Components: • Read rate gyro and distance information from the corresponding sensors. • Read the state of a connected switch. • Display the sensor states. Seminar report. On. Hovercraft. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree. Of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical. SUBMITTED. ExAMINES A HoVERCRAFT'S GATE ACTI- .. to design, build and fly a hovercraft consumes their every waking .. and Innovation, a one-credit seminar.
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Show More. Lift is an essential factor because it is that which allows the craft to ride on a cushion of air several inches off the ground. The future is more promising than ever before, exciting outdoor enthusiasts across the globe with their possibilities of maintaining the craft for their personal enjoyment, realizing the dream of owning a craft that was once relegated to professionals. Attaining the proper amount of airflow is imperative for the maintenance of the crafts stability. The rudders must be wellweighed out in order to avoid weighing down your hovercraft and also well shaped inorder to move air as efficiently as possible.
When the engine is started, the compressor compresses air from the engine intakes andpushes it into combustion chambers mounted around the engine.
Fuel is squirted intothe combustion chambers and ignited. The compressed air then rapidly expands as it isheated and forces its way out through the turbine to the exhaust. As the gas pressurerises, the turbine speeds up, thereby driving the compressor faster. The engine speedincreases until it reaches the engines normal operating speed.
However, the use of these engines results in a very high level of engine noise outsidethe craft.
Also uses marine diesel engines that are much quieter and fuel efficient. C Triprayar Page 8 There arethree small ducts cut into the base of the hovercraft, underneath the air box. Two ofthese ducts lead into the skirt, which is basically a bag that goes all the way around theperimeter of the craft, while the third duct leads directly underneath the hovercraft.
This is achieved through the use of rudders. These rudders can becontrolled by a variety of devices including computers. The rudders must be wellweighed out in order to avoid weighing down your hovercraft and also well shaped inorder to move air as efficiently as possible.
Rudders cannot be too heavy otherwise they will weigh down the craft because they arelocated very close to the motor. The shape of the rudder dictates how well it will be ableto move air. Since very little of it actually touchesthe ground, there isnt much friction, making it very difficult to steer and also verysusceptible to strong winds.
Imagine trying to drive around on top of an air-hockeypuck! Weve discovered that the best way to drive it is treat it like a jet ski, i. It is also possible to do a degree turnwithout stopping, which is quite a sight. Examples include the airflow around bodies moving atspeed through the atmosphere such as land vehicles, bullets, rockets, and aircraft , thebehavior of gas in engines and furnaces, air conditioning of buildings, the deposition ofsnow, the operation of air-cushion vehicles hovercraft , wind loads on buildings andbridges, bird and insect flight, musical wind instruments, and meteorology.
Formaximum efficiency, the aim is usually to design the shape of an object to produce astreamlined flow, with a minimum of turbulence in the moving air. The behavior ofaerosols or the pollution of the atmosphere by foreign particles are other aspects ofaerodynamics.
C Triprayar Page 9 Hovercraft Seminar Report 4. When dealing with a hovercraft, the existence of lift is imperative for the proper function of the vehicle. Lift is an essential factor because it is that which allows the craft to ride on a cushion of air several inches off the ground. This process, the process of attaining lift begins by directing airflow under the craft.
In order to quarantine the air under the air cushion, a skirt is required. This is done in order to create pressure under the hovercraft which forces the vehicle off the ground. Attaining the proper amount of airflow is imperative for the maintenance of the crafts stability. If too much airflow is directed under the craft, it will then hover too high above the ground, resulting in the hovercraft to tip.
Not enough lift will cause the craft to remain on the ground which defeats the very purpose of the hovercraft altogether. The source of the airflow which propels the craft of the ground is a fan.
The fan can be used for lift and thrust. It can be dedicated to lift or thrust or even both simultaneously. In either case the passage where the air flows through to reach the air cushion affects the stability of the hovercraft. This passage is a hole located on the base of the craft.
Another vital component is the motor. The motor is usually located in the rear of the vehicle and is the heaviest of the components. Due to the weight of the motor, extra pressure is required under the area where the motor is positioned in order to attain hovering capabilities. It is different from other vehicles of its category is that very little force is required for it to move.
Propulsion is that which makes the craft move. The source of this effect is the fan, which is used to move the air for propulsion. The fan produces more than enough force for the hovercraft to move. Hovercrafts have no contact with the ground; therefore any resistance the ground may produce under other circumstances is now non-existent for the craft.
As explained above, the propulsion of the craft requires a fan but a normal fan is not sufficient. This is because a normal fan does not blow air straight back.
Instead it spins the air in a spiral shape. Therefore engineers decided to use turbines or stationary blades, that un-spin the air. When air does not spin more of its kinetic energy can be used for translation and less is required for rotation. The shape of the body also affects the stability of the hovercraft. The larger the area of the base, the more stable it will be. Wider base implies greater stability. Longer and narrower shapes increase speed but decrease stability. Most hovercrafts have rounded ends, and offer both stability and speed.
The skirt is another vital component. The common skirt is known as a bag skirt. It is comprised of a bag that covers the bottom of the base and has holes in it to allow air to escape and push the craft off the ground. Each part of the skirt inflates independently which makes repairs much easier and improves stability.
Unfortunately, the more stable a skirt, the slower it will go. C Triprayar Page 10 Hovercraft Seminar Report When the hovercraft is finally able to move it will most definitely require steering capabilities. These rudders can be controlled by a variety of devices including computers. Rudders cannot be too heavy otherwise they will weigh down the craft because they are located very close to the motor. The shape of the rudder dictates how well it will be able to move air.
C Triprayar Page 11 Hovercraft Seminar Report 5. At maximum speed fuel consumption of a Hovercraft is approx. C Triprayar Page 12 Hovercraft Seminar Report 7. Relief work United Nations. Rental Operations, Corporate entertainment.
Education, schools. Hovercrafts are not restricted by tide, or fast running water.
Or shallow water, or submerged rocks, coral, or marine life. Air-cushion suspension has also been applied to other forms of transportation, in particular trains, such as the French Aero train and the British hover train. The air is continuously forced under the vehicle by a fan, generating the cushion that greatly reduces friction between the moving vehicle and surface. The air is delivered through ducts and injected at the periphery of the vehicle in a downward and inward direction.
This type of vehicle can equally ride over ice, water, marsh, or relatively level land. Please find the attached file along with this If You have any query regarding the files. Please feel free to ask. I'll be glad to answer them. Similar Threads: Attached Files for Direct Download. Propeller -It is used to obtain the forward motion of the craft.
It is fitted to the top of the craft and is powered by a powerful gas turbine or diesel engine. Rudders- They are similar to that used in an aircraft. Rudders are moved by hydraulic systems. By moving the rudders we can change the direction of the craft.
To solve these problems, plenum chamber with a momentum curtain was developed by Sir Christopher Cockrell. His first experiments were conducted with the aid of two cans and a vacuum cleaner with blower end. The cans were drilled and bolted so that one can was inside the other with open ends facing down to some weighing scales, the top of the larger can was open and had a tube connected to it so that air could be forced in to the top can and around the smaller can inside.
The air traveled around between the inside of the bigger can and outside of the smaller can and was then let out towards the scales in a narrow ring of air, the cans were mad4e so that it was? The experiment was conducted in two steps. First the smaller can was removed and blower switched on. The scales measured the amount of thrust the air from the one can produced down onto the scales.
The smaller can was now replaced inside the larger can so that the ring of air was produced. Again the blower was switched on and the scales measured amount of thrust the ring of air produced down onto the scales. Here is the key discovery because Cockrell observed that the two cans nested inside each other produced more thrust onto the scales than the simple open can or plenum chamber did, he had discovered the momentum curtain effect and this was the key ingredient that he patented.
In the full size craft the plenum chamber was also filled in so that a slot round the bottom edge of plenum chamber wall was former where the air fed in at the top. The slot produced a curtain of flowing air that was inclined. The high pressure air from the slot angled inwards towards the centre of the craft helped to contains and sustains the air cushion.
Using this method a stable air cushion could be created.
The craft was still riding on a plenum chamber of sorts but it was created and maintained by the high pressure ring of air surrounding the lower pressure air in the center. The momentum curtain arrangement achieved higher hover heights with less power.