National Structural Code for Buildings, 1st Edition. ▫ Based on Philippine International Convention Center (PICC). Folk Arts . NSCP National Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link. A brief discussion about the wind loading provisions in the NSCP (National Structural Code of the Philippines) is presented. A recent review of the the.
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National Structural Code of the Philippines(NSCP), Volume 1, Fourth Edition - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Reference code. Bart Lucena Jr. Wind Loads NSCP Provisions. Uploaded by. Monde Nuylan. 1 ~1. l Association of structural Engineers of the Philippines. /I. NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (NSCP) CIO-Ol Volume 1. National Structural Code of the Philippines Edition. IdentifierNSCP Identifier-arkark://t9s OcrABBYY FineReader
Handrails I See. Tests for the determination of mean and fluctuating forces and pressures shall meet all of the following conditions: Peat, dry, piled I Factor. The static lateral force procedure of Section Strengths or designations of materials to be used. SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional structural system, without bearing walls, composed of members interconnected so as to function as a complete selfcontained unit with or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor-bracing systems.
Ideas for future activities and research related to wind engineering, including possible improvements in the NSCP wind loading provisions, are then suggested.
See [Pacheco, a and b]. In addition to earthquake which was historically the focus of DQRP, typhoons and other natural hazards were now being discussed. The objectives of the paper were: True enough, typhoon winds cause damages to structures that, although not generally catastrophic, due to the frequency of typhoons, add up more significantly than those by other types of disasters.
Example photos of damages due to strong winds from one typhoon Typhoon 'Unding,' International Name: Muifa, November are shown. More damage photos from the same typhoon could be obtained from http: The photos show that strong winds could damage electrical transmission lines and their supporting poles or lattice towers, roof structures, windows, internal or external walls, advertisement boards or sign structures, and trees.
Additionally, fallen trees, walls, and other structures were shown to damage adjacent houses, transmission lines, and even parked cars. Figure 1. Sample photos of damages due to typhoons 2. The tropical cyclone tracks and corresponding wind speeds provided by PAGASA are also particularly useful information. Also, the NSCP wind loading provisions are still being used by a small fraction of the engineering community.
Some possible issues in using the previous version are raised though. First, considering that the NSCP wind zone map has been based on extreme value statistical analysis of a more consistent and more extensive set of data, the equivalent fastest- kilometer wind speeds for each of the three zones could be calculated after some conversion. Table 1. Resonant response is ignored in NSCP Two types of raw data files have been used in developing extreme wind speed maps for the Philippines: These files include what could be considered as monthly or daily maximum minute average and 3-second gust wind speeds, as well as corresponding wind directions.
It was also shown that the data could be used in generating wind directionality factors. A similar work presented was by Elliott et al . Also cited was the recording of wind speeds in Naga City during the passing of Typhoon Unding in November , also freely available from the Typhoon Weather and other wind- and typhoon-related information in the Philippines were shown to be available from various other websites. Some of these possible improvements were also discussed see next chapter.
The idea that one single group could coordinate activities of all groups involved in developing these hazard maps was also suggested. Collaboration, and harmonization of documents and data between engineers and researchers from other fields were also promoted. Table 2 Table 2. Some additional suggestions presented are listed in Table 4. Even more suggested research ideas are listed in Table 5. Table 3. Year http: Yukio Tamura, program director; Mr. Michael Padua from Naga City for use of the damage photos and other information from his website, Typhoon John D.
Standard 7: ASCE Aquino, R. Country report submitted to the Tokyo Polytechnic University. National Structural Code for Buildings , 1st ed. ASEP National Structural Code for Buildings , 2nd ed. Elliott, D. Schwartz, R. George, S. Haymes, D. Heimiller, and G. Scott Decay and Termite Protection Horizontal Member Design.. Quality Assurance General Design Requirements. Exterior Wall Coverings Strength Design ofMasomy Wood Supporting Masomy or Wood Shear Walls and Diaphragms..
Mortar and Grout Design and Construction Glass Masomy Flexural and Axial Loading Column Design Volume Wall Framing Interior Paneling Minimum Quality Timber Connectors and Fasteners Material Standards Mechanically Laminated Post-beam Connections Alterations or Wherever in this code reference is made to the appendix.
This Volume 1 of the code shall apply to buildings. Where there is a contlict between a general requirement and a specific requirement.
For additions. These rules. National Structural Code of the Philippines. Volume 1. This board shall be composed of These regulations shall be known as the National competent structural engineers and shall have authority to Structural Code of the Philippines. The purpose of this code is to provide minimum standards to safeguard life or limb. Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines. The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures.
The following terms are defined for use in this chapter: Structural Engineering as recognized by the Board of Civil Terms. The term "strength design" is used in the design of concrete and masonry structures. Each building or other utility facilities not included in Category structure shall be assigned to the highest applicable I or Category II above. For buildings or other structures having multiple independent structural systems.
All structures with an occupancy 5.
Tanks or other structures containing housing or supporting water or other fire-suppression material or equipment required for the protection of Category I. Facilities Nonbuilding structures housing. Buildings used for college or adult education with a capacity of or more students. Structures Educational buildings with a capacity of or more students.
Occupancies and structures therein housing or supporting toxic or explosive II Hazardous chemicals or substances. Fire and police stations. Table Standby power-generating equipment for Category I facilities. Structures and shelters in emergency preparedness centers.
Garages and shelters for emergency vehicles and emergency aircraft. Aviation control towers. Structures and equipment in I Essential communication centers and other Facilities facilities required for emergency response. Institutional buildings. Load p'Shall be the value at midspan for simple and continuous and Resistance Factor Design.
Chapter 2 and elsewhere in this code. I Span length of beam or one way slab. Time dependent Stress Design methods. Plastic Design or Allowable spans..
For concrete. Any system or method of construction to be used shall be based on a rational analysis in accordance with well Table Maximum Allowable Deflection for established principles of mechanics that take into account Structural Members1 equilibrium. Structural systems and members thereof shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit.. Design shall be in accordance with Strength Design The forces.
Deflection criteria for materials not Such anchorage shall provide a positive direct connection capable of resisting the Section for wind loading and review of the design load criteria. Anchorage of the roof to walls and See Section See Sections Rigid elements that are in accordanee with Section of this code. The review shall also verify that there is no major error apparent in pertinent In addition. The design calculations. See Section this code which shall include.
The foree-resisting system. Walls shall be designed to resist bending between anchors where the anchor spacing exceeds 1. For accidental torsion requirements structural engineer performing the review shall have for seismic design.
Section for seismic loading. The total 1 or as required by the building official if the site specific lateral foree shall be distributed to the various vertical conditions make the foundation investigation necessary. Provisions shall be made calculations.
Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning effects caused by The design review shall verify the general compliance with the lateral forces specified in this chapter.
Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced grouted structural element of the wall. The design review shall not in any way transfer or diminish Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors.
Explanation or definition of symbols and the building and to the public on request and after the abbreviations used in the drawings. The instruments shall be located in the connection details of the various members. Data shall creep. Location coefficient. The drawings shall show a complete design with sizes. ENT shall be posted in a conspicuous listed in Section Each instrument shall be located so that access is maintained at all times and is unobstructed by room Unless waived by the building official.
Name and date of issue of building code and produced by the instruments shall be made available to the supplements.
Data 1. Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from provide. All or rock profile. The design drawings contents. The specifications shall contain information covering the Design strengths of underlying soil or rock. The soil The design drawings shall be drawn to three approved recording accelerographs. Live loads and other loads used in design. The jurisdiction authorities shall make arrangements to 6.
The scale upon substantial paper or cloth and shall be of accelerographs shall be interconnected for common start sufficient clarity to indicate the location. Floor levels. Strengths or designations of materials to be used. The occupant of the building shall be responsible for keeping the actual load below the allowable Seismic design basis including the total base shear of appropriate earthquake-recording instruments.
Camber oftrusses. Maintenance and service of the Description or explanation of welding and inspection determine the nature and extent of the analysis. Details and location of all contraction or isolation joints specified for plain concrete in Section A description of the structure's gravity and lateral 2. The following requirements apply to calculations which Results from model analysis in the design. The type of connection for joints using high strength of the computation documentation.
Design strengths and other design parameters of the underlying soil or rock. The results shall be accompanied by a description of the rational basis. Magnitude and location of prestressing forces. Amount anchorage lengths or cutoff points of steel load resisting systems.
Statement if slab on grade is designed as a structural Engineer's professional license number and 1. This shall 5. Type and location of welded splices and mechanical also be provided. Strengths or designations of materials to be used for each component ofthe structure. Calculations pertinent to the structural data.
Design assumptions shaU 2. A description of the roof. Stressing sequence for post-tensioned tendons. Regulation Commi A program bolts. Name and date of issue of building code and expiration date of the current Professional supplements.
The information required in the output shall include Calculations may include diaphragm. Loads and design requirements necessary for be clearly described. A program description giving the program name. The calculations shall include a summary of the criteria and methodologies used User's Guide shall also be made available. Specified compressive strength of concrete at stated 4. The first sheet of each computer run shall be signed filed with the design drawings. The basis ofthe seismic and wind design forces.
A drawing of the complete mathematical model used Stiffener and bracing requirements. A description of the mathematical model and 4. Type or types of construction as defined in Section 1. This summary shall include. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of include the section and material properties used. Data provided. Notes for joints in which welding sequence and determine whether the computations comply with the technique of welding are required to be carefully requirements ofthis code.
Strengths of materials. The following terms are defined for use in this section: Copies of the as-built drawings shall be provided to the owner. The as-built drawings shall be drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and shall The signature. One or more structural inspectors shall be employed by the owner or the engineer of record acting as the owner's Work items which required modifications of or are agent.
Structural observation does not include or waive the responsibility for the structural inspections required by section The basis of modification or change shall include employment of a structural inspector if the construction is reference to supplemental design drawings. The structural provide reports to the person responsible for the structural inspector shall observe the work assigned for conformance design and shall provide continuous inspection of the to the approved design drawings and specifications.
The structural inspector shall furnish inspection reports to the building official. Welding done in an approved fabricator's shop in accordance with Section The structural inspector shall submit a final signed report The structural inspector need not be present continuously stating whether the work requiring structural inspection during placing of reiriforcing steel and prestressing was.
The structural inspector shall also verify that the as-built All discrepancies shall be brought to prestressing tendons for all concrete required to have the immediate attention of the contractor for correction.
Prior to and during When structural observation is required by Section The structural engineer shall prepare an appropriate testing I. See Section For construction or operation requiring structural inspection. Concrete for foundations of residential buildings and inspection program that shall be submitted to the accommodating 10 or fewer persons.
Bolts instaUed in concrete. The structural inspector shall be the placement of concrete around bolts when stress a registered civil engineer or a qualified person under the increases permitted by Footnote 5 of Table or Section supervision of a registered civil engineer who shall are utilized. Site work concrete flilly supported on earth and concrete where no special hazard exists. For foundation concrete. The inspection program shall designate falling under Category V of Table Such inspections may be performed on a periodic In addition to Section Welding ofstairs and railing systems.
During shall monitor the installation of bolts to determine that all driving and testing of piles and construction of cast-in-place plies of connected materials have been drawn together and drilled piles or caissons. During the welding of reinforcing steel. The structural inspector need not be continuously present during the welding of ASlM A reinforcing steel not The structural inspector shall supenise the the structural inspector shall determine that the preparation of compression est specimens during this requirements for bolts.
Welded studs when used for structural MPafor concrete 1mits or 18 MPafor clay units. While the work is in progress. During the application work. Stmctural inspection as required ill Sections For hollow-unit masonry where thefm is more than 10 c.
The structural inspector need not be continuously During basis as defined in Section Floor and roofdeck welding. During the taking of test specimens and placing of all shotcrete. The structural inspector the application of spray-applied fire-resistive materials.
Every approval of a material Non-destructive Testing. The approved fabricator shall submit a their durability and weather resistance. Connections shall be capable of withstanding 1. Unless otherwise specifically stated in this section. Work that. The fabricator has developed and submitted a uplift forces as specified in Chapter 2. A certificate of approval shall monitor the effectiveness of the quality control be furnished with every prefabricated assembly.
In structural design. The approved fabricator's qualifications shall be this code and shall be capable of developing the strengtq of contingent on compliance with the following: The purpose of this section is to regulate materials and establish methods of safe The building official may structural engineer to perform such work without structural require special tests to be made on assemblies to determine inspection. The certificate of approval shall certify that the assembly in question has been inspected and meets all the requirements of this code.
Every material shall be graded. Every device used to connect the building official and to the engineer or architect of prefabricated assemblies shall be designed as required by record.
Materials and the assembly approved inspection or quality control agency. Periodic plant inspections shall be conducted by an approved inspection or quality control agency to Verification of the fabricator's quality control In Seismic Zone 4.
Reject Table is greater than one. The structural engineer may accept or program shall inclt. The structure is defined in Table as reduced to 25 percent.
This testing shall be a part of the structural inspection requirements of Section To be acceptable under continuous welds over mm in length where the this code.
As a minimum. For complete penetration groove welds on materials assemblies at the building site shall be inspected to less than 8 mm thick. The structure is in Seismic Zone 4. Placement of prefabricated 2. A program for this testing Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or rejected shall be established by the person responsible for structural on the basis of the defect rating in accordance with the design and as shown on plans and specifications.
For partial penetration groove welds when used in column splices. A sampling of at least 40 completed welds for a job 2. No as set forth in shall be made for SlIch reduction evaluation. If continuous 3. When approved by the building official and outlined inspection is required for certain materials where in the project plans and specifications. II or III. When approved. For evaluating the reject rate on 10 or fewer perSOIlS.
Continuous inspection will not be required during To the building official. Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing building or structure that will cause the existing building or structure to become unsafe.
The structural observer shall submit to determine compliance with this subsection. An unsafe condition shall be deemed to have been created if an addition or alteration will cause any structural element of the existing building or structure to resist loads in excess of their capacity or cause a reduction of their load carrying capacity. Buildings in exiStence at the time of the adoption of this code may have their existing use or occupancy continued.
When such observation is specifically required by to life. Any change in the use or occupancy of any existing building or structure shall comply with the provisions of The owner shall employ Sections National structlJRll Code of the Philippines.
Buildings and structures to which structural observations shall be performed at the additions. The Observed deficiencies shall be reported in writing to the owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsible. When so designated by the structural engineer.
The All buildings and structures. It shall be the duty of the person doing the work authorized Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing building or structure when such existing building or structure is not in full compliance with the provisions of this code except when such addition or alteration will result in the existing building or structure being no more hazardous based on structural safety.
Exploratory excavations under the direction of geotechnical engineers or engineering geologists. When approved by the building official.
This additions necessary for the preservation.. Except as specified in Section The capacity of existing structural elements required to resist forces is not reduced.
The restored building or structure will be no more increase the stresses in or pressure upon any adjacent hazardous based on life safety than the existing or contiguous property. New structural elements are detailed and connected A change in use or occupancy of any building shall be 9. Excavations for wells or tunnels or utilities. An excavation that 1 is less than mm in depth or 2 does not create a cut slope greater than 1. A grading permit is not required for the following: Refuse disposal sites controlled by other regulations.
An excavation below finished grade for basements and footings of a building. The building or structure has been designated by 5. A fill less than mm in depth and placed on allowed 0! New or relocated nonstructural elements are grading without first having obtained a grading permit from detailed and connected to existing or new structural the building official. Alterations or repairs to an existing building or structure that are nonstructural and do not adversely affect any structural member or any part of 1.
Any structurally unsafe conditions are corrected. Cemetery graves. Volume 1 t. Such construction of civil works. Grading in excess of report shall be incorporated in the grading plans or 4.
Plans shall be See Geotechnical Engineering. The engineering drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and shall be geology report required by Section General vicinity map ofthe proposed site.
Recommendations included in the geotechnical engineering report and the engineering geology Application Limiting dimensions elevations or finish contours to be achieved by the grading.
See Geotechnical Engineer. The dates of the geotechnical engineering and determines that special conditions or unusual hazards exist. Specifications shall contain information covering construction and material requirements. The first sheet of each set the adequacy for the intended use of sites to be developed of plans shall give location of the work.
Location of any buildings or structures on the Property limits and accurate contours of existing SOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying ground and details of terrain and area drainage. The plans shall include the following information: The plans and measures. When approved by the building approved grading plan prepared by a civil engineer. The tor a grading permit shall be accompanied by two sets of geotechnical engineering report required by Section A separate operations.
Upon completion of the rough ground and placement and compaction of the fill to verify grading work and at the final completion of the work. The plan shall include the following provisions of this code. It shall be the dl. In the event of changed conditions. Each engineering geology report shall be submitted to the application for a grading permit shall be accompanied by a geotechnical engineer. Limiting dimensions and depth of cut and fill.
The civil engineer shall provide professional inspection within such engineer's area of If revised plans are until the replacement has agreed in writing to accept their required during the course of the work. Volume '1. Civil engineers shall state that to the best with the approved report. As-constructed geologist's area of technical specialty. If the civil engineer. The geotechnical engineer shall provide sufficient observation during the preparation of the natural Grading operations for which a permit exercised by the professional consultants.
The engineering and elevations of surface drainage facilities and of geologist shall provide professional inspection within such the outlets of subsurface drains. The permittee shall be responsible for involved. The permittee shall act as a coordinator between the consultants. The building official shall Revised recommendations of their knowledge the work within their area of relating to conditions differing from the approved National Structural Code of the Philippines.
Revised recommendations relating to conditions differing L An as-built grading plan prepared by the civil from the approved geotechnical engineering and engineer retained to provide such services in engineering geology reports shall be submitted to the accordance with Section The plans shall give the location of the work.
General vicinity map of the proposed site. Professional inspection of grading operations shall Location of any buildings or structures where work shall be responsible for informing the building official of is to be performed.
The geotechnical such change prior to the recommencement of such grading. A report prepared by the geotechnical engineer retained to provide such services in accordance with Section A report prepared by the engineering geologist retained to provide such services in accordance with Section The grading contractor shall submit in a form prescribed by the building official a statement of conformance to said as-built plan and the specifications.
Final approval shall not be given until all work. The permittee shall notify the building official when the grading operation is ready for final inspection. Geotechnical engineers shall submit a statement that.
Engineering geologists shall submit a statement that. Nonstructural The standards listed below are recognized standards for nor shall it be a place used by the public. ASCE 7. Structural Standards for Steel allowable stress also called working stress design. GARAGE is a building or portion thereof in which motor vehicle containing flammable or combustible liquids or gas in its tank is stored.
Chapter 6. Loads and appropriate load combinations. Guide Specifications for building for the gathering together of 50 or more persons the Design Loads of Metal Flagpoles for such purposes as deliberation. The structure shall not be a Minimum Design Loads for method of proportioning structural elements such that Buildings and Other Structures computed stresses produced in the elements by the allowable stress load combinations do not exceed specified 2.
All other loads are variable loads. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 0. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or ofsmall magnitude. LOADS are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials. Any masonry or concrete waH that supports more than 1.
MARQUEE is a permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building and projecting over public property. L Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines. In lieu of the I. Section P or T are to be dead load. Where Load and No increase in allowable stresses shall be used with these Resistance Factor Design is used. F load due to fluids. Factored load combinations for structural concrete The most critical effect can occur when one or more of the per Section All applicable loads shall 2.
Factored load combinations of this section be considered. Where allowable stress permitted live load reduction. T self-straining force and effects arising from D contraction or expansion resulting from temperature change. Where F. Where other factored load combinations are specifically required by the provisions ofthis code. When using the alternate load combinations specified in The actual weights of materials and constructions shaH be Section P or T are to be In allowable stresses for all combinations including Wor E.
IlLS Steel Sand or gravel Architectural bearing. Hardwood flooring Acoustical Fiber Board Wood furring suspension Stone concrete.
Plaster on tile or concrete. Hollow Concrete Masonry units Five-ply felt and gravel Cellular glass. Provision shall be made in designing floors for a concentrated load. This requirement may be satisfied in accordance with the provisions of Section Where it can be determined. Floors shall be designed for the unit live loads as set forth in Table Provision shall be made in areas where vehicles are used or stored for concentrated loads.
Where uniform floor loads are involved. Each load shall be 40 percent of the gross weight of the maximum size vehicle to be accommodated. These loads shall be taken as the minimum live loads in kilonewton per square meter of horizontal projection to be used in the design of buildings for the occupancies listed.
Access floor systems shall be designed to support. Stair stringers may be designed for the 2 uniform load set forth in the table. Roof decks served or -. Assembly areas and auditorium Movable seating 4. Stores See Table for vehicle barriers. Manufacturing See Section Provision shall be made for the Category Description kPa kN special vertical and lateral loads as set forth in Table Printing plants Composing and linotype rooms 4. Garages Prhllte or 2 See Section Armories 7. Libraries Individual stair treads shall be designed to support a Restrooms 9 Cornices and Stag.
Sidewalks and Public access Assembly areas include such occupancies as dance halls. Schools 1. I Light 6. Reviewing 9. Pedestrian Wholesale Access floor Bleachers. Stage accessories Catwalks Handrails I See. Where other vertical by this code or required by the design would cause greater stresses. Forces shall be applied at top of rail and may be disturbed among rails of multiple rail cranes and shall be 5.
Exitfacilities I 9 A horizontal load in kilo newtons applied at right angles to the serving an 0. Over 2. See Table They may be modified if substantiating 3. Category kPa kPa they shall be used. I Components 1. Loads are in kPa unless otherwise indicated in the table. L Construction. Live loads on crane support girders and their connections shall be live load Followspot.
Storage racks I high loads ll Ll kN plus Note 10 I See Note 10 12 The 1. Does not apply to ceilings if the attic areas above the bleachers. Cranes dead and including total total right angles over the entire tributary area.
Fire sprinkler weight of See Table structural support. Partitions and interior walls.
Walkway 7. CelTmg framIng. Reactions due to this loading need not be combined with those of Footnote 7. For pendant-operated.
The live loads shall over a length of mm along the span. Roofs to be used for special spans in combination with the most critical one of the purposes shall be designed for appropriate loads as following superimposed loads: For roofs whose structures Alternate span loading need not be considered where the are composed of a stressed shell.
A concentrated gravity load. Arch and 1. S See Section Greenhouse roof bars. Unbalanced loads shall be to create continuity. The be assumed to act vertically upon the area projected on a concentrated load need not be applied to more than horizontal plane. The uniform roof live load. Water accumulation as prescribed in Section Trusses and arches shall be designed to resist loads on adjacent spans and on alternate spans.
The live load for flat roofs rate of reduction r in Equation shall be as indicated in is in addition to the ponding load required by Section Flaf or rise less than 4 units vertical in 12 units horizontal Arch and domes with rise 0. Where uniform roof loads are involved in the design of structural members arranged The maximum reduction.
Arch or dome 0. Awnings except cloth covered. The design live load deteffilined using the unit live loads as L reduced design live load per square meter of area set forth in Table for floors and Table For storage loads exceeding 4.
The influence area AI is four times the tributary area for a column. The live load reduction shall not exceed 40 percent in garages for the storage of private pleasure cars having a capacity ofnot more than nine passengers per vehicle. See Table for roofs. AI influence 1P"ea. The reduction shall not exceed 40 percent for members receiving load from one level only.
Method supported by the member. D dead load per square meter of area supported by the member.
See Table for Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be earthquake design requirements where such requirements designed to resist all loads due to applicable fluid pressures Such anchor: Light machinery. Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored as required by Section Walls retaining drained soil.
All roofs shall be designed with sufficient slope or camber to ensure adequate drainage after the long-term deflection from dead load or shall be designed to resist ponding load See Section for design wind loads Hangers for floors and balconies.. For the purpose of design. Reciprocating machinery or times the overturning moment.
Any weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as surcharge shall be in addition to the equivalent fluid follows to allow for impact: All elevator loads shall be increased where the surface of the retained soil is level. The deflection of such walls under a load of The live loads specified in Sections Elevator machinery.. Provisions shall be made in the structural design for uses Pendant-operated bridge cranes powered The lateral force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam.
Dead load plus a single concentrated impact load The crane load shall be the rated capacity of the crane. Monorail cranes powered. Cab-operated or remotely operated bridge cranes powered..
The maximum wheel The dead load plus a uniform live load Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with hand-geared bridge The longitudinal force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam The longitudinal forces on crane runway beams Dead load plus actual weight ofthe helicopter.
Design loads for the runway beams. The maximum wheel loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or vibration force: The following definitions apply to the provisions of Section Included are buildings and other structures that have a height. The provisions of this section do not apply to building and 1. For cladding areas of openings in the balance of the building fasteners. OPEN is a structure having all walls at least at mean roof height h.
The pressure is denoted as: V is a 3-second gust speed at 10 and other structures. M larger dimension of sign. Ar area of open buildings and other structures either design pressure evaluated at height z above normal to the surface or projected on a plane ground. The design wind multipliers in Figure to obtain K:. V basic wind speed obtained trom Figure PI[' wind pressure acting on windward face in Figure a width of pressure coefficient zone.
The system elevation is half the height of hill or escarpment. Gr gust effect factor for main wind-force reslstmg w width of a building in Figures C and A systems of flexible buildings and other structures.
N smaller dimension of sign. A effective wind area. B horizontal dimension of a building measured velocity pressure evaluated at height z h. The natural atmospheric boundary layer has been The design force for open buildings and other structures modeled to account for the variation of wind speed shall be not less than 0.
Tests for the purpose loading. Analytical procedure in accordance with Section The projected area of the modeled building or other 3. Reynolds number effects on pressures and forces are minimized.
Wind-tunnel tests or similar tests employing fluids other than air shall be used for the determination of design wind In the calculation of design wind loads for components and loads in accordance with Section Design forces. The relevant macro integral length and micro The longitudinal pressure gradient in the wind tunnel and 2 wind. Response characteristics of the wind tunnel provisions of Section Design pressures determined from Section The 7.
Tests for the determination design pressure for components and cladding of buildings of mean and fluctuating forces and pressures shall be shall be not less than 0.
The wind and shall be considered to vary with respect to height in load used in the design of the main wind-force resisting accordance with the velocity pressure qz. The modeled building or other structure and accordance with the provisions of Section The designer shall refer to recognized literature or structure shall be in accordance with Section Wind-tunnel procedure in accordance with Section normal to the surface considered.
Gj obtaincd by rational resisting systems tf if for leeward" all at analYSIS menn roof height. GCp values of and