MODERN PLAYS FOR STUDENTS 3 ARTHUR MILLER ALL MY SONS a play in three acts edited for students by NISSIM EZEKIEL Reader in American. All My Sons - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read Arthur Miller's All My Sons- An Eye-Opener in the Current Scenario. Arthur Miller wrote All My Sons after his first play The Man Who Had All the Luck All My Sons is based upon a true story which Arthur Miller's mother-in-law.
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ALL MY SONS a play in three acts by Arthur Miller. Characters: Joe Keller (Keller) . Kate Keller (Mother). Chris Keller. Ann Deever. George Deever. PCPA Theaterfest. Student Matinee Program lesforgesdessalles.info All My Sons. By Arthur Miller. Study Guide for Educators. Generously sponsored by Ng & Ng Dental. Arthur Miller started writing All My Sons in , inspired by World War II and the true-life story of a woman who alerted authorities to her father's wartime wrong-doing (Christopher Bigsby, "Introduction to All My Sons." All My Sons is the first commercially successful play of.
Certainly, pl can do it. I like it an hour a day. Jim is out looking for you. I know, I — mother: It was not feasible to take the swollen bulk of my uncopied manuscript of Jose-ph upon this extended though easy trip. That's all I know to tell you.
What has Steve suddenly got to tell him that he takes an airplane to see him? Be smart now, Joe- The boy is coming. Be smart. Once and for all, did you hear what I said? All right, Joe. There is much sense of duty, a smack of the categorical imperative in play here, and one might comment on the paradox of asceticism with a bad con- science, if it were not that a good deal of pleasure and satisfaction are bound up with it — as is the case with all asceticism.
In any case, my essay- writing proclivities seem fated to accompany and act as critique upon my creative work. Budden- hrooks is my only considerable work which was not interrupted by essay-writing; but one followed upon it: Bilse und ich, an argumentation in the form of an enquiry into the relation between the writer and reality. This from ; in there appeared two considerable essays: That family hates us.
Oh, now, Mother mother: You think just because you like everybody, they like you! All right, stop working yourself up. Just leave everything to me. When George goes home tell her to go with him. CHRIS [non-rnmmittally]: Steve is her father, too. Are you going to cut it out? Now, come. Are you feeling well, Kate? You look nice. I wish we could tell her now.
My stomach gets hard. Joe, are you going to j sleep all day'! A N Tii [laughing]: I sat in a box near the stage, and my own lively interest astonished me. The historical situation came to the aid of my youthful produc- tion, of whose weaknesses and double nature I was at all times only too conscious, and helped to make it effective even in the eyes of the author himself.
Meanwhile the enemy and neutral frontiers had opened; amid the smoke wreaths of the late conflagration a new Europe began to appear: That depends on your shape, of course.
He relaxes me. It makes all the difference. On my salary. And that was bad, because as soon as a woman supports a man he owes her something. Underneath, I think the doctor is very devoted. Oh, certainly. Certainly, pl can do it. You can. Wuen you take up housekeeping, try to find a place away from here. Are you fooling? My husband is unhappy with Chris around.
How is that? Discover things. You see? I say society advisedly; for not only the closed circle of the PEN Club — which for the space of a week exhausted itself in attentions — but also nobility and officialdom united to give me the impression that there pre- vailed a sincere respect and gratitude for German culture, which seized upon this occasion to assert itself against political difficulties and antinomies. It was in , after endless intermissions and difficulties, that there finally appeared the book which, all in all, had had me in its power not seven but twelve years.
Its reception would have needed to be much more unfavourable than it was, to surpass my expectations. It is my way, when I have finished a book, to let it fall with a resigned shrug and not the faintest confidence in its chances in the world. The attraction it exerted upon me, its sponsor, has long since vanished ; that I have finished it at all is a feat due to my convictions on the ethics of craftsmanship — due indeed, at bottom, to ob- stinacy.
Altogether, obstinacy seems to me to have played such a part in these crabbed years- long preoccupations, I regard them so much as a ACT TWO 47 sue: Everybody knows Joe pulled a fast one to get out of jail.
Go on, talk to them. People come here all the time for cards and — sue: They give him credit for being smart. I do, too. But if Chris wants people to put on the hair-shirt let him take off his broadcloth.
She turns quickly, hearing. With a smile,'] Hello, darling. I thought George came. No, it was just us. CHRIS [coming down to them]: Susie, do me a favor, heh? Go up to Mother and see" if you can calm her. She's all worked up. CHRIS [laughs a little]: Well, she senses it, I guess.
You know my mother. CHR-i s: The subject matter of The Magic Mountain was not by its nature suitable for the masses. Yes, certainly the German reader recognized himself in the simple-minded but shrewd young hero of the novel. He could and would be guided by him. I do not deceive myself as to the nature of this curious success. It was less epic than that of my youthful novel, more conditioned by the times, but not for that reason shallower or more ephemeral, for it rested upon a community of suffering.
Success came more quickly than in the case of Buddenbrooksi the first newspaper notices sounded the alarm, the obstacle of the price was taken by assault, and it required only four years to bring the book to the hundredth printing.
A Hungarian translation came out almost simul- taneously with the original, the Dutch, English, and Swedish followed, and now, contrary to all the traditions of the Paris book trade, a French edition in two volumes, unabridged, is arranged for, and I have the happiest auguries of its reception in a moved and moving letter from 6o ACT TWO 49 c H R I s: Tell me that.
The man is innocent, Ann. Remember he was falsely accused once and it put him through hell. All right, Chris, all right. Every time I come out here it looks like Play- land! I thought you were going to shave? In a minute. You look shaved. Oh, no. Big night, Annie. ANN [laughs]: What is that, roue? You ever meet a bigger ignoramus? ANN [as they laugh]: Becker, founded the literary section of the Berlin Academy of the Arts and Letters, and I was appointed to the little group of electors.
I was chosen in the name of the section to thank the Minister for his speech of introduction and welcome; and I did not let slip the opportunity to refer to that antagonism to academic thought which exists in the German intellectual sphere, and to indicate the possibility of obviating it. It was not chance that I had been asked to speak; as perhaps no other, I had suffered in my own person, with whatever violent struggles, the compulsion of the times, which forced us out of the metaphysical and individual stage into the social; I too knew a free maa.
Who is he going to come to, Annie? His baby. Heil come, old, mad, into your house. That caiVt matter anymore, Joe. And it could happen. No, no partner. A good job. To know you got a place Joe, you owe him nothing. Then kick him in the teeth! You understand? People misunderstand you! No, no. C H R I s [almost angrily]: KELL E li [ — a co mmanding outburst in high ner votuiness]: A uiAer is a father!
But the evening hour was full of meditation, of tentative, groping speculation and the forecast of an entirely new thing; I felt an indescribable fascination of the mind and the senses at this idea of leaving the modern bourgeois sphere so far behind and making my narrative pierce deep, deep into the human. The tendencies of the time, the tastes of my own age united to make the theme alluring to me.
The problem of man, thanks to the advance of his experimentations upon himself, has attained a peculiar actuality: Upstairs, dressing.
ANN [crossing to them rapidly]: What happened to George? I asked him to wait in the car. Listen to me now. Can you take some advice? Explode what? He goes quietly on into house. Don't be an old lady. What does that mean? Fight it out with him some place else. CHRIS [goes to her]: Will you stop being an idiot? Cut that out! He speaks quietly, as though afraid to find himself screaming.
My work, for good or ill, would take its historic place in the line, in the tradition, bearing the stamp of its own time and place. The most important, the decisive thing is legitimacy. These dreams had their roots far back in my childhood.
When I began to substantiate them upon archaeo- logical and Oriental study I was only going back to a reading beloved in youth and an early passion for the land of the pyramids — childish conquests which had once in the fifth form made me confuse a teacher who had asked me the name of the sacred bull of the Egyptians and was answered with the original instead of the Graecized form of the name. What I had in mind, of course, was a novella which should serve as one wing to a historical triptych, the other two dealing with Spanish and German subjects, the religious-historical theme running through the whole.
The old story! Yeah, towards end of the day. WhatVe yon, big executive now? Just kind of medium. Blew down last night. We had it there for Larry. Kind of a remark is that? When did you start wearing a hat? From now on 1 decided to look like a lawyer, anyway. Where —? How is he? He got smaller. The trouble? As a family unanimously bent on letting no summer pass without a stay at the seashore, my wife and I, with the youngest children, spent August in Samian d, at the Baltic seaside resort of Rauschen, a choice conditioned by appeals from East Prussia and particularly an oft-renewed invitation from the KOnigsberg Goethe Society.
It was not feasible to take the swollen bulk of my uncopied manuscript of Jose-ph upon this extended though easy trip. ANN [afraid]: Of course 1 know. Dad came to work that day. The night foreman came to him and showed him the cylinder heads. There was something wrong with the process.
So Dad went directly to the phone and called here and told Joe to come down right away. But the morning passed. No sign of Joe. So Dad called again. By this time he had over a hundred defec- tives. So Joe told him Are you through now? He wanted Joe there if he was going to do-ht. He suddenly gets the flu!
But he promised to take responsibility. They knew he was a liar the first time, but in the appeal they believed that rotten lie and now Joe is a big shot and your father is the patsy. Then how dare you come in here with that rot? We visited the Kurische Nehrung, whose landscape had often been recommended to us — it can boast that no less a person than Wilhelm von Humboldt has sung its praises — and spent a few days in the fishing village of Nidden in Lithuanian Memelland.
We took the first steps, leased a strip of dune with a view of idyllic beauty and grandeur from the Lithuanian Forest Administration, and commissioned a firm of Memel architects.
The little house has already had its thatch put on. Each year we shall spend in it the summer holidays of our school children. On his own. What happened? Why did you believe it all these years?
Because you believed it. I believed everything, be- cause I thought you did. But today I heard it from his mouth. Anyone who knows him, and knows your father, will believe it from his mouth. Your Dad took everything we have.
Get your things. How can he tell you? Yes, they crossed my mind. Anything can cross your mind! He knows, Annie! He knows! The voice of God 1 george: Even so, the Nobel Prize Com- mittee would have scarcely been in a position to award me the prize without any of the other things which I have done since. If I had qualified for it only and already with Buddenbrooks, then why did I not receive it twenty-five years ago? The earliest indication I had that my name was being mentioned in this connection came to me in , after the appearance of 'Death in Venice.
Beyond a doubt the Committee comes quite freely to its own decisions; and yet it cannot, after all, follow only its own judgement. It must address itself to the approbation of the world in general; and I think that after Buddenbrooks something else had to come out of me before the Committee could count on even the degree of approbation that it did get.
The Stockholm event lent festal emphasis to a long-arranged-for lecture tour on the Rhine. Tney made an old man out of you. I know, I — mother: They made it very easy for me. Go on.
He looks like a ghost. I feel all right. Tm sick to look at you. I'm really not hungry. How we worked and planned for you, and you end up no better than us. None of us changed, Georgie. We all love you.
Joe was just talking about the day you were born and the water got shut off. People were carrying basins from a block away — a stranger would have thought the whole neighborhood was on fire 1 [They laugh. She sees the juice.
To KH N. ANN [defensively]: I offered it to him. Only slowly after my return home did the waves begin to subside, after the flood tide upon which my life had risen. There was something indescribably menacing and even spitefully daemonic in the tone of the demand, in the expression of that thousand- headed need that reached out to clutch at the much-talked-of money.
One saw oneself driven to a choice of two roles: I cannot say that my organizing capacities were equal to the demands which my outer life put upon them in slowly and steadily mounting degree. As soon as she sees him] L y D I A: She has a flowered hat m her hand, which K a t e takes from her as she goes to g E o R G e. Look what she can do to a hat!
Did you make that? In ten minutes! I only rearranged it. You still make your own clothes? Ain't she classy 1 All she needs now is a Russian wolfhound. It feels like somebody is sitting on my Head. This one can feed you! L Y D I A [strangely embarrassed]: Oh, stop that, Kate. MOTH E r: No kidding, three? Yea, it was one.
Fm beginning to realize. The trouble with you kids is you too much.
Well, we think, too. While you were getting mad about Fascism Frank was getting into her bed. All the battles.
The day they started the draft, Georgie, I told you you loved that girl. You had big principles. Stop being a philosopher, and look after yourself. Joe wants me here? ANN [eagerly]: Why must you make believe you hate us?
Is that another principle? ANN [laughing, to gEorge]: Novel Berlin, S. Short novel Berlin, S. Fischer Verlag. Ohj little of everything. Feel all right? IPs everything, Joe. If s his soul. How about seeing what they did with your house?
Leave him be. Sure, he just got here. A little man makes a mistake and they hang him by the thumbs ; the big ones become ambassadors. I would like him to know that. I imagined it. But that can change, too, mother: Steve was never like that. Thafs a sad thing to hear. Whafd you expect him to think of you? Eine mdische Legende [The Transposed Heads: I mean— Frank and Lydia com- ing?
I never felt at home anywhere but here. I feel so — [He nearly laughs, and turns awav from them. The whole atmosphere i? My flu, when I was sick during He wanted to. I thought he had pneumonia. Just a minute now. Just let me say it. He was supposed to have died on November twenty-fifth. But November twenty-fifth was his favorable day. Listen to him! You can laugh at a lot of it, I can understand you laughing.
She just told you to go. What are you waiting for now? Nobody can tell her to go. Thank you, darling, for your trouble.
Will you tell him to wait, Frank? FRANK [as he goes]: Sure thing. He misunderstood me, Chris! He simply told your father to kill pilots, and covered himself in bed! Answer him. T packed your bag, darling. I packed your bag. Low e-Porter. Joseph in Egypt IV. Till he comes ; for ever and ever till he comes! CHRIS [as an ultimatum]: Then let your father go. Do you understand me now? As lon g. God does not l et a son be Villp.
Now you see. He speaks insinuat- ingly, questioningly]: CHRIS [in a broken whisper]: But the others. CHRIS [still asking, and saying]: Then you did it. To the others. But weeks passed and I got no kick-back, so I was going to tell them.
It was too late. The paper, it was all over the front page, twenty-one went down, it was too late. They came with handcuffs into the shop, what could I dc? Chris, I did it for you, it was a chance and I took it for you.
Fm sixty-one years old, when would I have another chance to make some-. You were afraid maybe! God in heaven, what kind of a man are you? Kids were hanging in the air by those heads. You knew that! For you, a business for you! For me! Where do you live, where have you come from? Is that as far as your mind can see, the business? What the hell do you mean, you did it for me? Don't you have a country?
What the hell are you? What must I do to you? It is an intense, slight sort of rocking, A light shows from upstairs bedroom, lower floor windows being dark. The moon is strong and casts its bluish light.
Presently 1 1 M dressed in jacket and hat, appears, and seeing her, goes up beside her. Any news? JIM [gently]: JIM [tiredly]: Sometimes you are. I told you. He had an argument with Joe. Then he got in the car and drove away. An argument, Joe. They argued about Ann? No, not Ann. All night in that room. Tell him what? Fve always kn. It occurred to me a long time ago.
J I M [gets up]: It takes a certain talent—fcr lying. You have its I do. But not him. What do you mean. We all come back, Kate. These private little revolutions always die. In a peculiar way, Frank is right— every man does have a star. And you spend your life groping for it, but once if s out it never lights again.
He probably just wanted to be alone! Just as long as he comes back. One year I simply took off, went to New Orleans ; for two months 1 lived on bananas and milk, ami studied a certain disease.
It was beautiful. He goes upstage — to alley. J i M goes to him. What does he want here? His friend is not home. His voice is husky. He knows. How does he know? He guessed a long time ago. This thing— this thing is not over yet. And what is she doing up there? Sit down, stop being mad. You want to live? You better figure out your life. She saw Chris storming out of here. Maybe I ought to talk to her? Then who do I ask? What am T a stranger? I thought I had a family here. What happened to my family?
Tm simply telling you that I have no strength to think any more. You have no strength. Then what do f do? Tell me, talk to me, what do I do? I mean you ought to make it clear to him that you know you did a terrible thing. What ice does that cut? I mean if you told him that you want to pay for what you did.
How can I pay? But if you told him you wanted to, if he could teel that you wanted to pay, maybe ire would forgive you. He would forgive me! For what? Joe, you know what I mean. You wanted jxioney, so 1 made money What must 1 be forgiven? I spoiled the both of you. Joe, Joe. There is to him. Nothin s bigger than that. You stop that! Now you know what to tell him. He moves-froni her — hahs! He wouldn't do that.
He loved you, Joe, you broke his heart. But to pui me away. They say in the war he was such a killer. Here he was always afraid of mice. He understood the way the world is made.
He listened to me. To him the world had a forty-foot front, it ended at the building line. This one, everything bothers him. You make a deal, overcharge two cents, and his hair falls out.
Too easy, it came too easy. Yes, sir. That was a boy we lost. Joe, Joe, please. I know, darling, I know, [a n n enters from house. They say nothing, waiting for her to speak,'] ANN: Why do you stay up? I want you to set him free. I know what Tin asking, Kate. You had two sons. The night he gets into your bed, his heart will dry up. Be- cause he knows and you know. No, my dear, no such thing. Larry is dead, Kate.
I know 1 He crashed off the coast of China November twenty-fifth! But he died. I know. How did he die? If you know, how did he die? I loved him. You know I loved him. Wh2it are you talking about! Joe, go in the house. Why should I — ann: Lemme know when he conies, [k e l l e r goe: I came to get married. So I didn't bring this to hurt you.
I thought Fd show it to you only if there was no other way to settle Larry in your mind. He wrote it to me just before he — [m other opens and begins to read letter. Fve been so lonely, Kate Oh, my God. ANN [with pity and fear]: Kate, please, please. My God, my God ,. Kate, dear, Fm so sorry Fm so sorry. He seems exhausted. Where were you?
Just drove around a little. Where do I go? I have nowhere to go. Inside lying down. Sit down, both of you. I'll say what there is to say. I left it in the garage. Jim is out looking for you. There are a couple of firms in Cleveland, I think I can get a place. I mean, rmgoing away for good. Fm yellow. Now if I look at him, all Fm able to do is cry. What else can you do?
I could jail him! I could jail him, ifl were human any more. But Fm like everybody else now. Fmpractical now. You made me practical. But you have to be.
The cats in that alley are practical, the bums who ran away when we were fighting were practical. But now Fm practical, and I spit on myself.
Fm going away. Fm going now. No, Ann, A N n: You do, you do. I swear I never will. In your heart you always will. Then do what you have to do!
Do what? What is there to do? Do I raise the dead when 1 put him be- hind bars? We used to shoot a man who acted like a dog, but honor was real there, you were protecting something. But here? What sense does that make? This is a zoo, a zoo! ANN [to mother]: Tell him! Let him go. Then I will! I want to talk to you. I want to talk to you! CHRIS [pulling violently away from him]'. You got too much money? Is that what bothers you? CHRIS [with an edge of sarcasm]: It bothers me.
You hear me? Does that settle it? Well, talk to me! What do you want to do? What should I want lo do? You want me to go to jail? If you want me to go, say so! Is that where I belong? Then tell me so! Because you know! Did they ship a gun or a truck outa Detroit before they got their price.? Is that clean? Half the goddam country is gotta go if I go!
I never saw you as a man. I saw you as my father. He's going to read it! He wrote it to me the day he died. Go to the street, Joe, go to the street! CHRIS [quietly]: Three and one half years Now you tell me what you must do. This is how he died, now tell me where you belong. I know all about the world. Stage, light effects, costumes, dialogues, dramatic action, characters, chorus, soliloquies, asides, songs etc contribute for the enhancement of the intended effects in the minds of viewers.
The dramatic discourse is the composition of speeches, which makes its own world.
The characters come on the stage and perform the actions via the words. However, in dramatic discourse, the author has no place to narrate the incident directly as he narrates in fictional discourse i.
Another important thing is that in fictional discourse the author, through setting and local color builds the context and situation. However, in dramatic discourse the context is built up with only dramatic action.
Thus, it becomes very difficult to determine the intentions of speeches i. Therefore, the best way to understand the dramatic discourse is to consider its elements i. Notwithstanding, speech acts in a play, vary in terms of their functions and significance in the context of the play.
From the playwright's point of view, every speech act is designed with a set purpose to serve a function such as imparting a particular piece of information, describing a state of affairs, commenting on a situation, criticizing, accepting or declining the views etc. The analysis of such speech acts reveals the explicit and implicit intentions of the characters the in play.
Therefore, examining and analyzing the utterances deployed in the structural design is interesting as well as a challenging task. Let us examine the following utterance taken from 'All My Sons': They are all asleep yet. I'm just waiting for her to see it. Keller, being the central figure, is the most responsible person behind the cause of the death of twenty-two pilots including his own son Larry. The above utterance puzzles the spectator and the reader because the relevance and the significance of the broken tree is a mystery in the beginning of the play.
However, the utterance serves some more significant function, which is not stated but has to be worked out. In normal circumstance, a sensible spectator or reader with little curious attention senses that there is some sort of intention behind Keller's utterance. The first part of the utterance asserts that something is happened.
The use of an adverb 'yet' intensifies the adjective 'asleep' as well as the hidden purpose of the speaker. If the utterance is judged against the theory of speech acts, it reveals that the speaker of this utterance seems to be under the threat of uncertainty and the future consequences. It is also true that the speaker cannot change the situation.
From the author's point of view, the utterance serves to establish the logical setting for the future discussion of the crux idea of the play. He says that to understand language one has to understand the speaker's intention. According to him, language is intentional behavior.
Therefore, it should be treated like a form of action. Searle refers to statements as speech acts. The speech act is the basic unit of language that expresses meaning. In fact, an utterance expresses an intention. Mostly, the speech act is a sentence, but it can be a word or phrase as long as it follows the rules necessary to carry out the intention. Speech is not only used to choose something, it also essentially does something.
Speech act lays the stress on the intent of the act as a whole. According to Searle, understanding the speaker's intention is crucial to arrest the meaning. Without the speaker's intention, it is not possible to understand the words as a speech act.
Thus, Searle considers the intention i. Let us consider the five classes of speech act propounded by J. Searle A] Assertive Speech Acts: Assertive speech acts have a truth value and state what the speakers believe to be the case or not. They are generally expressed through declarative form. However, declarative is not the only form, they are also expressed through imperative and interrogative forms.
This class includes stating, suggesting, boasting, complaining, claiming, reporting, criticizing, denying, disagreeing, predicting, hypothesizing, concluding, replying etc.
All the rhetorical questions come under assertive speech acts because they do not expect answer but are asked for only intensification of the assertion of one's ideas, views, opinions etc. Thorat the pioneer of Indian pragmatics observes: They assert things to change their state of knowledge" It amply becomes clear from the above statement that the assertives present the actual state of affairs and usually corrects the knowledge of its addressee.
Let us consider the following glaring examples of this kind in All My Sons: She was standing right here when it cracked. Thus, via assertive, the speaker wishes to give a piece of information that usually corrects the reader's knowledge and expectations of the world as regard to forces such as heat, light, sound, pressure, gravity and the way that they affect objects.
What the speaker does here is to make an assertion whose relevance is informativeness. Now, let us consider the validity and significance of Chris' utterance in context of the play.
The speech situation of this utterance is that the tree, which was planted in memory of Keller's dead son Larry, who was supposed to marry Ann, is broken by the wind last night. Therefore, there is an obvious connection between the tree and Larry.
The illocutionary force of the utterance indicates that Keller is not too much worried of the tree but the hidden consequences. The moment Chris informs him that there is no need to worry about Ann because she has already seen through the window when the tree was breaking down at about four o' clock in the morning. As the result illocutionary force and the perlocutionary effect of Chris' utterance, Keller becomes uncomfortable and asks many questions in order to control the situation.
It is also not so clear at this point in the context of the play that why Keller is so much concerned with Ann's responses but later the context provides details that Keller is the only person who is responsible for Larry's death and Steve's imprisonment. Therefore, he feels in danger and asks many questions in order to be careful in future. B] Commissive Speech Act: The commissive speech act commonly occurs in a play.
It plays a major role in building interpersonal bond. It includes a promise, a vow, a pledge, a guarantee etc. In the first act of 'All My Sons', Chris at one moment tries to maintain his love relationship with Ann by promising her a comfortable, loving and healthy married life in future.
He also promises to marry her. Thus, the entire scene of that moment is about promising. In the following example Chris commits for the future course of action. Ann, I love you, I love you a great deal. I love you Pause she waits I have no imagination. That's all I know to tell you. Ann is waiting, ready I'm embarrassing you. I didn't want to tell it to you here. I wanted some place we had never been, a place where we'd be brand new to each other you feel it's wrong here, don't you this yard this chair?
I want you to be ready for me. I don't want to win you away from anything. Although, Chris and Ann have been known each other for more than three years, they never revealed their feeling. Therefore, there was a touch of uncertainty to their relationship. By performing a speech act of promise, Chris has succeeded in developing a very deep, cordial relationship.
The depth of their relationship and love for each other is revealed especially through the commissive speech act. Before worsening the situation, Chris by expressing his love, tries to make Ann ready for the future course of action. As Chris repeats his utterance twice, he intensifies his love.
It also seems that Chris is exploring his love according to Ann's responses. Thus, Chris using different expressions commits for the future course of action. In the last part of the utterance, Chris offers many options to Ann. He indirectly forces her to forget the past life and be ready for the marriage i.
Apparently, it seems that Chris is just expressing his love but at the deeper level of communication he seems to be testing and observing Ann's mental state because Keller's have not wiped off the memories of Larry and Ann's engagement. Therefore, Chris feels somewhere uncertainty in his heart and opens his love to boost the decision taken by Ann.
In other words, it can be called the speech act of guarantee and promise for the determination of future consequences. C] Directive Speech Acts: Directive speech acts are produced to create an effect on the hearer. These types of speech acts attempt to get the hearer to do something via words.
In other words, these speech acts have the intentions or purposes of some sort of actions to be performed by its hearer. Therefore, directive speech acts are hearer centered. This class includes requesting, questioning, ordering, commanding, suggesting, urging etc. This group frequently belongs to earlier discussed competitive category of Leech and comprises a category of illocutionary forces in which illocutionary goal competes with the social goal and creates negative politeness on the hearer.
Let us consider the following examples of these kinds: Altogether To Chris, but not facing them your brother is alive, darling, because if he is dead, your father killed him. Do you understand me now? As long as you live, that boy is alive. God does not let a son be killed by his father. Now you see, don't you? Now you see. It is an act of suggestion, in which mother requests her son, Chris not to marry Ann.
The reason behind the restriction is Keller's crime. Here, it must be provided the required context which is necessary for proper understanding of the illocutionary force of the utterance. Keller and Ann's father Steve were the partners in weapon production factory. As the war was going on, there was an emergency of cylinder heads.
The armed officers were in need of cylinder heads and suddenly one batch of cylinder heads came out with serious defect. Steve was in the factory and he noticed and immediately phoned to Keller at his home. Keller having heartless ambition directs Steve to patch up the defected cylinder heads and dispatch to the army.
He also promised if there would be any problem, he will take all the responsibilities. As a result of seriously defected cylinder heads, twenty-two pilots including Keller's younger son Larry were killed. When the army officers came to know that the cylinders were seriously defected, they took Steve and Keller to the court but Keller escaped on the ground of his absence in the factory but Steve was imprisoned.
Later, after three years of this incident, Ann and Chris decided to marry. But the real problem is that Chris doesn't know too much about this incident and Mother and Keller want to keep him in ignorance by assuming that Larry is alive.
They believe that Ann also doesn't know anything about this case. However, the reality is different. Ann is the only person who knows more things about Larry's death and Steve's imprisonment.
Therefore, here Mother is not allowing Chris to marry. She indirectly suggests Chris to believe at least for his father's sake that Larry is alive. The illocutionary force of the utterance implicitly assumes that Larry is alive and will come back.
The reason behind this assumption is that Mother knows if Chris will marry Ann, if Ann will act like a defector then Keller has to go to jail. Therefore, Mother tries to avoid future consequence by objecting their marriage. D] Expressive Speech Acts: