of recrystalli7a- for the atomic weight of radium. This is within half a tion increased theactivity of thecrystals by a factor of about percent of the currently accepted value of Curie found that the purest sample of RaCb obtained by The Chemical Yield this method had an activity of the order of magnitude of lo6 "We succeeded.
She warns that this figure "must. Nevertheless, her estimate is precisely the tration of the chemical prowess of Marie Curie and her correct order of magnitude, the actual factor for RaClz being associates; recovering a few decigrams of product from a few 2. This is amost remarkable final result, obtained as metric tons of starting material is a one-part-in-ten-mil- it was by applying an original electrical device to the mea- lion proposition.
This fact alone is indeed impressive. But a surement of a mysterious property of a tenth-of-a-gram simple calculation based on this statement provides a sur- sample of an unknown element, wrung by painstaking, wet- prising measure of the efficiency, or yield, with which this grand-scale separation process was accomplished.
It can be shown that when a radioactive daughter is in secular eauilibrium with a much longer lived oarent. Three metric tons of pure uranium would therefore contain 1.
But of course the ore was not pure uranium. Thus, her recovery of about 0. And this assumes that no radium was lost when the uranium was removed at the mine before she even received the residue as her startinematerial! Curie, of course, had no suspicion that there-is a fixed relationship between the amount of uranium in an ore and the amount of radium associated with it.
If she bad, she would perhaps have mentioned the ore's uranium richness. Certainly, her ulti- mate isolation of 0. The Polonium Frustration Because all subsequent steps were unsuccessful in improv- Figure A pge from the Curies' notebook. As the purity of the radium increased, the atomic weight approached The oolonium activitv sulfides. In an attempt to free this active precipitate from must have seemed to migrate almost capriciously from one such contaminants as antimony, arsenic, copper, and lead, it precipitate or reaction vessel to another.
Several re-dissolutions in HN03 and polonium, once extracted from the pitchblende, diminishes re-precipitations by dilution were then performed, hut the in activity. After carrying out a series of these and similar manipula- It was natural for Curie to assume that a decrease in tions, Curie was forced to conclude that "there is, unfortu- polonium's activity represented a diminution in the strength nately, little chance of succeeding in the isolation of poloni- of some unknown atomic provertv rather than a diminution um by these methods" p Although there were other in the number of atomsexhibiting that property, for the reasons see below.
Pract ical a rra ngements for the imp l ementa tion a nd manage ment of the r esear ch pr oject Fe asibi lity and cr edi bi li ty of the projec t, including wo r k pl an P ractic al and admini str ative arrange men ts a nd , suppo rt for the host ing of the f ellow Po ten tial for cre ating long term c ollaboration s and mutually benefici al. Co n tr i bution t o Europe an e xc el lence and European com peti t ivene ss. Im pact of the pr oposed outre ach a ctiv ities Re searc h and t ec hnol og ic al q ual ity, i ncl udi ng any i nter d isc ip li nary and mult id isc i pli nar y.
Wo rld a quacul ture, especially for carnivoro us sp ecie s , r e lies on fish me a l as m ain pr o t ein s o urce in feed. Al s o, f ish me a l has be come e xtr em ely expen sive as aquacul ture prod uct ion h as grown ,. Eur o p e an researche s a nd industry ini t iative s ove r the last decade have.
Im pressive advance s h ave b een obtained during t he last t wo decades in the nutrition of th is f is h s p ec i es , a nd. Howe ver,. I n Atla ntic s a l mon Salmo salar , t he nor m al m o rp hology o f the di stal in testine is. It seems t hat S.
I n the case of thi s pr esen t propo sal t he. C ult ur ed f is h es currently rely on live pr eys as food d uring early developmen t i. E pigenetic programming: The r e is now substantial eviden c e that the early po st - na t a l env ir onm ent p la ys a.
Mil a gro et al.
I nv estig a tion s on the e ffe cts o f e arly n utri tion o n cov alen t m odi fic ation s o f DNA and. Al t ho u gh m ost evide nce of epigene t ic r e g ulati on ha s been.
Howeve r , only few studie s have provided s ome evide nce of this. Hormetic re sponse: Pr og ramming i s highly dependent but n ot re stricted to epigene t ic pr o cesse s , al tho ugh.
Inte stinal m icrobi o ta: Nikl asson et al. S om e rec ent studie s have addressed t he e ff e cts o f feeding on. Wi thin t he pr e sen t pro jec t, we wi ll inve stigate the diversi ty of the in t e stinal mi cr obi o ta in deve lo ping fi sh es. Als o, m a nna n ol i go sa cc ha r ide s M O S supplem entation is known t o. Obj ecti ves: To reach this ove r all o bjective , t he pr oject wil l foc us a t f our differ ent leve ls sp ec ific obje ct ives: W e will use DNA me thyl ation and h istone ac e tylation.
T he mul t idis cip li na r y na t ur e of the project is strong , involving a com b ination of wel l develo pe d. Expect ed res ul ts: Als o, it is exp ect ed to. Appropr i at eness o f rese ar c h methodo logy an d appro ach. T his p r oject wil l us e a hypothesis d riven appr oach studyi ng a hand f u l subset of ke y biom ar ke rs direc t ed to.
The me t hods and tech nique s see below to b e use d ar e. Thi s. Other groups will be subje cted to. While a n alyzing tho s e sam ples, t he fish r em a ining in the. For m et hy lcy to sine imm u no staining, an ti - met hyl c yt osi n e. B riefl y , ele ctropho r e sis will be. Prim ary. HyB lo t CL film Denvi lle.
The rel ative i n t en sity of ac e tylated hi st one s H3 and H 4 will be com par ed wit h. W e will inve stig ate the dive rsity of the in t e stin a l m ic ro biota in deve lo ping fi sh. T his met hod is cul t ur e - independen t and have been recognized as well sui t ed for mi cr ob iot a dive r sity studie s.
M e tallo - pr ot ea s e and serine - pr otease trypsin and chymotryps in a ctivi ties. Zymog r aphy is a widely used techniq u e to stu d y e xtr ace l lul a r m a t r ix - deg ra ding enzym es and allows t he.
M easur ements wi ll be don e. Expr e ssi on will be assessed b y qPCR a nd a bsolute quantific ation of. En zym e assay s w ill be pe rf o r med f or enzyme s involved in energy m e tabol i s m. I nt est i na l mor pho logy wil l b e eva luat ed accor ding to the f ollowing. T h es e are the c haracteristi cs of the c ondition previousl y de scribed as s oyb ea n mea l - i nd u c e d ent erit i s i n. O rigi nalit y and I nnovat iv e na ture o f the proj ect and re lat io ns hip to t he 's t ate o f the art' o f.
T he ma i n go a l of t his pr op osa l , to find new aven u e s for increasing the use of vege tal protein sourc e s in. While ye ars o f r e search have provided. T his r es ea r ch will us e state - of -the- art k nowledge and state - of -t he- art technology t o develop an i nn ovative.
Ti m e liness and re levan ce of t he proje ct. It i s not surprising that with the adven t o f post genomic. Howeve r , it is likely that large jumps in the substitution rates canno t be achieved. T h is proje ct i s in line wi th the. EU strate gy fo r the sustain able d eve lop ment of Eur opea n aquaculture. Due to the specie s- sp e c if ic S. Als o, r e sults from the pr e sent propo sal c ou l d. Hos t research expert ise i n t he field. I C M AN r es ear c h is focus ed on ba s ic a nd a pplied aspects of m arine.
CSD , a nd pr evio usly i n the projec t P le ur oge ne , allow ed t he m a ss i ve s equencia ti on of genes. R o nne stad University of Bergen , Norway , Dr s. The following is a sele ct ion of the most outstanding pa pe rs of the sup ervisor in the last 5 ye ar s an d w it h.
R ese arch artic les: General and Compar ative Endo crinology BMC Genomics , 9: Aquaculture Nu trition Aquaculture R esearch A n I n troduc tio n to App lied P hy colo gy. Ak atsuka e d. Fy hn e ds. Bio logy and a q ua cult ur e of gi lt h ead sea brea m an d other spe cies M.
Mylon a s eds. Joan H olt ed. Wi l ey - Blac kw ell, Ames, Iow a The super visor has bee n Reviewer f or s ev er al s ci en t if i c j our na ls, a nd he is pa r t o f t he Editorial.
Board o f Aquaculture Nutrition , edi t ed by W ile y - B la c kw e l l. Re f er ences. Al lis , C. Epige ne tics. New York: Co ld Spring Harbor Lab P ress. B ringhe nti , I. N utr. B iochem. Czeruc ka, D. Saccharom yce s boulardii pr es er ves t h e. Dari as , M. Ch arac te riz ati o n o f a pa rti al al pha amy l as e cl one from r ed porgy Pagrus pagrus: E xpression. Bioche m. Phy siol. On t ogeny of pepsinogen a nd proton pum p expr e ssion i n red por gy Pagrus pagrus: Aquaculture Dim itrogl ou, A.
Eff ects of m a nn an. Eck burg, P. Sci ence Early fee ding of ca rnivorous rain bow trout Oncorhy nchus mykiss wit h a. P hysiol. R -R Kam aci , H. O rgan ogenesi s o f exoc ri ne pa n cr e as in. Fish P hysiol.
Bioc hem. Kan the r, M. Aquaculture , — Epige netic me chanism s linking e ar ly n ut rition to long term he a lth, Best. Gut pH as a l im i ting facto r fo r dige stiv e. Die tary leci t hin source affe cts. Lipid s Matth ew s , R. DNA hypome thylati on caus e s bile duct defects in zebra fi sh and is a distinguishing f e atur e o f. Hepatology 53 3: Me rrif ie ld , D. T he c urr en t stat us and future focus of pr obio tic and probiotic applic ati on s for sa lmoni d s. Aquaculture , 1 - Onto geny and.
Diplodus puntazzo Ce tti, , d uring larval de velo p m ent. Ha nd b ook of ep igeneti cs: F eedin g. Aquacultur e 1 -4 , Nik las son , L. Di stur b an ce of the in testin a l muco sal.
F ish Shellfis h Immunol. Ni ko l op ou lou, D. Pa t ter ns of. Bi ochem. Pe rera, E. P olymor p his m a nd partial ch ara cte rization of dige stive enzyme s in the spiny lobster Panulirus.
Comp Bioche m P hysiol B F EBS Journal , — B iol. Ca rri llo , G. Mance ra , b. Di e tar y pro tein quality di fferentially r e gulate s trypsin enzyme s at the sec r e t ion a nd. Bi ol. Plagem a nn , A. Pru te anu, M. Inflam m. Bow el Dis. Use of 16S rRNA ge ne sequencing an alysis to.
S oyb ea n a nd lupin s eed meals as pr otein sources in di e ts for g ilthead s e abream Sparus aurata: Aquaculture 1 30 2 -3 , Rom ero , J. FEMS M icrobi ol. C omp.
Cloning and e xpre ss ion of dige st ive s. Aquaculture 1 -4 , San ti gos a, E. Inf lu e nc e o f par tial subs tituti on o f dietary fish m e a l on t he activity of dige st ive en zymes in the in testin a l. Nut r. V agner, M. Is it p o ssible to inf luenc e. Europe a n seabass Dicentrarchus labrax j uvenile metabolism by a nutritional condi tioning during. Aquac ulture , Ho rme s is and epigene tics: Ageing Resear ch R evie ws 10, - Alcohol- sol uble c om p onents in soybeans cause morphologic al.
F ish D is. Wa te rland , R. Me thyl dono r. Lo nd , Bacterial Comm unity Assem b ly and Turnove r within the. De live r ing. A h ighly ef ficient mic roencapsulated food fo r r e ar ing. Tr a ns cr ipt om ic. Biot ech nol. DOI Zam bonino- I nfa nt e, J. B ioc hem. Zane llo , G. Sac char omyces. Zho u, W. Hi stone deacetyl as e 1 i s requi r ed for exoc rine pancre atic epitheli a l. Cl ari ty and qual ity of the tran s fer of kn ow ledge obje ctives.
AquaFeeds , Aquaculture Europ e , et c. A ls o, n o vel details on methodology a nd resul ts w ill. S e ve r a l bioc hem ical tools nee ded for this project will be impleme nt ed at ICMAN b y t he candid ate, si n ce he. It is. In st e ad, this wil l ce rtai n ly enlarge the I CM A N capacity to be engaged in collabo ra tive pr ojec ts in the futur e. Als o, s inc e t he project wi ll apply an innov ati ve appro ach suc h as nut r ition a l progra mm ing i n fis h la r va e ,.
Eur opea n knowledge by dissemin ating r e s e arch o utcomes no t only t h r ough scien tific publica t ion s , but a lso.
Resul ts eme r ging f rom the projec t will also be of i n t e r e st. ICMAN, he wi ll receive world - cl as s tr ai n ing in adv an ce d molecular biology i. The m ain re se arch in terests o f the candid a te are the dige stive bioche m istry and dige st ive p hy siology of. A s its own idea, the ca nd idate has been using during the last t en ye ar s a lo bst e r sp e cies as. T he overal l. Resul ts obtained ha ve b ee n pub l ished in R e se arch r e sults of the candidate have been us ed f o r building new capacitie s mainl y by.
Sci ence S toc khol m , S weden. The candidate is m e mb er o f t he P a n - Ame r ic a n Marine Biotechnolo gy. Curr iculum vitae. Per so nal det ails.
Date and p lace of birth: Current Plac e of Work: Current Position: P hone at Work: P ersonal Address: Haban a, Cuba. P hone at Home: E- mail: Ac adem ic a ch ie vem en ts. Bachelo r in B iology , Fa cult y of Biol ogy.
Pro fe ss io nal act iv itie s. Other r e le vant inform ation. Pos t - graduate academic formatio n and fellow ships: A s par t of hi s academic fo r m ation, the candid at e has r e ceived t he following po st - g rad uate cour se s at the.
Ictiology , Physi o logy of Mar ine. Addi tionally , the c andid ate h as obtaine d diffe r ent fe llow shi ps for atte nding t o the f o llowing in t e r n ation a l. Chemosensory b iology in the m ar ine envi ronment Bermudas Biologi ca l.
Age ncy , B ioc he m ic al ch aracte riz a tion o f dige stive e nzymes Unive rsity o f Alm e r ia, Sp ain , Fel lowship. P articipation on Researc h P roj ect s: Technology and Environme nt.
Dur ing the last ye ar s, the candid at e has le a ded as princi pal r e s e archer the. Awards and rec ognitions: How eve r, the re cent scien t ific activi t y of the candidat e. C V i nf or m a t i on r ega r di ng pa te nt s, publ ica t i on s publis hed and reviewe d , and t e aching activities is provide d.
Researc h res ul ts i ncl udi n g p atents, p u bl icat ions, te ac hing, e tc. Pat e n t - Cuban Of fice for Industrial Property: Book chapte rs: P erera, E. Tro pic al s piny lobste r a quacul ture: Prospec t for the Car ibbe an.
Aquaculture Rese arch Trends. St e phen H. Schw ar tz Ed. Nova Science Publishe rs, Inc. P ublications on international peer - review journals: O ce an pol icy — US - Cuba sci e n tific.
Eme r ging issues and oppo rtunities in m ari ne and related envi r onm ental sci en ce s. Oce anography 25 2: Perer a , E. F rag a, O. C arri llo , G. Man ce ra, Die tary pro tei n quali ty di ffe ren tially re g ulate s tryps in enzyme s at the sec r e tion a nd.
J Exp Biol ,. Perer a, E. In v itro d igestion of pr o t ein source s b y crude enzyme extra cts o f the spiny lobster Panulirus. Aquac ulture ,. FEB S Jou rnal , Ca rri llo , O. Cha nge s i n di ges t ive enzym es th r ough developme ntal and molt stage s. Comp Bioc hem Ph ysiol B P olym or p his m a nd par tial c h aracteriz ati on of dige st ive enzymes in the spi n y lobster P anulirus.
Comp Biochem Phy siol B Perdom o- Mor al es , R. Hem ocyanin- de r ived p henolo xidase activity in t he hemolym ph of the spiny lobst e r Panulirus argus. Bioch im ica e t Bioph ysic a Acta Phenolo xidase activi t y in the hemolymph of t he spiny l o bst e r Panulirus argus. Immu nol Aquacul tur e. Lal an a, E. Perer a , M. B aez, R. Ad riano , Lar ge sca le a ss e ss ment of r ecrui t ment for t he.
Crustaceana 79 9: Evaluation of. Aqu ac ultur e P ubli cations on pee r - review Cuban and Mex ican journ al s mostly in Spanish: Inves t. Galic ia , L. Perera , Apareamien t o y de s ove de l a l angosta P anulirus argus. Latr e i lle, e n c autive r io e n Cuba. Am p h ine ura. Ec hinoide a. I nvest. Other publicat ions: The Lobs t er New slet ter , 17 1: T he Lobs ters New slett er, Vol. Papers Revie wed: Aquaculture , Journal of the Wor l d. Teac hing Act ivi ties: The e a rly join of the candid ate to t he Unive rsity o f Havan a staff le t him to prog r e ssively acqui r e expe rtise in.
Statisti c s and. Lo bst e rs , Co m para tive Anim a l Physiology