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Basics fashion design fashion drawing pdf

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The Easy Draw proportional ruler system of fashion drawing and the accompanying instructional design ideas and produce good quality illustrations is paramount to the fashion. Industry. .. To make your basic fashion template come alive. Basics Fashion Design 02 - Textiles and Fashion - Ebook download as PDF File Examples of drawing techniques. colour. inspirational or commercial textiles. Fashion Illustration for Designers. Uploaded by. Mc Nk. Basics Fashion Design 02 - Textiles and Fashion. Uploaded by. Luis Matta Rios. Book of Fashion Design .

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the fashion design principles for creating aesthetic values. The design should (C) Basic Proportions of Female Figure for Fashion Design Drawing. The typical . email attachments – the PDF can attach notes, be edited and emailed back. This publication introduces you to the basics of fashion illustration proportion with .. Pattern Making - Sewing -Fashion- Design -Techniques- Pages -PDF. lgll fashion design and illustration advanced elective courses in art for grades 10, Fashion Illustration Templates ef lesforgesdessalles.info 2 Fashion.

The negative holes in lace are as important as the positive stitches in the overall pattern of the fabric. Basic dyes were the first synthetic dyes to be developed. Fabric construction 1 Knitted socks. Pre-punched cards can be bought or cards can be punched for specific designs. Richard Sorger Compiling your research The sketchbook Techniques for drawing Collage Juxtaposition and deconstruction Cross-referencing Analysis of research Focus of key elements Exercise 3:

Earthy- gives a rustic feel Pastels- light and soft colors Neutrals classic and go with any season. Elements of Fashion Design. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Shapes define figures and relate forms to each other. The type of fabric that you use can give your outfit an entirely different feel, especially if you utilize motifs, or patterns and prints.

There are basic colors for the various seasons: Your teacher will let you know which one they prefer. Luis Matta Rios. Mc Nk. Hwufashiondubai Heriot Watt. Tanya Reid. Mariel Barreto. Vasile Diana Alexandra. Syed Muhammad Ashfaq Ashraf.

Oscar Espinoza. Think of the colour palettes of African textiles or Hawaiian shirts. Cold seasons tend to warrant darker colours. Skin tone can also have an effect on the colour choice of a garment.

Pantone charts are arranged chromatically by colour family and contain 1. Rather than trying to describe the colour. Colour is very important within fashion and textile design. How to get the most out of this book Colour and trends.

Dark skin looks great against strong. As the season warms up the colours become lighter and paler. Pantone and the Munsell colour systems are common references for colour matching. It is sometimes a good idea to offer some of the basic colours and add to them seasonal experimental colours. When we pack for our summer holidays we quite often take brighter clothes than we would wear in a colder climate.

Headings These enable the reader to break down text and refer quickly to topics of interest. The British Army dyed their white summer tunics to a dull brownish-yellow colour for camouflage in combat. Pantone colour book.

The sun bleaches out pale colours. Within a fashion collection safe colours are usually black. They may then go and touch the garment and lastly they will try it on to see if the fit is right. Copyright Global Color Research Ltd. Looking at colour under different lighting conditions can affect the hue — an incandescent light places a yellow cast on the hue. Is it required for its aesthetic qualities. It is also interesting to see how textiles are used in different cultures to clothe the body.

Once you have designed a range of textiles it is important to consider how you might sell your ideas or manufacture the design as a length of fabric or a garment. With the development of nano-textiles more advanced functions can be catered for — a fabric might deposit a medicine on the skin or be a form of communication.

It is important to consider the function of the textile you are designing before you start. Paris or New York. Consider the ways in which you might begin designing. Great energy coming from meeting new and fun people. It is useful to have knowledge of the historical development and use of textiles.

Will it be used for its protective qualities. CAD — and what surface you might work on. The inspiration for textile design can come from any source and it can inform colour.

Other classics go in and out of fashion. In these examples. The textile sample Researching textiles As with all designing it is important to look at what is happening in fashion and textiles currently this is known as secondary research.

Throughout the history of textiles. Whatever you decide you will need to also find research that is original known as primary research in order for your designs to be new and not just copies of what is going on around you. Looking back historically we can see the types of textiles that were popular at certain times.

It is important that your research can provide inspiration for imagery.

Design pdf fashion drawing basics fashion

It is interesting to take a classic textile design and look at what makes it so timeless. This will enable you to direct your designs. A brief history history of textiles textiles Toile peinte This is hand-painted cloth. This is usually related to some form of advancement in technology or trend within society.

Original research for textiles can come from anything: Timorous Beasties have taken the landscape of modern-day London to produce a contemporary toile de Jouy design.

These textiles become classics and some classics remain constantly popular in some form or another. Japanese kimonos became very popular and were imported by the Dutch East India Company.

The rococo period of the 17th century saw the fashion for very decorative dresses. New loom technology and dyeing techniques were developed that produced fine-quality silks. Patterns were asymmetric. The popularity of the fabric threatened the French and British textile industries to such an extent that a ban on importing or wearing it was imposed. This company also imported from India a hand-printed cotton known as chintz.

It was popular fabric as it was cheap. An offshoot of this was chinoiserie. Jacquard A fabric made on a jacquard loom. Named after French weaver and inventor. Joseph M Jacquard — As a result these shawls were very expensive.

In the ban on the cotton indiennes or chintz was lifted and the French textile industry again boomed. The exotic plant shapes found on them were the result of the influence of Eastern culture. A muslin or gauze was best suited for this design as it offered a simple drape rather than moulding to the body. They made way for lace motifs. The silk had a water-blotting pattern effect. Notably Paisley in Scotland produced a less expensive shawl and the pattern became associated with the region.

The textile sample 1. Cashmere shawls were worn over this garment in the winter. Madame de Pompadour.

Basics Fashion Design 02 - Textiles and Fashion

One factory in Jouy became famous for its printed cotton. The cashmere shawl came from the region of Kashmir in NW India. The wool of the mountain goat was spun into yarn to produce a light. The shawls were brought back by Napoleon from his Egyptian campaign in By the s the cashmere shawl had mass appeal and was made in small industries in France and Britain. A thin white cotton dress with little or no undergarments was worn. Oriental motifs and Eastern flora. He was the most prominent member of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England.

In the s the jacquard was widely used. This was produced on a mechanised drawn loom and allowed for more complex weave structures and patterns. It was felt by some in the late 19th century that technical advancements and mechanisation were responsible for a decline in the quality of design and crafts. In Perrotine printing was invented and used for the mass production of cloth.

Where a craftsperson had once been a designer and maker. The Romantic period at the turn of the 19th century saw the use of small floral prints. In the s. This process was the mechanisation of wood-block printing and allowed for multicoloured designs. The quality of textiles was poor and design was lacking. So when Napoleon became Emperor in he instructed that silk and not cotton would be worn as the ceremonial dress. Opening Japan to international trade in resulted in the Japanese style coming to the West.

In Britain. Japanese lacquered products influenced the creation of shiny. William Morris was concerned with this situation and promoted handcrafted over machine manufacture.

Polychrome patterns that had previously been produced through woven cloth could now be produced through a cheaper printing method. Art nouveau developed from the Arts and Crafts Movement. In the 19th century lace manufacture was also mechanised. He designed textiles on naturalistic and medieval themes and chose not to use aniline dyes. They were popular for their aesthetics and also because the small designs easily hid dirt spots and poor manufacturing.

The Atelier Martine was founded by the couturier Paul Poiret. The textile sample s In the first quarter of the 20th century the Omega Workshops in London and Atelier Martine decorative art school and workshop in Paris opened. This approach and look was in-line with the fauvist and cubist movements of the time in the fine arts. The Atelier employed young girls with no design training who produced very naive textiles. This was revolutionary. The first pullover Elsa Schiaparelli displayed in her windows created a sensation: The development of cinema saw luxurious fabrics used for their lustre onscreen.

Designed by Mariano Fortuny. During the roaring s and the jazz era the new dance crazes called for dresses made from fabrics that moved on the body or seemed to under light. Looser shaped clothing became fashionable. In the s and s Coco Chanel used jersey in day dresses. Nylon was invented in Madame Vionnet developed the bias cut. Designed by Elsa Schiaparelli with Jean Cocteau. This period also saw the introduction of the screen-printing process. Viscose rayon was a popular fabric of the s.

Schiaparelli experimented with unusual fabrics in her designs. Two-way stretch wovens were also developed. Surrealism also influenced textiles.

The influence of America on Europe also saw Hawaiian shirts and American prints becoming increasingly popular. Dresses were made from curtains. The textile sample s s s Fabric was rationed during the Second World War so the amount used within a garment was conserved.

They were interested in the space between the body and the garment. During the s new fabrics were developed. Silk supplies from Japan were cut off during the war. Screen-printed linen.

Basics Fashion Design Fashion Drawing : John Hopkins :

With the end of rationing skirts became fuller and fuller. Some of the couturiers. Stiffer fabrics worked well for this. As France was occupied. Paris as a fashion capital was under threat and American fashions rose in popularity. After the war there was a reaction against ornate pattern. Textiles with linear drawings of newly designed domestic objects were also very fashionable.

These circle skirts were often hand painted and embellished. These included: Acrylic Polyester Spandex 1 1 Calyx furnishing fabric. The textile sample 2. Jackets were single breasted and trousers were a specific length. Paco Rabanne mini-dress in perspex pailletes and metal chain. Textiles featured futuristic imagery. Towards the end of the s there was a nostalgic look back to the art deco and art nouveau periods. Space travel influenced bold prints and new synthetics with new dyes were being developed.

Imagery was enlarged and translated into bright psychedelic colours. Textiles were zany. Florals were depicted flatter and with bold colour. Trousers were normal daily dress for women. The work of Finnish designer Marimekko illustrates this very well. Jeans also became very popular particularly amongst teenagers as a result of American westerns and the influence of movie stars such as James Dean. Pierre Cardin and Paco Rabanne experimented with modern fabrications not seen in couture before.

The textile sample 1 s s The unisex hippie folk movement was a reaction to the modernism and mass consumption of the s and was triggered by the Vietnam War. Fashionable men wore bright colours. Recycled cotton was also introduced. Garments were not body conscious. The oil crisis of the s contributed to the downturn of the synthetic fibre market in Britain. The textile sample The UK was politically and economically more stable and fashion followed suit.

Fabrics were monochrome. In Margaret Thatcher became the first female prime minister of Great Britain. More women were working and they chose to wear tailored suits with large shoulders. There was also a body-conscious trend with underwear worn as outerwear. Anti-establishment looked to different non-Western cultures and religions for inspiration and enlightenment.

There was also a different trend developing started by the Japanese designers Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto. Natural fabrics were increasingly adopted.

Computer-aided design and manufacture is common. Martin Margiela was one of them. He used deconstruction and recycling throughout his collections. The factories here can add value to a textile through embellishment. A range of dress patterns from the s to the s. Ripped denim and customisation became mainstream. Modern fabrics are developing so that they are light-sensitive and breathable. The designer is now far more in control of the mechanisation process.

Textiles have become more and more decorative as production is taken to the Far East and China. In Japan the kimono is made from lengths of fine woven silks and there is little cutting in manufacture so that the pattern of the cloth can be clearly seen.

Examples of research boards. It is interesting to look to other countries and their traditional handcrafted textiles for inspiration and to note how these techniques can be applied to modern textiles. The textile sample 1 2 Different cultures By looking at other cultures we can see the variety of uses for traditional textiles. This is in contrast to the Western tailoring of the 16th and 17th centuries. A garment that had seaming. Hand-crafting textiles in Cambodia.

The textile sample Designing textiles 1 2—3 Example of a mood board. The next step is to collate the research that you have gathered. You might try to experiment and mock up a sample in a fabrication similar to the yarn you might eventually use. Try finding unusual textures to play with. The textile sample Collage and 3D rendering Working with different types of papers and building up layers to create textures can be useful for knit and weave ideas.

Colour and scale can be changed more quickly than manually recolouring or rescaling a design. Remember that colours on a computer screen are different from those eventually printed out.

Layers and collages can be built up on screen. Scanning in original drawings and combining them with other imagery can work well. Avoid using filters and treatments from design packages unless they are used originally otherwise they can look very obvious. With the use of packages such as Photoshop.

Textures and shapes can be registered in great detail immediately without the need for hours of drawing.

The use of the computer can make the design process faster. The use of photography can be great for capturing ideas quickly. Think how you can place a large design within a garment silhouette for the best effect. The textile sample 1 Basic textile design principles Scale The textile sample It is important that as a designer you understand the basic design principles of textile design.

Think about how this design will work on the body and how it will work within the pattern pieces of a garment. An enlarged bold design may not have as much impact if the design has to be cut up to be used in a garment with many pattern pieces. Look at the scale of your design within the fabric piece.

Liberty print designs by Duncan Cheetham showing an all-over floral pattern top and a chevron print bottom. Is it very small and repeated or is it enlarged and abstract? You may consider placing a large design with a smaller design for added contrast.

The juxtaposition of surfaces and placement of pattern might be the focal point of these designs rather than colour. Obviously different samples will feature certain principles more than others. This knowledge will allow you to fully explore the design process. For example. To work out manually whether your designs flow. The bigger the repeat the harder it is to see on a length of fabric.

This might work in a design or it might look rather crude. There are also computer packages that quickly put your design into repeat. It is important to observe how your design flows across a length. Is there a top and a bottom? This can look very interesting visually. If you are working on a computer it is very easy to see how your design will work by cutting and pasting. Repeats can be very simple or very complicated working across a large area.

When you repeat your design en masse you might find that you can see where you are clearly repeating the motif. Also consider if there is a direction to your design. A size 10 garment will have a smaller neck hole than a size It is interesting to consider how a design can be engineered to work around a garment.

The textile sample Placements and engineered designs Placements work well if you consider the position of the design on the garment. Clever use of placements might affect the construction of the final garment. A weave could incorporate an area of elastic running across it. You will have to produce a different size design for each dress size for this to really work.

If you are working on the computer this is much easier as designs can be scaled quickly and placed within pattern pieces. The most obvious placement is a print placed on the front of a t-shirt.

Can a seam be moved to allow a design to travel from the front to the back of a garment? Could a placement work around the neck or around an armhole? Can a design fit into a specific pattern piece? If you are working in this way you may have to consider how the engineered design scales up or down according to the size of the garment. Smocking applied to a fabric can work in a similar way. When you design consider the various tones and saturations that can be found within one colour.

The type of embellishment and the yarn or stitch used will produce various textures on embroidered fabrics. You can work with chips of paper colour. Prints by Jenny Udale showing a matt print on a shiny fabric. Some printing media will sit on top of the fabric and produce a relief effect. Your palette will change under different lighting conditions — natural light at certain times of the day and different forms of electric lighting will all have an effect.

Puff adds surface interest and colours work together. For printed textiles. Consider whether your design would benefit from texture. Check your balance of colour and tone within the palette. Remember a small area of colour looks very different to an expanse of the same colour over a couple of metres of fabric.

This design contains a striking use of placement. The circles on the front of the jacket also align with those on the sleeves and cuffs. A palette of colours can be any size. Interesting textiles can be created by experimenting with a mixture of processes. Finding an image. Mechanical and chemical finishing processes can change the texture of a fabric after it has been created. The circles on the jacket are placed so they correspond to the circles found on the blouse and shorts beneath.

When you start to transfer your designs on to or into fabric. In knit and weave design the weight of the yarn and size and type of stitch or weave will affect the texture. Consider what the colour is going to be used for and in what proportion. Understanding fabrics and yarns is paramount to this process this will be explored more later on in the book. Also experiment with the different textures of a hue.

Surface interest is very important within textile design. Collections of fabric Collections fabrics s When you create a collection of fabrics you must consider how the designs work together and what their common theme is. The textile sample Textiles into production Textiles As a student you will be creating small textile samples and developing experimental and exciting ideas.

Consider how your range of designs works within a fashion collection: The colour palette is usually common to a range of fabrics. The organic fabrics are digitally printed and include a variety of textures.

You will probably only have to produce a small length of fabric or a small range of garments that feature your fabrics. You must consider how your textiles now work together and form a collection. Are you creating a collection of similar designs. Try hard not to repeat a motif in a collection of designs.

If you choose to manufacture your textiles you will also have to consider the skills and technology you will need for production and the ethical choices you might make. Moda In: It is important that the textile is not stuck down as it needs to be handled. Prato Expo: Textile samples tend to be presented on hangers or simply mounted on light card fixed at the back.

Shirt Avenue: It is not normally advisable to present your samples in portfolio plastic sleeves. Keep the mounting plain and simple so it does not distract attention away from the textile design. New York. From this. Based on this.

Fabric trade fairs are held biannually in line with the fashion calendar. Always keep a good record of the samples that you give to an agent.

Basics Fashion Design 05: Fashion Drawing

If an agent takes your work to sell they will take a large cut of the sales of your samples to cover their expenses. If you choose to represent yourself at a fabric fair you must consider the cost of travel. Number each sample on the back and list the ones that are going. Sample lengths of fabrics are made first by the manufacturer and sent out to the designer. Make sure you know what percentage the agent is taking and how long they will take to pay you. Fabric manufacturers from around the world display their new fabric samples and take orders from designers.

The samples are shown as collections and are bought by designers for inspiration or by fabric companies and fashion companies to be put into production. The fabrics are not fully stuck down. Here yarn companies display their latest collections of yarns for production and textile designers sell their knitted and woven samples. The other main yarn fair is Expofil in Paris.

Pitti Filati is a biannual yarn fair held in Florence. The fairs showcase new developments in woven. We should also consider how traditional crafts. The textile sample Future fabrics Developments in the creation of textiles seem to be following two paths — ethically driven by the environment and future-technologies driven by scientific advances — and where they meet is where great future fabrics will be produced.

These handcrafts give textiles character and individuality. In other words. Certainly high-end designers are incorporating handcrafted fabrics and finishes into their collections. A garment that has been hand stitched and embroidered will never be exactly the same as another garment.

Some may say that fashion is fundamentally about aesthetics. Fashion has a short shelf life with new collections appearing every six months. Many are choosing to use fabrics that are made from recycled material. Many fibres come from natural sources and can be reused. Synthetic dyeing is often seen as unethical. We are wearing a t-shirt a few times and throwing it away to buy the next desirable cheap garment.

It is important that ethical companies integrate functionality. Companies are considering what the impact of their textiles and processes has on the environment. You may be competing with cheaper goods from non-certified factories. Dye companies There has definitely been a trend for organic and fair trade in industries such as food and cosmetics. We are buying our clothing in supermarkets with our weekly food shop.

Decide how much you want to be involved with the issues. As a designer you can choose where you buy your textiles or where you have your textiles manufactured. They will. It may be harder to source sustainable or ethical material and it may make your designs more expensive. They use crop rotation to make the soil more fertile. Manufacturers have to demonstrate that they provide good conditions for the people involved in the factory.

The working environment in which the products are made is taken into account. There still seems to be a demand by a certain consumer group for fur in fashion. The principles aim to protect the land that is being farmed and also those working on it and the communities of which they are a part. The Japanese company Kuraray produces Clarino and Sofrina and the company Kolon Fibers produces an ultra-microfibre textile called Rojel. The campaign for animal rights gets stronger every year.

Stella McCartney does not use any animal products in her collections. The Fairtrade Foundation gives this certification after it checks that the growers or workers have been given fair pay and treatment for their contribution to the making of the product.

There is a lot of research to develop good leather-look fabrics. Designers are now using fur and leather substitutes in experimental ways. Fairtrade is also used to describe products that try to encourage the use of natural and sustainable materials. It is especially appropriate to textiles. Computerised looms can produce metres of fabric in minutes.

Fibres are being developed from natural sources to mimic nature. Wildlifeworks produces organic and fairtrade clothing. Obviously manufacturing processes must evolve. The possibilities of futuristic textiles are positively endless.

Fabrics are also being grown directly from fibres in the same way that skin or bones grow. Designing a textile sample using CAD can produce a repeat in many colours far quicker than if done by hand. Coating finishes. Smart materials Interactive clothing incorporates smart materials that respond to changes in the environment or to the human body.

Clothes could quite possibly interact directly with the environment by opening doors or switching on lights or could communicate with images. These finishes can enhance and change the qualities of the textile for fashion. The production of natural fabric may have more impact on the environment than a man-made one if it uses harmful chemicals in its processes. The way the fibres are spun and the yarn constructed affects the performance and look of the final fabric. Companies who manufacture man-made and natural fabrics are considering their impact on the environment with their manufacturing processes.

Finishes and treatments can be applied to a textile at fibre. Fabric characteristics can be integrated into the make-up of man-made fibres reducing the need for chemical and mechanical finishing processes. These fibres can be categorised simply as natural or synthetic and each fibre has its own characteristics and qualities.

This will be discussed in the next chapter. Fabrics are made fundamentally from fibres. Obviously the way the fabric is constructed also gives the fabric a specific quality. Natural fibres are derived from organic sources.

These can be divided into plant sources composed of cellulose. Fibres Natural 1 Top row from left to right: Bottom row from left to right: It can be extracted from a variety of plant forms to make fibres suitable for textile production. Fibres 2. Here we are looking at fabrics that are most suitable for the production of garments.

Its enduring popularity is its extreme versatility. In most cotton production. Egypt and Turkey. It is produced from the flax plant and is commonly regarded as the most ancient fibre. These fibres are harvested from the plant. There are designers pursuing organic solutions such as Katharine Hamnett. This means growers have increased their use of chemical pesticides simply to ensure crop survival.

Linen has good absorbency and washes well. Cotton crops in India. It has soft. Cotton is mainly produced in the USA. The longer the fibre. It is durable and has breathable properties. Also the chemicals that are used are absorbed by the cotton plant and remain in the cotton during manufacture.

This overuse of pesticides is rendering hundreds of acres of land infertile and contaminating drinking water.

The World Health Organisation estimates that about Wildlifeworks and Edun. Cotton has always been extremely prone to insect attack and since insects started building up immunity to pesticides.

Organic fabric production is more expensive. America and China demand thousands of tonnes of pesticides. Linen Linen has similar properties to cotton.

Egyptian cotton. Due to these issues. Cashmere is extremely soft and drapes well. Different breeds of sheep produce different qualities of yarn. Ostrich feathers trapped beneath silk voile. New Zealand. Goats are also used to produce wool. South Africa and Uruguay. Wool has a warm. Biodegradable and non-toxic pesticides are now more widely used in the production of wool to protect the sheep and improve the environment. Sheep produce wool fleece for protection against the elements and this can be shorn at certain times of the year and spun into wool yarn.

Heavy hand-knitted jumper made from wool and angora. The protein fibre keratin comes from hair fibres and is most commonly used in textile production.

Fashion fashion drawing pdf basics design

Merino sheep produce the finest and most valuable wool. Fibres Protein Wool: Once extracted from the cocoon. For one kilogram of silk. In the wild.

Fashion design drawing pdf basics fashion

The cocoon is made from a continuous thread that is produced by the silkworm to wrap around itself for protection. During the production of cultivated silk the larva is killed. Silk fabric has good drape. Cultivated silk is stronger and has a finer appearance than silk harvested in the wild.

Fashion basics pdf drawing design fashion

Silk worms live off mulberry trees. Methods including gassing. Scientists work closely with the farmers and their research findings have already been adopted in areas such as housing. Fibres 1. The fur farmers would argue that the ethical treatment of the animals has always been an important part of the approach to fur farming. Fur farmers in Scandinavia are regulated by national laws and guidelines.

The killing process itself is not quick and painless. The process of implementing other animal welfare measures as a result of scientific research is ongoing.

Fibres Fur Animals such as mink. The animals are trapped in snares or traps and undergo hours of suffering before they are brutally killed. The quality of fur depends on the welfare of the animal. This subject causes heated debate between those for and against fur. The pattern is achieved through the application of heat. DuPont has developed a fabric that is a fusion of leather and Lycra that has the properties of both. There are two ways of tanning — vegetable tanning and mineral tanning.

Metallic fibres can be used to decorate clothing. Which type is used depends on the hide itself and the product intended. Vegetable tanning produces flexible. The skins then go through dyeing and rolling processes. This can be for a few hours or a few days. First the skins or hides are cured. Once the skins are free from hair. Some leathers will show lots of imperfections after their final finishing.

Leather stretches but does not return to its original shape. The water helps to rid the skin of the salt from the curing process as well as dirt. The higher-quality suede is in the upper layers. Sophie Copage leather design. Mineral or chrome tanning is used on skins that will be used for softer leather products. The final step of the process involves finishing the skin.

Napa is soft thin leather used for garments and can be made from leather skins or suede. Nowadays aluminium. This is done by covering the grain surface with a chemical compound and then brushing it. Next the hides are treated with enzymes that smooth the grain and help to make them soft and flexible. Cellulose is extracted from plants. Middle row left to right: Developments in the chemical industry in the 20th century caused a radical transformation in fabric production.

Man-made fibres such as rayon. Bottom row left to right: Top row left to right: Man-made fibres are made from cellulosic and non-cellulosic fibres. Nylon ripstop. Fibres Man-made 1 Man-made fabrics.

Chemicals that had previously been used for textile finishing techniques began to be used to extract fibres from natural sources in order to make new fibres. All other man-made fibres are non-cellulosic.

The first rayon dates back to and was called artificial silk. Rayon Rayon was one of the first man-made fabrics to be developed. It does not absorb moisture well. The name rayon was not established until Tencel was more recently developed to be the first environmentally friendly man-made fabric.

These include acetate rayon. Rayon has excellent absorbency. Lyocell and Modal are evolved from rayon. It produces a strong fabric that drapes like silk. As it is derived from cellulose wood pulp it has similar qualities to cotton in that it is strong. Acetate shrinks with high heat and is thermoplastic.

It has the look. Different chemicals and processes are used in the production of rayon. It is made from wood pulp or cotton linters. It is made from sustainable wood plantations and the solvent used to extract it can be recycled. It has the look and handle of wool. During the Second World War silk supplies from Japan were cut off. Acrylic 1 DuPont developed acrylic in the s. Mercury lurex jersey dress with leather collar.

They are sensitive to heat. Dyeing at the fibre stage of production produces a very colourfast fabric. DuPont was one of the large chemical companies developing fabrics at this time. Lycra is a form of nylon and was developed to use in lingerie. The dress is made from a continuous piece of fabric that wraps around the body creating a semi-opaque finished garment. This was the beginning of the development of synthetic fabrics.

Nylon is a strong. Fibres Non-cellulosic or synthetic fibres Nylon Germany was the centre of the chemical industry until after the First World War when the USA took over its chemical patents and developed its inventions.

In In general synthetic fibres are white unless they are first dyed. They are not particularly breathable. Nylon is made from non-renewable resources and is non-biodegradable. It is also a smooth fibre. It is non-allergenic. Synthetic fabrics have poor absorbency. Most synthetics have similar properties. DuPont was able to produce long polymeric chains of molecules. Polyester was introduced to the USA as Dacron.

It is the most widely used synthetic fibre and is most commonly found in blends where it is used to reduce creasing. It can also be made from recycled plastic drinks bottles. Polyester is made from chemicals extracted from crude oil or natural gas by non-renewable resources and the production of fibres uses large amounts of water for cooling. Spider silk is naturally stronger than steel and is stretchy and waterproof. It resembles silk and is used for garments.

They have taken the wool fibre and altered its structure to produce a wool fabric that has superb drape and tactile qualities. Japan has produced a fibre made of milk protein and acrylic called Chinon.

They are also developing microfibres and nanotechnology. New fibre developments Odin Optim Chemists are now producing fibres from natural sources. The fibre is also known as Kevlar. DuPont introduced aramid fibres under the trade name Nomex nylon in The fibre is produced from a renewable source.

The fibres have exceptional strength and are five times stronger than steel. The heels are positioned at the side of the shoe. It was introduced by DuPont in and is a manufactured elastic fibre.

It is derived from naturally occurring sugars in corn and sugar beet. Is a fibre developed by Nippon Keori Kaisha. This is a fibre that started being developed in under the trade name NatureWorks. Nomex is used for its flameresistance properties especially in military clothing and firefighting uniforms. Fibres Spandex Aramid fibres Spandex is a super-stretch fibre as it can be stretched per cent and will return to its original length.

Spandex is used to add power stretch or comfort to textile products. Biochemists are currently studying its structure and developing synthesised fibres with the same properties that could be used for fabric production. Power stretch provides garments with holding power and is often used in underwear or swimsuits whereas comfort stretch adds only elasticity.

Ltd in Japan. Kevlar is used for strength applications where the fabric needs to be light. They are also flame resistant. Schoeller has developed a dirt-resistant coating for fabrics.

Microfibres can be more expensive to manufacture so they are often mixed with cheaper fibres. Micro-organisms can also be incorporated that live off dirt and sweat. As their properties are integral to the fibre they will not wear or wash off.

The use of silver is being developed within fabrics as a result of its antibacterial properties. Chemicals in the microcapsules can be released on to the skin either by abrasion or as a result of heat given off by the body.

These fibres can be engineered into the construction of a fabric or can be used as a finishing coating. Microfibres can be produced with microcapsules that contain chemicals such as medication. X-static is produced by Noble Fiber Technologies and bonds silver to the surface of another fibre to give it advanced properties.