BIOLOGY CLASS XII CBSE INVESTIGATORY PROJECT ON ANTIBIOTICS.. - Download as .rtf), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Class 12 CBSE Biology Investigatory project on the topic "Drug 2 Certificate This is to certify that this “Biology Investigatory Project” on the. AIM MTP By Abhijeet Gaur Certificate of Authenticity This is to certify that Abhijeet Gaur a student of class 12th has successfully completed the.
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Investigatory Projects Physics Class 12 Cbse [Download pdf] [Read More] Source BIOLOGY INVESTIGATORY PROJECTS FOR CLASS 12 PDF Investigatory. Huge List of Biology Class 12 Projects| Investigatory Biology Projects, and High School,CBSE, ISC Class 12 and MSC and College Students. lesforgesdessalles.info_biology-class-xii-cbse-investigatory-project-on-antibiotics. pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibiotics. Many ancient cultures. Research New medications Until recently. These d rugs were later renamed antibiotics by Sel man Waks man. Causes The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. In a saline abortion, amniotic fluid is removed from the woman and replaced by a strong saline salt solution.
Beginning in the second half of the twentieth century, abortion was legalized in a greater number of countries. A bill passed by the state legislature of New York legalizing abortion was signed by Governor Nelson Rockefeller in April Bas-relief at Angkor Wat, Cambodia, c.
Types Of AbortionsThere are 2 kinds of induced abortions: Surgical Abortion Procedures1. Manual Vacuum Aspiration: A hand-held syringe is attached to tubing, which is inserted into the uterus. The fetus is suctioned out. Suction Curettage: Laminaria are thin sticks from a kelp species that are inserted hours before the procedure and allowed to slowly absorb water and expand, thereby dilating the cervix.
Once the cervix is dilated, the abortionist inserts tubing into the uterus and attaches the tubing to a suction machine. Suction pulls apart the fetus body and out the uterus. After suction, the doctor and nurses must reassemble the fetus dismembered parts to ensure they have all the pieces. A suction device is placed in the uterine cavity to remove the fetus and placenta.
Then the abortionist inserts a curette a loop-shaped knife into the uterus. The abortionist uses the curette to scrape any remaining fetal parts and the placenta out of the uterus.
Soft cartilage hardens into bone at 16 weeks, making the fetus too large and strong to pass through a suction tube. The abortionist then both tears and cuts the fetus and uses the vacuum machine to extract its remains. Because the skull is too large to be suctioned through the tube, it must be crushed by forceps for removal. Pieces must be extracted very carefully because the jagged, sharp pieces of the broken skull could easily cut the cervix.
A long needle is inserted into the womans abdomen, directly into the amniotic sac. It is at this point that a saline abortion and amniocentesis differ. In a saline abortion, amniotic fluid is removed from the woman and replaced by a strong saline salt solution. As the fetus lungs absorb the salt solution, it begins to suffocate. It may struggle and may even have convulsions. The saline also burns off the fetus outer layer of skin. Saline abortion can take one to six hours before the fetus is no longer viable.
The woman begins labor after approximately 12 hours, and she may take up to 24 hours to deliver. Because the procedure is often quite long, many times the woman is left to labor alone.
Prostaglandin activates contractions. It can cause overly painful or intense labor; there have been cases in which the violence of the contractions ruptured the mothers uterus. Most often, a wet towel is placed over the babys face so it cant breathe. Sometimes the baby placed in a bucket of water. The goal is to have a baby that wont survive. Also called partial birth abortion. This procedure takes three days.
During the first two days, the womans cervix is dilated. She is given medication for cramping. On the third day, she receives medication to induce labor. As the woman labors, the abortionist uses an ultrasound to locate the babys legs. The abortionist then grasps a leg with forceps and delivers the baby up to its head. Next, using a scissors, the abortionist creates an opening in the base of the babys skull. A suction catheter is inserted into the skull opening, and the babys brains are suctioned out.
The skull collapses, and the rest of the babys body is delivered through the birth canal.
Chemical Abortion Options1. RU Mifepristone: Also called the abortion pill. This drug interferes with levels of progesterone, a hormone that keeps the fetus implanted in the wall of the uterus. The woman is prescribed progesterone and then returns to the clinic two days later to receive a prostaglandin drug that induces labor and expels the dead fetus. RU is documented to be unsafe for women.
Methotrexate and MisoprostolMethotrexate is used for treatment of cancer, and Misoprostol is used for ulcer treatment. Lauri Hewitt I recovered from bulimia. You can too! Browse by Genre Available eBooks KendrickLamost Sex in your area for one night is there tinyurl. KendrickLamost Girls for sex are waiting for you https: Show More.
Mayur Dabhi. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Teacher-In-Charge External Examiner 3. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to thank my principal Dr.
NSK Swamy and school for providing me with facilities required to do my project. I am highly indebted to my Biology teacher, Mrs. Sailaja Nayak, for her invaluable guidance which has sustained my efforts in all the stages of this project work.
I would also like to thank my parents for their continuous support and encouragement.
My thanks and appreciations also go to my fellow classmates and the laboratory assistant in developing the project and to the people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities. Content Page No. Certificate 2 2. Acknowledgements 3 3.
Project Report on Drugs Dependence 7 5. Introduction to "drugs addiction" 8 6. Classification of Drugs 9 7. Combinations of Drugs and Alcohol 10 8. How does drug addiction begin? Tobacco 13 Alcohol 15 Conclusion 17 Bibliography 17 End of project 18 5. Repeated use of certain drugs on a periodic or continuous basis may make the body dependence. Such drugs are called psychotropic drugs. They act on the brain and alter behavior, consciousness, and capacity of perception.
Hence, they are also termed mood-altering drugs. Some people start taking drugs without medical advice due to one reason or the other and become drugs dependent. I Drug II Addiction. What is meant by a drug? Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, all aviation or treatment of a disease is called a drug.
A drug may also be defined as a chemical which, when taken in some way after the body function. The drug is also known as a medicine. Generally, the term drugs applied to any stimulating or depressing substance that can be habituating or addictive. Meaning of Addiction Addiction is the habitual, psychological and physiological dependence on a substance or practice.
Which is beyond voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an addict. These are classified into four major groups: Stimulants Amphetamines, Caffeine, Cocaine Make a person more wakeful, alert and active, cause excitement.
Alter thoughts, feeling, and perceptions. Simultaneous use of drug and alcohol may produce dangerous effects, including death. When barbiturates and alcohol are taken together, each doubles the effect of the other. A mixture of cocaine and heroin called speedball gives a spontaneous kick of cocaine and prolonged pleasure of heroin.
Combination Effect 1. Archaeocins is the name given to a new class of potentially useful antibiotics that are derived from the Archaea group of organisms. Major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in the antibiotics market because these drugs may not be as profitable as drugs that treat chronic long-term conditions and lifestyle issues.
That is no longer the case. RNA polymerase. Infectious disease physicians are alarmed by the prospect that effective antibiotics may not be available to treat seriously ill patients in the near future.
One of the possible strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of bioactive phytochemicals. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria. The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibiotics.
Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances. The Wilson Hot Springs. The myxopyronin binds to and inhibits the crucial bacterial enzyme. The prevalence of archaeocins is unknown simply because no one has looked for them.
Research New medications Until recently. Eight archaeocins have been partially or fully characterized. For example the combination of 5'-methoxyhydnocarpine and berberine in herbs like Hydrastis canadensis and Berberis vulgaris can block the MDR-pumps that cause multidrug resistance. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds including those having antibacterial activity. A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use.
The pipeline of new antibiotics is drying up. Most are secondary metabolites. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions. In research published on October The discovery of new archaeocins hinges on recovery and cultivation of archaeal organisms from the environment. In many cases. This has been shown for Staphylococcus aureus. By constructing a plasmid which contains an antibiotic resistance gene as well as the gene being engineered or expressed.
These are normal bacteria which have crossed the limits of treatment by antibiotics. This ensures that the gene being manipulated passes along when the bacteria replicates.
ABC transporter blockers that may be useful to increase the efficacy of current drugs have entered clinical trials and are available to be used in therapeutic regimes. One of the major causes of antibiotic resistance is the decrease of effective drug concentrations at their target place.
Since ABC transporter blockers can be used in combination with current drugs to increase their effective intracellular concentration. This prevents RNA polymerase from delivering genetic information to the ribosomes. These include: These cause pneumonia. Applications Antibiotic resistance is an important tool for genetic engineering. Urinary infections and infections in other parts of the body.
The most commonly used antibiotics in genetic engineering are generally "older" antibiotics which have largely fallen out of use in clinical practice. Klebsiella Pneumoniae and E. Johann Pitout from the University of Calgary in Canada expressed: If this emerging public health threat is ignored.
Nosocomial Pneumonia. According to an international team of scientists People who traveled to India and Pakistan to get medical treatment risk picking up and spreading a new Superbug Bacteria. Hospitals and doctors are under advise to stay on top of the cleanliness issue. Coli is also responsible for cases of Fatal Pneumonia and other infections. Chennai and Haryana. Experiments with Superbug NDM-1 Bacteria Walsh and his international team collected bacteria samples from hospital patients in two places in India.
Doctors advise to provide adequate cleaning and sanitizing of all areas is the best means of preventing further spread of the superbug bacteria.
It seems to be more dangerous than Swine flu. Coli bacteria may be the cause of Urinary Tract Infections. Coli is the leading cause of urinary tract infections outside of hospitals. August British scientists report NDM-1 is becoming more common in Bangladesh. I track infection and have not seen a single case in my hospital. Healthcare experts in India say the British are just worried because they are losing patients to hospitals here.
Hindustan Times New Delhi. A study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Articles on superbug in news papers Delhi superbug threatening world. Hospital-acquired infections are far more common in Britain and the West than Superbug author According to CII estimates. Medanta — The Medicity. While the study has the medical world turning its focus on infection control policies in Indian hospitals. Several — not all — British NDM-1 positive patients had recently traveled to India or Pakistan for hospital treatment.
Dr Ashok Seth. The 'superbug' resistant to almost all known antibiotics has been found in UK patients treated in Indian hospitals.
Named after the Indian capital. Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre said. They found 44 NDMpositive bacteria in Chennai The audits show that corporate hospitals here are safer than the West.
By the ICMR director's own admission. What makes the superbug more dangerous is its ability to jump across different bacterial species. E coli and K pneumoniae. Pakistan and Bangaladesh. We estimate that the prevalence of this infection would be as high as 1. Since then there have been several cases reported in the UK and in Katoch has reasons to fume. Senior doctors working in infection control said India lacks policies on antibiotics. This extends the patient's stay in the hospital.
For a long time. Christian Medical College. India cannot scientifically fight back allegations of being the source of such superbugs. So far. It's unfair to say it originated from India. Public health experts say globalisation has allowed bacteria to spread rapidly across the world We are now in the process of forming a cell that will activate a registry and issue guidelines for an integrated surveillance system.
An different thing is also observe that Gene responsible for drugresistant superbug found Conclusion- On the basis of above information we can say that antibiotics has to be take in low amount otherwise it effect is worst than its advantage. Therefore antibiotics are good but within limited value. Result- 09Antibiotics are good but within limited value. Bibliography - www. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page.
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