2. 1 Charge & Coulomb's Law. Charge is a property of matter. There are two kinds of charge, .. 1 English rather than physics: An entity is something that exists. Physics General Physics II. Michael Fowler, UVa Physics, Fall Syllabus. Lecture Notes: Lecture 1: Introducing Electrostatics. Lecture 2: Coulomb's. Physics is the study of the fundamental laws of nature 2; Optics. The discussion of electromagnetic waves, as mani- fest by light, leads to an introduction to.
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Relate the electric field and electric force on a test charge; 3. EM waves and light experiments 3. Summarize your answers using a C-Q-V table like below: Rakesh Gupta. Devices for measuring 1.
John Wiley and Sons, Physics Vol. Serway, Raymond, and Belchner, Robert. Harcourt College Publishing, Tipler, Paul.
Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 4th Edition. New York: Freeman and Company, Tsokos, K. Physics for the IB Diploma, 5th Edition. Cambridge University Press, Young, Hugh D. San Francisco: Pearson, Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document.
General Physics 1 Course Description: Conceptual Physics, 11th Edition. Kristine Joan Barredo. Sumeet Saini. Maestro de Grapico. Chelie Trangia. Melody Mangrobang. Jerahmeel Madrigal Laderas. Andres Kalikasan Sara. Anonymous qZyYVNg. Bala Murugan. James Lindo. Jack Milts. Ghanshyam Gangwar. More From Victoria Mabini. Victoria Mabini. Popular in Technology General. Amir Mosavi. Joni Stulic. Daniel Cafu. Jhia Marie Yalung.
Dennis Kueh. Sri Kondabattula. Aoyon Ahmed. Rakesh Gupta. Have the students plot Felectric - versus - q1q2. Have them explain the meaning of the plot.
Have the students plot Felectric - versus - r. What does this representation imply about the nature of the electric force? Relate the electric field and electric force on a test charge; 3. Draw electric field lines of particular charge and charge distributions; 4. Inquire about the concept of a field.
What is a field? What is meant by a gravitational field?
How do we know that a gravitational field exists in the room where we are in? Have the students write down key words that will define a gravitational field.
Ask a student to compare and contrast the electric force from the gravitational force. Ask another student to write down the electric and gravitational forces in vector form. Define the gravitational field to be the ratio of the gravitational force and the mass experiencing the gravitational force.
Have the students write this definition mathematically. Ask the students to interpret the meaning of a gravitational field. Here the students should realize that writing is equivalent to g which is just the acceleration due to gravity. Ask the students to extend the definition in No. From No. Here the student is expected to write: Ask the student the physical meaning of the charge q.
Here the teacher should bring out the idea that q is a test charge. Show a schematic of two point charges Q and q separated by a distance r. Here the students are expected to write: Have the students write down the meaning and units of each of the quantities in the electric field expression: Ask the students to draw representative E lines when Q is positive and when Q is negative.
Ask the students the physical meaning of Q. Have the students solve these problems and interpret the output: Represent E schematically.
Inquire about the factors that affect the electric field E. Ask the students to represent E lines from a positive Q. Ask the students to represent E lines from a negative Q.
Have the students draw the net electric field at the center of: Have the students calculate the magnitude and determine the direction of the net electric field at the center of each of the above configurations. Performance Standards The learners shall be able to use theoretical and experimental approaches to solve multi-concept and rich-context problems involving electricity and magnetism. Learning Competencies The learners: Matter and Interaction II: Electric and Magnetic Interactions 3rd ed.
New York, USA: Fundamentals of Physics Extended 10th ed. University Physics 9th ed. Briefly demonstrate that if the closed surface and the charge enclosed form a symmetric configuration, one can obtain a simple formula for electric field magnitude: Ask the learners to compare, such as the length or number of lines of solution, and the final answer.
Emphasize the relation between these two quantities, such that there are cases where one can guess the charge configuration basing on the electric field pattern. Elaborate particularly the case where the charge is hidden inside a closed imaginary surface, known as the Gaussian surface, such as a cube or a sphere and only the field piercing through is visible.
Point out that the electric field is represented as directed lines permeating in space starting from a positive point charge. For a negative point charge the lines are directed toward the point charge. With the importance of measurement in science as basis, argue for the need to define electric flux. Introduce the key elements of electric flux: This is done by assigning a normal vector to the unit area.
In closed surface, the convention is to assign the normal unit vector in the outward direction as positive.. Note that that this is in spherical coordinates, where is a unit vector. Assume the 11 Teacher'Tips: It is alright if many learners do not finish.
Calculate the electric field in terms of the linear charge density, where it is equal to the ratio of total charge to the length of the wire. See Appendix A Teacher'Tips: The use of cubic Gaussian surface in this problem require more calculations than spherical Gaussian surface. Thus Gaussian surface with the most appropriate symmetry must always be used. Moreover computational methods can be done to produce graphical representation.
Show that the charge configuration outside the Gaussian surface will have no contribution. This can be demonstrated by considering a point charge situated outside a cubic or a spherical Gaussian surface. Show using symmetry, that the electric flux through one face or hemisphere is opposite in direction to the flux in the other face or hemisphere and thus the net flux outside is zero.
See Appendices C and D a. See Appendix E 12 Teacher'Tips: Position the chosen Gaussian surface such that it is concentric or co-axial with that of charge distribution and the field point is in the Gaussian surface. Apply Equation 2.
Determine the direction of the electric field vectors at the Gaussian surface. The direction is positive if it is in the outward direction and negative if it is directed inward. Apply the superposition principle to obtain the final answer as needed. It depends on the situation. It is true all the time but useful for manual calculation if the configuration of the system has a special symmetry like Gaussian surfaces. What are the usual symmetries? Spherical, cylindrical, and pillbox symmetry.
Show the illustrations of these symmetrical configurations. What is a Gaussian surface? It is a closed imaginary surface that one defines depending on a problem. It is at this surface where one measures the magnitude and direction of the electric field.
They are both relating the electric field to the charge. C What is the physical meaning of the dot product rule? Encourage the habit of including the sketch of the coordinate system in the diagram of the problem. The sign of the electric field is determined from the direction of its arrow relative to the coordinate system.
Emphasize the importance of symmetry in manual calculation. Also encourage sketching of the field patterns. Assume electrostatic equilibrium meaning charge inside the metal has no further motion about the surface of the metal and thus zero electrostatic force. The following are sample charge configurations to consider: Due to symmetry the net magnitude of electric field along the x direction is zero.
Appendix E Common Gaussian Surfaces 17 Electric Charge 2. Electric Fields 4. Electric Flux 5. Heller and K. Cooperative Group Problem Solving in Physics. University of Minnesota, Knight, Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Benjamin Cummings, Chabay, B. Electric and Magnetic Interactions, 3rd Ed. Young, R. Freedman, A. Ford, University Physics, 11th Ed. Addison-Wesley, Paul Hewitt, Conceptual Physics, 11th Ed. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Fundamentals of Physics Extended, 10th Ed.
The context rich problems are designed such that the students are part of the story and are often required to interact with other people in preparing and reporting their solutions. Unlike in the typical end-of-chapter problems, students usually need to refine the definition of the problems, specify the unknowns, design their own problem-solving strategy, use several concepts, make assumptions, recall or invoke prior knowledge or "common-sense", supply additional information, perform experiments, and interact with experts and non-experts.
Discuss the rationale of solving context-rich problems in physics as articulated in the Introduction. Discuss the steps or framework for problem-solving and specify the template or distribute the problem-solving sheet. Discuss the grading system for this particular activity. The recommended system is to grade each step, either in equal weights in the scale of 1 to 5 or 1 to 10 or in unequal weights, usually giving more premium to analysis than to the final answer.
Allocating portions for peer- and self-evaluation in the final grade is also recommended. Group the students the recommended number is three to five students per group and arrange their seats the arrangement should be conducive for long discussions. Due effort should be exerted to achieve heterogeneous distribution of students in terms of gender and class-performance. Encourage the students to device a system that would allow every member of the group to contribute to the discussion for every step and to rotate the roles among themselves, especially the role of secretary or scribe.
Arrange the schedule for problem solving and reporting to class. It is recommended that each group should solve at least one problem for each topic in this chapter. Let the students spend the remaining class time to start solving the problems. Then they will have to solve the rest after the class and submit their final output later, e. If there is opportunity, group reporting of output in front of the class is recommended because it will allow students be familiar with problems that they are not assigned to solve.
The steps they advocate, which is consistent or similar with those of the famous mathematician G. Polya, are as follows: They also have discussions and recommendation for the grading system, role assignment, and student distribution. The major concept s being considered is indicated after the problem.
You may design more problems considering the characteristics of context-rich problems described above. Your classmates often complain of painful electric shock whenever they open the door to leave the new fully-carpeted auditorium of your school. Write a letter to the principal about the problem explaining the physics behind the phenomenon and suggesting simple changes to the auditorium at least in the area near the door to prevent this nuisance.
You are a fieldtrip when a thunderstorm struck. Making matters worse, your school bus malfunctioned while it is in the middle of the road traversing a wide plain of rice fields. Convince your classmates that it is safer to stay inside the bus while waiting for help. Your friend told you about her problem.
She bought some replacement electronic parts for her personal computer a week ago and only found out yesterday that these were not working. When she tried to return them to the store, the salesman refused and told her it was her mishandling that ruined the electronic parts.
She said that she was careful that the devices were no subjected to vibrations. She said all she did was remove and throw away the metallic film-coated shipping bags that used to contain the devices. Explain to her why it is possible that indeed she is at fault.
Your grandmother gave you silver-plated kitchen wares. These are old such that some parts of the plating are already worn off. Design an electroplating set up to restore this heirloom pieces.
An energy saving advocacy group released an cartoon "infomercial" portraying old electric appliances as greedy monsters eating a lot of electric charges. While you support their advocacy, you want their information to be accurate. Write a friendly letter to the advocacy group pointing out their error and suggesting some changes to their "infomercial.
You are in charge of first aid during your Biology Club camping. Unfortunately, one of your club members got sick and dehydrated.
Explain to him why it is advisable to drink the sugar and salt solution that you prepared. You are an advocate of disaster prevention and preparedness. Use a van de Graaff generator to teach small children to be careful but not too afraid of thunder and lightning. Make sure that you explain the rules on safety in using the van de Graaff generator.
You work in an architectural firm specializing in restoration of old building. Convince your boss to invest in replacement of rusty and broken lightning rods in the building, explaining especially the effect of rust and breaks in the rod. You are a volunteer teacher in a first-aid class. Demonstrate how to help a victim of electrocution and explain the reasons behind the various precautionary measures.
You are discussing the hazards, risk and possible solutions of photocopiers and printers with the CEO and the building manager of your company. The CEO asked you why there is bright light during photocopy, why print-outs are usually hot and if these heat sources can be avoided. You want that a separate air-conditioned room be set aside for photocopiers and printers.
Create a cartoon or poster explaining the difference between an insulator and a conductor, particularly in terms of the mobility of the electrons, using as analogy e. Electric potential energy 2. Electric potential 3. Equipotential surfaces 4. Electric field as a potential gradient 5. Electric potential Performance Standards The learners shall be able to use theoretical and experimental approaches to solve multi-concept and rich-context problems involving electricity and magnetism.
Learning Competencies At the end of the session, the students should be able to: Define operationally the electric potential; 2. Draw and represent equipotential lines or equipotential curves. Calculate the electric potential due to a charge distribution. Prerequisite Knowledge electric field, electric force, electric charge, work done by a variable force Prerequisite Skills mathematical acumen in integration, variation analysis , drawing skill i.
Review the concept of work. Suppose an object is under the action of a constant force.
Suppose an object travels from point A to point B. Suppose also that two constant opposite forces F1 and F2 act on the object. When might the net work done on the object be positive, negative, zero? Illustrate your answers. Now, suppose the charge in No.
Determine the magnitude of the force F2 that must be applied to carry this out. You can do this in two ways: Rewrite your answer in No. So that now, the electric potential V at a distance r away from a source charge Q is given by the expression: What makes this expression much easier to interpret than the expression for the electric field E? Find V 1. Draw where this V is measured in i 1 dimension, ii 2 dimensions, and iii in 3 dimensions. Inquire about the factors that affect the electric potential V.
The locus of points having the same potential V is called an equipotential line or an equipotential curve. Draw the equipotential lines around a positive source charge Q. Have the students calculate the total electric potential at the center of: A line segment of length 1. An equilateral triangle of side length 1. A square of side length 1. How did your answers in No.
General Physics 2 Capacitors in Series and Parallel pt. Draw a circuit diagram of capacitors in series and in parallel; 2. Explain what happens to the electric charge, voltage and capacitance for capacitors in series and in parallel; 3. Explain why a series connection is a voltage divider and why a parallel connection is a current charge divider; 4.
Explain the use of capacitors in series and in parallel. Inquire about the operational and geometric definitions of capacitance C. Have the students write down the meaning of each of the symbols present in the above definitions. Present circuit diagrams of 2 capacitors in series and in parallel without actually mentioning the words series and parallel. Ask a student to differentiate the electric current across the circuits assuming the system of capacitors is connected to the same DC-voltage source.
Which circuit has the same current throughout? Which circuit has current that changes across the electric path loop? From the above circuit diagrams ask a student to differentiate the electric potential between the 2 circuits assuming the system of capacitors is connected to the same DC-voltage source. Which circuit has the same electric potential throughout? Which circuit has electric potential that changes across the loop s?
At this point, allow the class to have discussion s according to groups. Ask them to write their group answers on the blackboard whiteboard.
Electric charge Q is a conserved physical quantity. This means that the total charge in a circuit stays the same. From 1, we see that charge Q splits or divides in a parallel connection. What stays the same in a parallel connection? The answer is the electric potential V.
Therefore, we have: What about the electric potential in a series connection? What does this equation mean? What happens to C as more and more capacitors are connected in series? What happens to C as more and more capacitors are connected in parallel? Draw the circuit diagram for this situation. From 1 and 2, why are c and d swapped in positions in terms of solving the unknowns?
Summarize your answers using a C-Q-V table like below: Define operationally capacitance; 2. Define geometrically capacitance; 3. Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. Lecture Notes. Course Home Syllabus Lecture Notes Labs Assignments Exams Download Course Materials These lecture notes were written for the version of this course, and do not correspond directly to the calendar in the syllabus.
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