UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC). HANDBOOK: CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATING. Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is. PDF | ESTIMATION Estimation is the scientific way of working out the approximate cost of an engineering project before execution of the work. (A) ESTIMATING AND COSTING. UNIT -T. General items of work in Building - Standard Units Principles of working out quantities for detailed and abstract.
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Estimation and costing by dutta pdf free download estimation and costing civil engineering book. B N Datta Estimation and costing Book free. Dutta, B.N., “Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering”, UBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2. Kohli, D.D and Kohli, R.C., “A Text Book of Estimating. Downlaod Estimation and Costing Book By B.N. Dutta – The book is complete in all respects in theory and practice, and covers the syllabi of degree, diploma.
Soling coat 2. The form shows name and address of the depositor, full particulars for which the deposit is done, Head of account and orders to the bank. A plinth protection 1. The lock of the box in which sealed tenders are dropped by the contractors is opened in the presence of all. Kushar magotra October 24, Reply.
A comparative statement on the last page of the estimate is attached giving there in the reasons of the increase of cost in case of each item. Supplementary Estimate This is fresh detailed estimate in addition to the original sanctioned estimate paepared when additional works are deemed necessary during the progress of a work to supplement the original works.
The abstact of cost should show the amount of the original sanctioned estimate as well as the supplementary amount of the original sanctioned estimate as well as the supplementary amount for which sanction is required.
The application of an individual method depends upon the design and shape of the building. The different methods are as under: Centre line method. Crossing method.
Out to out and in to in method. Bay method. Service unit method. Centre line method This method is suitable only if the offsets are symmetrical and the building is more or less rectangular in shape. The centre line of the building is determined carefully after doing deductions for repeated measurements as explained in the next problem.
This centre line acts as length for the complete calculations of the estimate. If the deduction is not cared for the results of estimates may be wrong. All the walls should have the same section. The symmetrical offsets are a must as in the case of centerline method. The estimation in this book has been done using this method.
Bay Method This method is useful and is generally followed in case of building having several bays. The cost of the one class room is worked out and then multiplied by the number of bays in that building.
The extra cost of the end walls and difference in framing. If there is any, should be made, so as to arrive at the correct cost. Service Unit Method. This method is followed in cases such as school building where there are so many class rooms. The cost of one class room us worked out and then multiplied by the number of class rooms to be constrused.
In case of Hospitals, the service unit is a bed, in case of Water Tank, it is a litre and in case of Cinema Hall, the service unit is a seat. I Calculate the quantities of the following items from the given figure, 3. Excavation for foundations.
Cement Concrete in foundations. Brick work in cement mortar 1: Excavation for foundations 1 Concrete in foundation 1 Brick in Cement mortar 1 Excavation for foundations Top Rooms Long Walls. Concrete in foundations m. Top Rooms Long Walls 9. Brick in cement mortar cub. Top Rooms m. Long Walls 1st. Contents L B H 3 rd step 1 5. Step 2 3. The only requirement for the uses for this method is that the section of walls should be symmetrical throughout.
How to Fix Centre Line. The Centre line of the given plain marked and centre to centre distances of walls are added. Refer given figure 3. All horizontal — 4. Angle to each other. So this portion is to be added only once. The deductions to be made are as under: Thus in the case of L-junction, no deduction is to be done from the total length of centre line.
At L-junction Walls. At Cross Walls. So, for correct calculations, it is to be added only once. Thus for a cross wall, the deducaiton is thickness of wall. Form above lines we have found out this conclusion that to get the correct length of the centre line, the following deductions are to be made: All the quantities shall be calculated using In this chapter, estimates of buildings have dealt in details, complete with Report, Specifications, Abstract of cost and Material statement.
The current premium above C. Before starting with Detailing, the few important points about estimating which should be known are as under: This should be self explanatory giving complete information. This helps in future reference. Detailed specifications, giving the nature and class of work and material to be used. Rates for calculating abstract of cost. These should be approved ones. Premium above C. Calculate the following items from the plan and section given in the fig.
Total length of the wall along the centre line 5. Contents L B H 1. Brick work in Cement mortar 1: Also find out the plinth area rate of the shop. Measurements Qty. Excavation for foundations Long walls 2 6.
Cement Concrete in foundations 1: Reinforced Cement Concrete 1: Windows 1. Door 1 1. Damp proof course, 4 cm. C vide item 4 above 1 6. Conglomerate floor, 4 cm. Room 1 5. But not for steel and R. C Measurements Qty. Remarks No. L B H Detail of Work 7. Deodar wood doors and windows 1 1. Cement plaster 1. Chocolate painting to Doors and windows Twice the quantity of doors and windows item 8 2x 6.
Doors and Windows: Drawing, dining and bed rooms inside of walls shall have 2 coats of distemper and other rooms shall have three coats of white washing. The outside of the wall shall have two coats of colour washing over one coat of white washing. A plinth protection 1. Plinth Area Rate Rs. Rates variable 2. Top course of the plinth shall be laid in cement motar 1: The Following portions to be built in cement mortar 1: Damp proof Course: Plinth protection1.
Plinth Area Rate: The outside surface shall be flush lime pointed. Two courses underneath the roof battens. Jambs of doors and windows. Pillars under the roof beams.
Sills of windows, C. Two coats of ordinary paint. Plint Area Rate: The foundation Trenches shall be taken down to the exact width of the widest part of the foundation. The trenches where possible shall always be taken down to a few cms into good hard soil. In order to ascertain the nature of the soil, it is essential to dig trial pits at each of the four corners of the proposed site of a building before starting the construction.
The bottoms of all trenches shall be well watered and rammed. The soft and defective place shall be filled with concrete or with any other hard material as directed by the Engineer-in-charge.
If, however, rocky surface is met, it shall be made as leveled as possible and any small in equalities shall be filed with concrete. Foundation in bad soil Where great depihs of bad soil are met with, such as black cotton soil, it may be necessary to resort to piles which may be of wood, steel or reinforced concrete.
Where the depth of the bad soil is not excessive, the foundations may consist of beams or concrete arches of concrete pillars. The pillars being taken down into good soil.
In some cases the structure may be built on a raft of concrete reinforced with a grillage of R. It shall be laid in 15 cm layers and each layer shall be well watered and rammed with iron rammers.
Concrete in foundations Lime concrete or cement concrete shall be used in foundations to be a base for the super structure. The hydrated lime used should be thoroughly mixed with water in suitable container. It shall then be stirred into thick consistency and left undistributed for not less than 36 hours.
Extra water should be drained out and putty should be bused. Similarly quick lime should be converted into putty. The volume of lime putty shall be taken as equal to the volume of dry slaked lime. It shall be free from admixture of claly, dust or foreign matter.
No un burnt bricks or bats shall, be used for grinding in to surkhi. The gauge of the ballast shall be 2 cm to 4 cm. The stone aggregate shall consist of good hard tough broken stone, gravel or shingle of the gauge specified. It shall free from dirt, leaves or any other organic, or admixture of soft or decayed stone.
Mixing And Laying The aggregate previously well soaked, shall be measured and laid on a clean platform of brickscyut or wood. The platform shall be sufficient size to give ample room for mixing 23 to 28 cub. Lime and surkhi shall be measured and laid on the aggregate. The whole dry and wet mix is then turned over three or four times so that it shall be thoroughly mixed concrete shall be laid slowly and gently in layer of 15 cm not thrown from a height and thoroughly consolidated with 5.
Rammers shall be used for consolidating the edges. Tests The consolidation of a concrete is said to be complete if a a stick end ways from a height of I m rebounds with ringing sound. If the consolidation in complete, the water shall not be absorbed in the. Curing The concrete shall be kept wet for a period of at least ten days no brick work masonry shall be laid on the concrete for at least seven days after laying. SOIL Lonnes per sq. Ordinary earth …… 5. For unreinforced mass concrete word on ordinary work.
For unreinforced mass work of cement concrete on small jobs over 15 cm minimum dimensions. For reinforced works, it shall be used where the dimension of members exceed 45cm.
Unless otherwise mentioned, if will be used as under- a Unreinforced cement concrete work between 5cm minimum size. Unless otherwise mentioned and specified, this aggregate shall be used in cement concrete works of the following description.
All cement shall be brought to the site of work in bags with the seals in tack. Fresh and from moisture. All cement shall be gauged by weight and shall be added at the mixture in whole 50kg. The sand shall be washed before using Fig.
The girl shall be free from dirt, clay, leaves or other organic matter and soft or decayed stone and shall be of the gauge specified according to the nature of the work. The required quantity of water clean, rather drinking water shall then be added and the entire wet mass shall be turned over unto the homogeneous mixture of the required consistency is obtained.
It shall be laid slowly and gently in layers of 15cm not thrown from a height and thoroughly consolidated with 5.
In addition to this, round steel bars are embedded to make the structure strong to take up all the tensile stresses. The measured quantity of coarse aggregate shall then be added to the mixture and whole mixed dry thoroughly. The required quantity of water shall then be added with a Reinforcement Round steel bars as far as possible shall be used in preference to square bars.
The bars shall be thoroughly cleaned of rust, scale and of coatings that might destroy or reduce bond. The ends of all bars shall be properly hooked and bends shall be made as per drawing and design supplied. In case of joints in reinforcement an overlay of not less than 40 diameters shall be given for tension member.
The measured quantity of coarse aggregate shall than be added to the mixture and whole mixed dry thoroughly. The required quantity of water shall then be added with a rose. After depositing, the concrete is to be ridded, vibrated, tamped or worked to ensure that no hollow places are left. Forms shall be sufficiently water right to prevent leakage of mortar. Forms shall be supported or fixed by wedges of the load being eased and the forms removed without sock to the work and without hammering.
LAYING Before depositing the concrete, the reinforcement shall be correctly laid in position and secured against displacement by tying with soft iron wire. The bars shall remain in position 20 mm. CURING The concrete when laid shall be carefully protected from the extremes of weather and temperature and from unequal or too repaid drying. It shall be thoroughly kept wet for at least 15 days. Such a material is known as a horizontal damp proof course.
It consists of cement concrete 1: The Damp proof course shall extend to the full width of the superstructure walls except in the case of outer walls where it shall not be carried across doorways and verandah openings and similar openings. Vertical D. Emits a clear ringing sound when struck, shall be free from flaws, cracks etc.
All brick work shall be taken truly plumb, laid in English bond. The proportions upon the ingredients available at site. General one part of lime and 2 parts of surkhi are suitable. Same specification as perpara 3. The measuring wooden boxes may be used. The ingredients shall be mixed twice dry and then ground with sufficiency of water in a mill continuously for three hours.
For big works a bullock mortar mill see Fig. Class shall be taken that fresh mortar shall be made daily and used as fresh as The vertical joints must be quite symmetrical and truly plump in case of Ist class brick work. The joints in faces which are to be plastered or pointed shall be raked out while the mortar is green. The brick work shall be kept moist for a period of ten days.
Mortar to which the water has been added shall be used within 30 minutes of the addition of water. Same as per in item The joints in faces which are to be plastered or pointed should be racked out while the mortar is green i. All bricks or tiles or tiles shall be laid in lime or cement mortar with bed and vertical joints full of mortaar1: The laying shall be in plain, diagonal, herring bone or other pattern as desired by the Engineer-in-charge.
The work shall be protected from the effect of sun, frost and rain during construction. Before use, all bricks or tiles shall be soaked in clean water in tanks for at least one hour. The joints shall not exceed 6mm in thickness. The mortar in the joints shall be struck off flush with s trowel. Care shall be taken that no mortar shall spreed over the edge of the bricks or tiles. The floor must be kept wet for seven days after laying. If cement pointing is done, it shall be kept moist for at least 15days after the pointing has been done.
After the terrazzo concrete has hardened enough to prevent dislodgement of aggregate, it shall be ground down with an approved type of grinding machine shod with free rapid cutting carborundum stones to expose the coarse aggregate.
The floor to be kept wet during grinding process. After this the finish shall be scrubbed with warm water and soft soap and mopped dry. C slabs. In case of upper floors the mortar bed shall be of 1: The marble slabs should be of approved quality and thickness 20mm to 25mm with truly plane surface.
The size of marble slab shall be slightly oversize to permit cutting to actual size of tiles at the site of work. During the progress of work and for 10days after laying, each section of floor shall be kept flooded.
Three clear days shall be allowed for setting before the pavement is walked over and no weight should be rested upon the surface, until 7days after laying is completed, Polishing is done, as in case of Terrzo flooring and no first cutting is usually needed. Resting on wooden or reinforced cement concrete battens spaced 30 cm centre to centre. The top of tiles shall have 13mm thick cement plaster 1: In all cases the construction shall be such as to ensure that the door shall be satisfactory in service.
The width of the rebate shall be 13 mm. Each coat be allowed to dry before nest is applied. New plastered surface tone white washed, shall not be trowel led to a glaxed surface otherwise white wash will not adhere.
Water shall ne added to this lime in a tub, until the mixture is of a consistency of cream and allowed to rest for 24 to 48 hours. The mixture shall then be strained through coarse cloth, suitable quantity of gum shall be added, dissolved in hot water. This hot water shall be added at the rare of about 5 liters per kg. The pigment shall be such as to be unaffected by lime. The surface to be colour washed shall be given one coat of white wash and then one or two coats of colour washing.
Each coat of site or colour wash is to be allowed to dry and passed by the Engineer- in-Charge before the next is applied. The sand papering must be finished with the grain. Before applying paint, all knouts must be killed or covered with two coats of patents knotting or with a preparation of red lead glued size, laid on hot. When the wood work is thoroughly dry, the priming coat shall be applied.
Earth filling Embankment 1. Before any earth work is commenced, the ground be cleaned of all trees jungle and roots of every description.
The embankment shall be made from borrow pits on either side of the road. The earth work should be laid in layers of 15 cm.
The final compaction may be ordinary power roller. The side slopes of the formation should preferably be about 4 to 1 except in high embankments with goods soil where the slope be increased to 2 to 1. Soling coat 2. Soling shall always be provided under the wearing coat except when the road is founded on a very hard natural surface such as on rock. Width The width of the soling shall always be 30 cms.
More than the proposed width of the carriage way. For instance, if the carriageway is 3. In case where bricj on end edging is provided the width of soling shall be same as that of the width of carriageway.
Collection of soling Where soling coat of bricks is to be provided, all bricks shall be fully burnt or over burnt. The bats which are less than half a brick in size shall not be used. Stacking The bricks or stones collected shall be stacked parallel to the centre line of the road and clear from the formation width. Gaps at least 1. Stone The stone shall be hard, durable and tough in texture and be obtained from an approved quarry.
Kankar The kankar shall be tough and heavy, with a bluish fracture. After digging, it must be spread out for at least a month before being brought to the road side. Laying The soling shall be laid at a stretch, the depth of which be equal to the depth of soling.
The trench shall be filled and the camber should be the same as that o the finished surface. The soling shall be laid carefully, hand packed with interstices filled with smaller pieces of the same material. Kankar After lying the soling, earth or sand shall be spread over it to a thickness of 2. Measurement In case of soling of stone boulders, stacks shall be measured 35 cm.
The metal shall be broken from hard durable tough stone of uniform texture from an approved quarry. Where metal has been broken from water worn boulders, no individual boulder shall weigh less than 3. Measurement In order to allow for loose stacking, shall be Stacking Same as per item 4 VI.
Wearing coat consolidation Preparation of surface The surface of the soling shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt and brought to the camber that the finished road is to have.
Two parallel bunds of clay puddle, 23 cm. The bunds shall be strong enough to prevent the new metal from spreading as well as to retain the water used in consolidation. Spreading of metal The stone metal shall then be spread over the surface true to the template Fig. The metal shall be carefully packed, the bigger pieces being placed below and the smaller pieces on the interstices of the bigger pieces. The templates shall be used at a distance of approximately 7.
Rolling and consolidation The metal shall then be rolled with a road roller commencing at the edges and working towards the centre. The metal is to be rolled dry until well compacted and there is no appreciable wave in front of an advancing roller. The whole medaling shall then be thoroughly water and kept saturated rolling continued until the consolidation is finished to the satisfaction of the engineer-in charge.
Bajri binding After the consolidation is practically complete, the binding material such as fine bajri obtained from screening or from a quarry shall be spread and the rolling and watering continued to such an extent that the binding material is formed into slurry and is grouted into interstices. For example in case of camber 1 in 72 the height at the centre above the outer edges shall be 1 cm.
Progress A power roller should be able to consolidate amount 34 cubic ketres of stone metal or 56 m2 of kankar in a day. Test of good consolidation Rough tests are as below: There are some essentials which a contractor is expected to have. Such as: He should be financially sound 2. Please can I get the PDF of the book: Curtain, G. Shaw, G. Parkinson and J.
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