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John Dickson Carr - Le Tre Bare [ITA ENG] by Thanatos0 in Types > Brochures. XXX GENERAL INTRODUCTION The bare outline of chapter sequences . Le Tre Corone, Rivista Internazionale di Studi su Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio. Ut fra oppdraget definerte vi tre søkestrategier. . Janosik, Le Boutillier, Williams & Bird, ; Borg & Karlsson, ). . at de psykiske helseproblemene bare er en begrenset del av en selv, akseptere de psykiske helseproblemene, være.
The Mamluk and Ottoman cultures represented in these volumes, however, were themselves challenged from the east: Inclusion of Anatolian Bursa and other producers of Islamic literary cultures resists the notion that locales such as Armenia or Trnovo were simply overrun—by invasive forces whose literary cultures remain unreported, hence unknown. The species is susceptible to avian botulism Blaker , Hubalek et al. Habitat Breeding The species breeds in flat open areas del Hoyo et al. Cochrane Chicago, In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating BirdLife International Heaney rediscovers his Dante in Station Island, or Lough Derg Chapter 24 ; further to the south and west, at Lecan and Ballymote, we will find the ancient texts of a resurgent Gaelic world, knowing little of Latin, being compiled after Chapter
David Wallace. As our period opens the East-West Christian schism has been established for almost three centuries; in the West will divide again between the pope of Avignon and the pope of Rome. Arabic literary cultures continue developing from Fes to Aleppo, taking in Cordoba and Granada, Tunis and Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus; Ottoman forces defeat Serbian and Bosnian forces at Kosovo in , and Persian and Turkish literatures already flourish at Bursa, some 50 miles 80 km south of Constan tinople.
Jewish intellectuals treasure Arabic texts, at places like Mallorca, and Hebrew writing endures as Jewish populations shift, assimilate, or endure.
Literary cultures help shape and strategize the regeneration of civil society after while also meeting the need for entertainment, distraction, and the pursuit of love. In clerics and literati from the constitutive nationes or nations of western Christendom converge at a German lakeside town, Constance, to heal the papal schism; visitors from the East revive hopes of a united Christendom that might resist the depredations of the Teutonic Order from the west and Ottomans from the east.
Our literary history thus unfolds within the span of a human lifetime, three score years and ten, while taking an expanded view of Europe. It focuses primarily on what literature can do, keeping visual arts at bay, although music, especially lyric, proves difficult to deny on the manuscript page. Europe is not a continent, and it has no natural eastern boundaries.
Europe becomes comprehensible only by considering that which lies beyond, is presumed to form its borders. In the case of Arabic cultures, dialogue is both external and, in regions such as Al-Andalus, internal.
And if part of what is assembled here might be read as prolegomenon to the rise of the Ottoman empire, what we are living through today might be understood as the long and unfinished story of its disintegration. Armenia Chapter 60 and Kievan Rus Chapter 69 remain today knife- edged between east and west. European literary history is offered here not as an agglomeration of national literary histories—French literary history, Italian literary history, German, Russian, and Greek literary histories—but rather as itineraries, places drawn together through links of travel, trade, religious practice, language, and literary exchange.
The notion of national literary history that still, remarkably, predominates today owes little to medieval understandings of natio and much to nineteenth-century historiography—where the literary product of a particular place, such as Palermo, Toledo or Toulouse, is declared constitutive of a larger entity known, or later known, as Italy, Spain, or France.
We thus offer nine sections or sequences of places, with a tenth section featuring only Constance. Our sequencing sometimes overlaps later mappings of national territory, but more often not. The first begins at Paris, the biggest city west of Cairo and, especially in its own estimation, intellectual leader of western Christendom.
Chaalis Chapter 2 certainly looks to the Louvre, but the places following develop their own regional ties: Sequence II begins on soil that was once French, and would be so again, but was for our period English, complete with English perpendicular Gothic architecture, namely Calais Chapter The ensuing circuit through English-speaking locales brings us to places bordering on Cornwall, Wales, and Scotland; the third itinerary begins at St Andrews, takes in Iceland, visits three sites in Ireland, and then travels an axis of culture earlier plotted by Geoffrey of Monmouth and Marie de France Wales, Cornwall, Brittany.
Forms of French, Flemish, Frisian, Swedish, and Finnish are heard along this route, although varieties of German predominate. Sequence V begins at Avignon and ends at Naples; such framing of Italian locales, reflecting regnal and cultural ties of long standing, reminds us that much of the literature flowing down the spine of Italy was, like much of the artwork, French- inspired. In opening Sequence VI, Palermo, home to the earliest Italianate vernacular poetry, and to Arabic court poetry before that, initiates a journey to and through the Crown of Aragon.
Section VII continues eastward from Cairo, hugging the eastern Mediterranean coast and then winding towards Constantinople.
Mount Athos, home to nineteen Greek and Slavic monasteries, and cathecting with both Constantinople and Muscovy, initi ates our eighth sequence. Heading due north some 1, miles 2, km via Trnovo to Lithuanian Rus, distances actually travelled by Orthodox literati, our route bends north-east to Novgorod, Hansa-affiliated outlet to the Baltic, ends in Muscovy, and contemplates Perm, the shaman Pam, and belief systems of the deeper Eurasian landmass.
Sequence IX also ploughs a familiar route to Constantinople in heading down the Adriatic from Venice, but then at Dubrovnik which passed from Venetian to Hungarian control in heads inland to Buda, Obuda, and Pest before winding through Polish and Germanic locales to Prague. Section X sees literate men from Damascus, Ethiopia, Kiev, Constantinople, Vadstena, and the full range of our western localities converging on Constance, between the Danube and the Rhine.
Inclusion of Anatolian Bursa and other producers of Islamic literary cultures resists the notion that locales such as Armenia or Trnovo were simply overrun—by invasive forces whose literary cultures remain unreported, hence unknown. Ottoman cultural presence in Europe, moreover, has to be taken seriously before , the iconic date at which Greek texts flood to the west from Constantinople. The eager pursuit of Greek letters just before and during Constance compounds with a forgetting of Arabic: The Mamluk and Ottoman cultures represented in these volumes, however, were themselves challenged from the east: If there were to be an 83rd locale in this project, it would be, by way of recognizing the Mongol culture that so galvanized the European imaginary, Samarkand.
But then there would be no reason not to consider those cultures of the greater Eurasian landmass reaching the Mongols from the east. Rather than despair at such infinite extension we might simply acknowledge, again, that the limits of Europe, endlessly negotiated, never can be securely known. Codex Vindobonensis is a copy c.
This paper parchment roll, 6. Mapping here concerns itself not with geographical precision, but with getting places in the right order to facilitate trade, and the movement of armies. For example, the rose located by the Canaries recently discovered by western Christians but known longer to Muslims of the Maghrib, Chapter 52 adjoins an impressive line of tents on the African shore,5 undergirded by textual commentary; a green-clad figure on a camel rides further east towards the king of Mali.
Two centuries later, the maps of Christopher Saxton continue to mix illustrative, discursive, and decorative matter, with sea monsters a specialty, coupled with an equivalent promise of measurement. His Tabula of Somerset, for example, couples a talkative landscape, encountered on the horizontal plane,6 with the promise of abstraction: Such a point of elevation over territory, coupled with new arts of triangulation and surveying, is for pre-modern mapmakers counter balanced by the noise, colour, and discursiveness of the lateral plane, representing the peculiar exigencies of ground-bound travel.
The extreme western part of the map, featuring most of Britannia and Iberia, is missing, so the original was even longer. Paris, BnF esp. Lynam, no.
Lynam, p. Curiously, however, our contemporary experience of Global Positioning Systems, or satnav, is returning us to aspects of the pre-modern cartographic imaginary: Literary criticism has yet fully to respond to such shifts in global mapping,8 but it is at least clear that conventional national blocking of literary history, grounded in nineteenth-century spatializing conventions, no longer serves.
The conceptual conceit of itineraries accords well with the material form and performative mode of the scroll, or of scrolling technologies.
But a book or codex, improving upon its antecedent form of the scroll, can complement purely sequential reading by bookmarking, as in religious typological reading, or indexing. Good index ing cuts laterally between one chapter and the next, suggesting connections between authors, texts, literary motifs, religious affiliations, sites of learning, commodities, and so on.
It also serves as a reminder that all itineraries, however neatly plotted, are subject to lateral intrusion. These volumes thus invest heavily in good indexing, and in the humbler, allied form of the cross-referencing footnote; the interested reader may enter them at any point.
Selecting places for inclusion was a crucial phase of this project that took some years of trial and error, with vital suggestions from contributors, colleagues, and many hundreds of people attending presentations.
Attempts to employ criteria more abstract than human habit and movement soon run into trouble.
Presumably this judgement holds after , when Cilician Armenia becomes Mamluk. He is right: When looking out over the Jordan valley from Mount Scopus, East Jerusalem, you are in Africa, geologically speaking, contemplating Asia.
The great majority of locales in our project, given the functioning of courts, cities, cathedrals, monasteries, universities, and madrasas, accommodate easily enough to place-based literary history, but there are difficult cases.
For our purposes, Iceland is drawn securely into Europe by sea-borne traffic, triangulating it with Bristol and Bergen; Icelandic writing, developing in remarkable new ways after , travelled widely across north ern seas. But rather than seeking particular ground, terra firma, we might better think of vast expanses of water, the element conditioning and surrounding Icelandic writing.
For quite different reasons, some coastal or landlocked locales in Iberia present equivalent challenges. Pogroms, micro-crusades, and the extended theatre of the Hundred Years War could keep Jewish, Muslim, and Catholic writers on the move: Contributors to our sixth sequence are disciplinarily inclined to collaborate, since few can master all the litera tures of the region, or keep track of all itinerant authors. Some authors draw modest locales into greater geographies of literary production; others, while still locally rooted, aspire to escape or transcend, through poetics, all limits of place and time.
John Trevisa, similarly, draws a borderland Gloucestershire castle Chapter 13 into translation projects worthy of comparison with Paris, rather than London. Both Guillaume de Machaut and Othon de Granson travel extensively, but each is strongly associated with, invested in, his patria, Reims Chapter 4 and Savoy Chapter 7 , respectively. Some authors, however, are masters of many locales.
None of these highly mobile figures, however, has dominated literary historical imagining in the way of the tre corone. Thus Dante situates himself within a cosmology and afterlife of his own invention, while Petrarch, dialoguing with the dead, bids to transcend historical locatedness. Both authors proved largely impervious to historicizing accounts of the s and s with critics generally continuing to read them untheoretically, that is, within the temporal and spatial parameters of their own self-mythologization.
Ibn Battuta, however, travelled from Fes Chapter 53 in our sixth section to Constantinople Chapter 66 at the end of our seventh, and also to China Touati, Islam amd Travel, 5.
This project attempts to break from the crisis of the historicism—De Sanctisian, Crocian, Gramscian—that has guided, for better or worse, literary studies in Italy for the last one hundred and fifty years.
All locales in our relatively short Part V—Avignon, Lombardy, Florence, Siena, Rome, Naples—contend with the historical, memorial, or literary presence of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, while yet combining to tell revisionarily of cinque corone: Italian and French nationes were the most prestigious groups to gather at Constance in , both as Latinists and as practitioners of pedigreed vernacular tongues.
The English, au contraire, had to battle to win and then keep nation status, and their vernacular commanded no respect and scant interest: Catalan enjoyed far greater esteem and diffusion,20 and the English at Constance attempted to impress through pageantry, drama, Latin oratory, and especially music, but not through English or its retarded by European standards literature.
There is thus some irony in offering this account of the literatures of medieval Europe in English, especially given the ambiva lence of current English political leadership towards membership of the European Union.
Place names present immediate difficulties: There can be no blanket solution. Luzzatto and Pedulla, Introduzione, i, p.
For the most part, in this English language literary history, place and personal names have been given in what is currently their commonly accepted, hence recognizable, English language form.
The problem seems more acute the further east we travel: Most ambitious of all was E. In Florence, a group of intellectuals founded II Ponte, a literary critical periodical that employed a beautiful signifier of all things Florentine, the Pontevecchio, by way of suggesting how post-war Italians might bridge their way between glorious past and illustrious future.
Political forces helped shape each of these initiatives. In Florence it was vital to demonstrate to the victorious allies, particularly the Americans and British, that Italy did indeed possess the cultural resources to refashion and sustain a vibrant, liberally pluralist culture: Curtius needed to transcend the militant nationalism that had surrounded if not suffused his scholarship, as a university professor, in earlier decades; on 2 May he was approved for the chair at Cologne formerly occupied by Leo Spitzer.
Spitzer decamped to Istanbul; Erich Auerbach, following a recommendation from Spitzer, followed him there in December Lowe emphasizes the crucial point, passim, that violence, victimization, and displacement did not suddenly end in Auerbach, huddling with select masterworks of European litera ture, pictures himself as scholar-in-exile in completing his mighty Mimesis published ; Spitzer, au contraire, learns Turkish and collaborates with philologically minded locals.
Awareness of a complex and labile East in our earlier European period, conflating strains of Orthodoxy and Islam, should dispose us towards recognizing equivalent complexities in our own time. This is vainly pugnacious in the global context of 5 March The term seemingly originates, however, in an article, also directed against the Soviet Union, by Joseph Goebbels in Das Reich, 25 February See Dobbs, Six Months, , It was in Armenia in that Osip Mandelstam found release from a five-year writing drought, a locale at once anciently classical, Christian, Persian, and Jewish, with memories of Jason and the Argonauts, gospels from c.
It rarely occurs on inland freshwater lakes and rivers Urban et al. Diet Its diet consists predominantly of aquatic invertebrates cm long including aquatic insects del Hoyo et al.
Corophium spp. Johnsgard et al. Breeding site The nest is a scrape del Hoyo et al. The species nests in large colonies, neighbouring nest usually 1 m apart Hayman et al. Management information Artificially constructed nesting sites in coastal locations such as beaches of bare shingle and islands or rafts covered with sparse vegetation are successful in attracting breeding pairs of this species Burgess and Hirons The species responds positively e.
The species is threatened in Europe by the pollution of wetlands with polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs , insecticides, selenium, lead and mercury del Hoyo et al. Important wintering sites e. The species is susceptible to avian botulism Blaker , Hubalek et al. Conservation Actions Proposed The following information refers to the species's European range only: Artificially constructed nesting sites in coastal locations such as beaches of bare shingle and islands or rafts covered with sparse vegetation are successful in attracting breeding pairs of this species Burgess and Hirons Pollution of wetland habitats, land reclamation, infrastructure development and human disturbance at key breeding sites needs to be stopped.
Text account compilers Ashpole, J, Butchart, S. Recommended citation BirdLife International Species factsheet: Downloaded from http: