Introduction. 2 Strategies for Sustainable Architecture. Anyone involved in building design, procurement or maintenance in recent years will. Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD) lesforgesdessalles.info research/BEER/lesforgesdessalles.info Sustainable Architecture What is Sustainable. Introduction. ▫ What is sustainable architecture? ▫ Building materials and technologies. ▫ Examples of sustainable architecture in. Italy and the Netherlands .
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PDF | This paper discusses the concept of sustainable architecture, seeking to discuss more accurately the theme of recycling, optimization and lifecycle of. PDF | 50 minutes read | In recent years, sustainability concept has become The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as “sustainable. PDF | The future is largely unknown. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the present generations to use the available resources in a way that.
Hedge rows and shrubbery can block cold winter winds or help channel cool summer breezes into buildings. There is a continuous flow of resources, natural and manufactured, in and out of a building. References 5. All possible measures are to be taken to achieve an efficient. Sustainable development.
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Careful consideration is given to water, energy, building materials, and solid waste. Sustainable development and sustainability are integral to green building. Effective green building can lead to 1 reduced operating costs by increasing productivity and using less energy and water, 2 improved public and occupant health due to improved indoor air quality, and 3 reduced environmental impacts by using sustainable resources.
Architecture is an essential arena for sustainable innovation. Our world needs help gaining popularity on that list. With the help of sustainable architecture , a green design can successfully meld beauty and functionality together to save our planet from us.
Economy of Resources: LCD is based on the notion that a material transmigrates from one form of useful life to another, with no end to its usefulness. Life Cycle Design: Humane Design: Green roof: Solar shingles: Cob houses: Design insect-resistant detailing that will require minimal use of pesticides. Conscientiously renovating existing buildings is the most sustainable construction. Development patterns can either inhibit or contribute to the establishment of strong communities and neighborhoods.
Creation of cohesive communities should be a high priority. In-fill development that increases density is inherently better than building on undeveloped greenfield sites. Mixed-use development, in which residential and commercial uses are intermingled, can reduce automobile use and help to create healthy communities. Locate buildings to provide access to public transportation, bicycle paths, and walking access to basic services.
Commuting can also be reduced by working at home--consider home office needs with layout and wiring. Early in the siting process carry out a careful site evaluation: Cluster buildings or build attached units to preserve open space and wildlife habitats, avoid especially sensitive areas including wetlands, and keep roads and service lines short.
Leave the most pristine areas untouched, and look for areas that have been previously damaged to build on. Seek to restore damaged ecosystems. Design landscapes to absorb rainwater runoff stormwater rather than having to carry it off-site in storm sewers.
In arid areas, rooftop water catchment systems should be considered for collecting rainwater and using it for landscape irrigation. Trees on the east and west sides of a building can dramatically reduce cooling loads. Hedge rows and shrubbery can block cold winter winds or help channel cool summer breezes into buildings.
CFCs have been phased out, but their primary replacements-- HCFCs--also damage the ozone layer and should be avoided where http: Avoid foam insulation made with HCFCs. Reclaim CFCs when servicing or disposing of equipment. Because manufacturing is very energy-intensive, a product that lasts longer or requires less maintenance usually saves energy. Durable products also contribute less to our solid waste problems.
Where possible, select building materials that will require little maintenance painting, retreatment, waterproofing, etc. Heavily processed or manufactured products and materials are usually more energy intensive. As long as durability and performance will not be sacrificed, choose low-embodied-energy materials.
Transportation is costly in both energy use and pollution generation. Look for locally produced materials. Local hardwoods, for example, are preferable to tropical woods. Building products made from recycled materials reduce solid waste problems, cut energy consumption in manufacturing, and save on natural resource use. Reduce landfill pressure and save natural resources by using salvaged materials: Make sure these materials are safe test for lead paint and asbestos , and don't sacrifice energy efficiency or water efficiency by reusing old windows or toilets.
Use lumber from independently certified well-managed forests. Avoid lumber products produced from old- growth timber unless they are certified. Engineered wood can be substituted for old-growth Douglas fir, for example. Don't buy tropical hardwoods unless the seller can document that the wood comes from well- managed forests. Solvent-based finishes, adhesives, carpeting, particleboard, and many other building products release formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds VOCs into the air.
These chemicals can affect workers' and occupants' health as well as contribute to smog and ground-level ozone pollution outside. Use detailing that will prevent soil contact and rot. Where possible, use alternatives such as recycled plastic lumber. Take measures to protect workers when cutting and handling pressure-treated wood.
Scraps should never be incinerated. Avoid excessive packaging, such as plastic- wrapped plumbing fixtures or fasteners that aren't available in bulk. Tell your supplier why you are avoiding over-packaged products. Keep in mind, however, that some products must be carefully packaged to prevent damage--and resulting waste.
Well-designed high-efficiency furnaces, boilers, and air conditioners and distribution systems not only save the building occupants money, but also produce less pollution during operation. Install equipment with minimal risk of combustion gas spillage, such as sealed-combustion appliances. Fluorescent lighting has improved dramatically in recent years and is now suitable for homes.
High- efficiency appliances offer both economic and environmental advantages over their conventional counterparts. Water-conserving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators not only reduce water use, they also reduce demand on septic systems or sewage treatment plants. Reducing hot water use also saves energy. Mechanical ventilation is usually required to ensure safe, healthy indoor air. Heat recovery ventilators should be considered in cold climates because of energy savings, but simpler, less expensive exhaust-only ventilation systems are also adequate.
Protect trees from damage during construction by fencing off the "drip line" around them and avoiding major changes to surface grade. Look into less toxic termite treatments, and keep exposed frost walls free from obstructions to discourage insects. When backfilling a foundation or grading around a house, do not bury any construction debris. Centralize cutting operations to reduce waste and simplify sorting.
Set up clearly marked bins for different types of usable waste wood scraps for kindling, sawdust for compost, etc.
Find out where different materials can be taken for recycling, and educate your crew about recycling procedures. Donate salvaged materials to low-income housing projects, theater groups, etc. Make your office as energy efficient as possible, purchase energy-efficient vehicles, arrange carpools to job sites, and schedule site visits and errands to minimize unnecessary driving.
In your office, purchase recycled office paper and supplies, recycle office paper, use coffee mugs instead of disposable cups. On the job, recycle beverage containers. Use the design and construction process to educate clients, employees, subcontractors, and the general public about environmental impacts of buildings and how these impacts can be minimized.
The page you requested has changed, moved, or is no longer available. To locate the information you are looking for, please visit http: From the home page, you can access a selection of EERE Web sites, or you can browse from here to find the page you are looking for.
In addition, you can use the search feature in the upper right corner of the home page to locate your requested page. Data Sets This Environmental Assessment Guide is a tool to be used by public Send this to a friend Bibliography housing authorities to identify and rank environmental hazards that may endanger the health and safety of their residents.
Not included in the Guide are building-related issues Calendar of Events addressed by other programs, such as lead-based paint and asbestos in individual dwelling units, radon or public safety. It does not address economic liability issues; its purpose is to help public housing authorities to identify State of the Cities unique and potent environmental issues affecting their residents. MapStats This Guide was designed for use by a wide range of public housing authorities.
The nation's 1. Units and projects vary widely in age, density, location, design, construction and upkeep. Public housing authorities vary enormously from rural authorities with as few as six units to urban authorities with thousands of units and large, complex organizations. Currently, public housing authorities have multiple responsibilities, often with limited funding and increasing workloads.
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Notes 1. November 10, The Blue Santa Web site has moved. Please update your bookmarks once you visit www. October 1, The Office of Dispute Resolution was not funded in the - fiscal year budget 3. The Pioneer Farm was not funded in the - fiscal year budget 4. The Neighborhood Academy was not funded in the - fiscal year budget 5. August 4, The Downtown Jam Web site has expired. New link, www.
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No other sector has a greater impact on the global environment or faces a greater obligation to improve its environmental performance. With so much of the world's resources consumed in the building sector, learning how to build with the environment in mind will make a big difference for the global environment.
Energy 3. Water 4. Landscape 5. Materials 6. Waste 7. Construction Practices 8. Human Health and Comfort Resources: Indoor Environmental Quality 9. Please contact us. Preserving and creating the built environment for sustainable development. Although these guidelines focus on the durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues of building design, they should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to preserving and creating the built environment for sustainable development.
This is the main objective which underpins the guidelines. Buildings that are durable, adaptable and contribute to the energy conservation have a positive impact on environmental, social and economic systems, and thus contribute to more sustainable development. Aim, approach and target audience Top of Page The aim of these guidelines is to provide advice on a strategic approach to resolving the conflicts among durability, adaptability and energy conservation requirements in building design.
The guidelines are an outcome of a research project which focused on identifying such conflicts in higher education buildings. However, they are applicable to other types of buildings as well.
It is not possible to provide prescriptive guidelines for the reconciliation of the conflicts among the durability, adaptability and energy conservation requirements because of the combination of variable factors in building design such as buildings function s initial and future , required service life, required level of adaptability and energy requirements.
Prescriptive guidelines may carry too many qualifications and limitations which are not applicable in all cases. Understanding the principles behind the conflicts in building design allows designers to apply their own ideas in solving the problem.
Defining durability, adaptability and energy conservation Top of Page Defining durability, adaptability and energy conservation Durability is defined as service life, i. Adaptability of buildings, as defined in this research project, comprises the following: In the construction industry, energy is used for the extraction and manufacture of building materials and components, their transportation to the building site, the construction process, the running of building, maintenance, adaptations, deconstruction and disposal.
Energy conservation of buildings pertains to all these phases of building life. Teamwork approach Top of Page It has often been emphasised that an integrated team design approach is crucial for a good building design.
Clients, architects, structural and services engineers, and quantity surveyors need to work together from the start of a project on the development of design strategies and the assessment of whole life costs. Early involvement of contractors contributes to the examination of buildability and costs. Experienced building managers can draw attention to common faults in building design, maintenance problems, and difficulties or advantages in management and operation of different services systems.
Design team members need to agree that, throughout the design process from inception to detailed design , they will try to identify the conflicts between the design strategies and solutions, and aim to resolve them.
Consideration of whole life cycle impact of buildings Top of Page The main principle of building design for sustainable development is to consider the impact of buildings on the natural, social and economic systems throughout their life cycle. The main consequence of this approach to building design is that buildings should not be designed as expendable and disposable products, but that the use of natural, social and economic resources invested in their creation should be maximised and any negative impacts minimised.
Opportunities for achieving this goal arise from the moment when the decision is made whether to re-use an existing building or to build a new one, through all stages of building design, procurement, construction, use operation, maintenance, adaptations , dismantling, recycling and disposal. This approach needs to be adopted by both the clients and design team. The objective of the design philosophy is to emphasise that the main principles and objectives of a building design should be harmonised.
This means that in the pursuit of energy conservation, durability, adaptability or cost effectiveness, it is necessary to remember the Vitruvian principles of commodity, firmness and delight. Buildings that are functional and comfortable, durable and look well have always been appreciated and rarely became obsolete. The main objective of building design should be to provide a building which meets the requirements for functionality, durability, adaptability, energy conservation, cost-effectiveness and aesthetics in a balanced way.
This means that the pursuit of one goal should not compromise the possibilities of achieving the other goals of the building design.
Defining functional requirements, and design objectives and targets Top of Page design brief Both in adapting an existing building and designing a new one, building function, required service life, required level of adaptability, and energy requirements, which include the targets for energy conservation, need to be defined at the design brief stage. Together with the available budget, these achievement goals and performance targets outline the main design objectives and constraints.
Re-using an existing building or building a new one Top of Page feasibility studies When the functional requirements, design objectives and targets are defined, clients and designers need to consider whether to adapt an existing building or build a new one. This is the first step towards the energy conservation and preservation of natural resources. Existing buildings need to be examined regarding the following issues: An assessment of the environmental impact of the new building will enable planners to decide whether the new use is compatible with the existing environment.
Architects, structural and services engineers will examine and assess the above listed issues. If the assessment shows that the existing building is durable, adaptable, and contributes to energy conservation, then it should be re-used. However, financial considerations will have a significant role if some of the listed requirements are not met. Since the costs will be higher if the requirements of new use cannot be easily met, it is advisable to look for an existing building with design features which meet most of the requirements of the new use.
In order to avoid early obsolescence, one of the main strategies for achieving the durability of buildings is to design adaptable buildings. Apart from designing for the adaptability of the whole building, design for re-use means that building elements and components should be designed for re-use in the same or other buildings.
This goal also contributes to energy conservation and has a positive impact on the preservation of natural resources. Energy used throughout the building life comprises the embodied energy of building materials and components, energy used in the construction process, during the lifetime of the building, and for dismantling. Since the amount of energy used during the building life still represents the major part of the total energy used by buildings, energy efficiency of buildings during their lifetime and the type of energy sources non-renewable or renewable play the most important role in the total energy conservation and environmental impact of energy.
The main strategic goal regarding energy conservation is to minimise the use of fossil energy and maximise the use of renewable energy resources, daylighting and natural ventilation. Conceptual design - main spatial, structural and energy conservation Top of Page strategies Main principles of the design strategy are first expressed in the conceptual design which outlines spatial, structural and environmental concepts of the building design.
At this stage designers have the first opportunity to propose design strategies and examine their compatibility. In conceptual design, the following issues need to be examined with regard to the re-use durability and adaptability and energy conservation of buildings: Spatial issues: Planning of the layout means placing the activities in particular positions in a building whilst taking into account interrelationship of the activities, main communication routes and environmental requirements for specific activities.
Planning for adaptability of the layout means that activities and their relationship may change, as well as the complete use of building. Thus, the initial layout needs to be considered as only one of various possible layouts within a building plan. This can be achieved by the following: Both the plan surface and floor-to-floor height need to be considered. The plan depth and.. The plant should be spacious and easily accessible for both people and..
If possible, it should be located at the ground level or in a separate building. However, http: Structural issues: Wide structural spans will allow a flexible layout, but then the structure needs to be robust and to be designed for extra loads. Robust structure is also designed to cope with known hazards considering both risk and consequence.
It is not unduly sensitive to marginal departures from the design assumptions, local defects or movement and environmental change. The structure should not deflect or vibrate to an extent that alarms the occupants or disturbs their function. Energy conservation issues. Maximising daylighting, natural ventilation and use of renewable resources. This is achieved by avoiding the need for air-conditioning through the use of shallow plans which permit natural ventilation and daylighting.
Solar gains in summer are avoided by shading and correct orientation. Passive solar gains, particularly for ventilation preheat, and night ventilation for cooling, are also considered. Thermal mass of the structure or building envelope as regulator of thermal behaviour of a building.
While a heavyweight building does not have advantages over a lightweight building with good insulation during the warming up period, thermal mass brings an energy benefit in its effects on the usefulness of solar and casual gains. This means that lightweight buildings will overheat quickly, while heavyweight buildings are able to absorb the sudden input of solar gain. The energy stored in heavyweight walls helps delay a demand for heating as the outside temperature drops, which has an important role in minimising temperature swings in unheated spaces such as conservatoires and atria.
In hot weather, the thermal mass can be cooled by the fall of night, providing the building is not occupied by night. Design team will consider how building thermal mass can contribute to the energy conservation. Flexibility and capacity of services.
If the initial building use requires complex and 'intelligent' services, they need to be flexible. Flexibility of the layout also requires flexible services which have extra capacity, or the possibility of increasing the capacity. Flexibility of electrical, heating and cooling services is particularly important in order to provide adequate environmental conditions and servicing of the equipment.
Concerning the HVAC systems, this means that they may be decentralised to allow the differential use in the building. Independence of services in relation to the building fabric. The design and ducting of services should aim to achieve independence in relation to the building fabric to allow ease of change and maintenance, and avoid changes or damage to the building fabric. Design of the building envelope for durability, adaptability and energy Top of Page conservation In the process of defining main spatial, structural and services parameters, the building envelope also needs to be considered.
Design of a building envelope to be durable, adaptable and which will http: Apart from robustness, good detailing.. For example, water.. This can be prevented by good.. Special care is needed in designing the joints between building.. In addition, building components which have mechanical parts for example,.. Poor exterior appearance of a building may decrease the building value and..
Modular elements which allow changing of.. Extensions to the building may be easier if the building envelope or.. Adequate U-values, shading against.. Identifying conflicts between the strategies at the stage of conceptual Top of Page design The design team should aim to identify any conflicts between the proposed strategies and means for achieving them. Apart from the conflicts which may arise among durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues, possible effects of the proposed strategies on functionality, appearance etc.
If conflicts are identified, designers should aim to propose design solutions which meet the strategic requirements in a balanced way.
Creating a building performance profile as a guide to a detailed design Top of Page When the main strategies have been agreed in the conceptual design, detailed performance requirements can be defined in the form of a building performance profile. The DAEC Tool is based on a method which can be used to define a performance profile for a building in relation to durability, adaptability and energy conservation.
Performance requirements should be defined in consultation with the client and revised when the whole life costs are provided. Durability performance profile. Durability performance profile will define the required service life of all building elements and components. For example, the performance profile of higher education buildings examined the following building elements and components: The list may be amended for other building types.
Adaptability performance profile http: Adaptability performance profile will define the requirements for building design features which affect adaptability. The adaptability profile needs to be defined in relation to the required level of adaptability. With regard to the adaptability of higher education buildings the following spatial, structural and services design features, and design features that affect ease of use of the spaces by occupants with different physical abilities were assessed: The list of building design features which need to be assessed may be amended for other building types.
Energy conservation performance profile. Energy conservation performance profile defines requirements for the building design features that affect energy conservation, and performance targets related to energy consumption and the environmental impact of energy-in-use.
For example, the following design features and environmental performance targets were examined with regard to higher education buildings: The above list may be amended, if needed, for other building types. Detailed design Top of Page The detailed design will follow the requirements defined in the performance profile.
It will consider the following issues with regard to the durability, adaptability and energy conservation: Durability issues. Specifying for durability. Specification of building materials, components and finishes which are suitable for the environmental conditions and can be protected from damaging agents in soil, water and air, and which meet or exceed required service life.
These specifications will also be based on the environmental impact of building materials and components. Designing for buildability. A design needs to be readily buildable and not dependent upon perfect workmanship and compliance with the specification.
Advice on good workmanship and quality control. Good workmanship on site and the assembly of complex components off site will contribute to the durability of buildings.
The level of quality assurance selected throughout the whole process should ensure satisfactory reliability. Specifications can include this advice, especially regarding new and untested design solutions. A design identifies and provides good access for all items requiring maintenance and inspection. It should incorporate early warning signs of serious defects. It should allow easy maintenance of building elements and finishes.
Adaptability issues. Design for dismantling and re-use. A detailed design of building elements and components should aim to provide the possibility of easy dismantling. Design for accessibility and ease of use by all occupant. A detailed design of access routes, communications, services, etc.
Energy conservation issues http: Avoiding conflicts between different environmental requirements. The strategies for low energy buildings comprise careful consideration of building design and management in other to avoid the conflicts between the means for achieving natural lighting, ventilation, heating and cooling.
This implies an understanding of different environmental conditions which occur in buildings during 24 hours and in different seasons, and how the strategies for achieving desired environmental conditions may come into conflict. There is a range of strategic Baker, and more detailed technical guides, e.
Adequate and energy efficient services. Services engineers will consider the use of condensing boilers, heat recovery and heat pumps reduce the heating demand, low energy light sources to reduce electricity demand, and combined heat and power CHP for larger buildings.
Where mechanical cooling is unavoidable, they will minimise the load by adopting passive means e. Modelling for energy conservation. A range of tools are helpful in planning and designing for energy conservation, and in predicting the energy consumption of buildings. Some of the available tools are listed below: Design for manageability and occupant control. Designers should aim to provide simple interfaces for operation of building environmental systems.
Commissioning, handover and feedback Top of Page Since many modern buildings are very complex, and may comprise 'intelligent' systems or specific operation regimes to benefit from its design features, it is necessary to provide the documentation with operating and maintenance manuals for building managers. Post-occupancy surveys should become a http: References Burns, J. Glasgow, pp. Chapman, J. Preiser, W. New York, pp. Rodin, J. Rookwood, R. London Schlaich, J. Stillman, J.
Cole, R. Volume 1, Overview, April. Natural Resources Canada Ottawa, Canada. Clements-Croome, T. Crawley, D. Dekker, K. Grammenos, F.
Buildings and the Environment, June , Paris, Vol. Kohler, N. Vischer, J. Toward a More Humane Architecture, http: Top of Page http: The site is maintained by the Florida Design Initiative and is organized around the individual technical guidelines that will comprise the complete set of Guidelines for Total Building Commissioning. Guideline Modules 1. General Principles and Procedures 2. Mechanical and Energy Systems 3. Structural Systems 4.
Exterior Envelope Systems 5. Roofing Systems 6. Interior Systems 7. Elevator Systems 8. Plumbing Systems 9. Lighting Systems Electrical Systems Sustainable design is "front loaded" compared with traditional design. Measures for green buildings can be divided into four areas: A "green" building places a high priority on health. The other elements of design can be organized: Support pedestrians. Producing green buildings involves resolving many conflicting issues and requirements. Kermit the Frog.
A green approach to the built environment involves a holistic approach to the design of buildings. Sustainable buildings don't have to cost more. All the resources that go into a building. Use renewable energy and materials that are sustainably harvested. Minimizing energy consumption and promoting human health should be the organizing principles of sustainable design. Protect and restore local air. Sophisticated buyers and lessors prefer them.
Early decisions have the greatest impact on energy efficiency. Commitment to better performance. Whether the design site is a building in the inner city or in a more natural setting.
By working with living processes. Engaging processes that regenerate rather than deplete. The byproduct of one organism becomes the food for another.
Understanding People. It's about using one's imagination and technical knowledge to engage in a central aspect of the practice -. A Definition by John Norton. The challenge is finding the balance between environmental considerations and econmic constraints. Collaboration with systems consultants.
Sustainable design attempts to have an understanding of the environmental impact of the design by evaluating the site. Making natural cycles and processes visible brings the designed environment back to life.
Understanding Natural Processes. Effective design helps inform us of our place within nature. In nature there is not waste. Consideration must be given to the needs of our communities and the ecosystem that supports them. If we are sensitive to the nuances of place. This requires sensitivity and empathy on the needs of the people and the community. Embracing Co-creative Design Processes.
Negative environmental impact can be mitigated through use of sustainably harvested building materials and finishes. Sustainable design begins with an intimate understanding of place. Habitat Debate Vol. Sustainable design must take into consideration the wide range of cultures. Understanding Environmental Impact. Sustainable designers are finding it is important to listen to every voice. Designers are also listening to the voices of local communities. Understanding place helps determine design practices such as solar orientation of a building on the site.
The smart architect thinks rationally about a combination of issues including sustainability. Connecting with Nature. Design charettes for the end user neighbourhood residents or office employers are becoming a standard practice.
Architronic v4n3. Auburn University 2. Sanuel Mockbee. In other words. January Principle 1: Principle 2: Principle 3: Principle 4: Principle 5: Principle 6: Principle 7: Basic Sustainable Design Principles [www. Urban Design Quarterly. Going green by design. Integrating Ecology and Real Estate 3. Pedestrianisation is to restrict vehicle access to a street or area for the exclusive use of pedestrians.
Computer energy simulation is used to assess their effectiveness in energy conservation. Computer energy simulations can be used to assess energy conservation measures early and throughout the design process. There are four principal ways to influence transport system efficiency and energy consumption: It provides a pleasant and safe environment for pedestrians.
Simulations are used to refine designs and ensure that energy-conservation and capital cost goals are met. The expanded design team collaborates early in conceptual design to generate many alternative concepts for building form. Every new development ideally should have an explicit energy strategy. Shower mixers Water saving showerheads Self closing shower system Outside and garden: Water control Clothes Washers: Auto shut off and pressure regulators Rain water and grey water: Rain water recycling systems Grey water recycling systems 3.
Push taps Flow control. Urinal controls infrared. To reduce embodied energy. The energy input required to quarry. Waste Management Strategies Waste prevention Recyclying construction and demolition materials Architectural reuse include adaptive reuse.
As William McDonough. Waste is not simply an unwanted and sometimes harmful by-product of life. We are the only species to produce wastes that can be broadly toxic and build up for long periods of time. An old Chinese proverb. Dean of the University of Virginia School of Architecture.
Guide to Developing Green Building Programs. Strategies 4. University of Minnesota. Your Home [www. December University of Michigan. US Green Building Council. Public Technology Inc..
National Association of Home Builders. Green Building Program of the City of Austin. Sustainable Building Technical Manual. The Sustainable Design Resource Guide: US Navy. Third Edition.