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BS EN. Temporary works equipment —. Part 1: Scaffolds — Performance requirements and general design. The European. EN Scaffold Access & working platforms - Free download as PDF File wind loading on scaffolds can be calculated in accordance with BS ; and. Should be taken from the Eurocodes, BS EN and BS EN . (See: lesforgesdessalles.info).

In either case, the loading capacity of the scaffold will be reduced. Access to the Scaffold A safe means of access to all working platforms on the scaffold should be provided. The erection and removal of scaffolding in the vicinity of overhead lines can present particular risks as scaffolding materials are normally good conductors of electricity, are handled manually and may have the potential to come into contact with or come within arcing distance of the live overhead line conductors. Compliance with the requirements of this clause precludes the use of ledger bracing, which is generally used on tube and fitting scaffolds; the definition of two headroom classes, where the distance between platforms is a minimum of 1. A system scaffold is a scaffold made of prefabricated elements and designed and manufactured in accordance with I. Types of Scaffold There are currently two main types of scaffolding in use in Ireland: The castors should always be locked, except when moving the tower.

A sample of anchors to be used shall be tested to a load between 1. In the case of ties requiring 6. It is assumed that the allowable load of the anchor is in all cases greater than or equal to the working load.

The pass criterion is that no significant movement of the anchor is apparent; a visual check is sufficient. If any anchors fail to satisfy this test requirement then the reason for failure should be investigated and the rate of proof testing at least doubled, i. If significant numbers of anchors fail this test, then the overall safety margin is in doubt and the specification and installation method should be reviewed before the scaffold is passed for use.

Test equipment should apply the load through suitable couplers and be arranged such that the reaction loads are taken sufficiently far from the anchor so as not to influence the result, typically this means ensuring the feet of the bridge do not rest on the masonry unit being tested.

Most cavity walls, cladding panels and many parapets and other architectural features will be unsuitable for the attachment of anchorages. Where refurbishment work is being undertaken, the capacity of the building fabric to withstand the anchorage loads should be assessed. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds A ring bolt may be used by passing a scaffold tube through the ring and connecting it to the scaffold. The exposed length of ring-bolt shank or other bolts should be kept short and it should not be extended beyond what is permitted in the manufacturers written recommendations for bolts in compression.

Where no written recommendations are available, the capacity of the tie in compression should be established by testing. Through Ties Through ties are attached to a tube across the inside and outside of an opening such as a window. It is preferred that this tube be vertical to prevent slipping and damage caused by workers standing on the tube and that the tie tube rests on or just above the lintel and close to the nearest standard. Other arrangements may be used where this is not practical. The inside tube should be supplemented by an outside tube or by a butting tube.

Reveal Ties Reveal ties may be used where it is impractical to bolt into the fabric of the building or through open windows. These ties rely on friction and consequently require frequent inspection to ensure that the friction is maintained. Timber packing should be used, of approximately 10mm thickness to minimise shrinkage , alternatively 9mm or 18mm plywood may be used.

The end plates of the tube should be expanded onto the reveals by tightening a nut on the reveal pin. The tie tube should be fixed to the reveal tube not more than mm from the reveal and at the opposite end from the reveal pin. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds Where reveal ties are used, a greater number of ties are required.

Reveal ties are not suitable for use on sheeted scaffolds. Returns Where a system scaffold is continually and correctly returned around the corner of a building, it can be regarded as being equal to a tie to the first pair of standards in each direction from the quoin e. It should be noted that if a correct and continuous return is not in place, then each elevation should be regarded as separate and must then be tied at each end.

Plan bracing of ledgers would be required to provide tying to adjacent standards. Returns of tube and fitting scaffolds may be regarded as providing attachment of the scaffold to the faade for a 3m length measured from the end of the building. Structurally Designed Buttresses Structurally designed buttresses provide tying to those system scaffolding standards directly connected to the buttresses.

Plan bracing is required to provide tying to adjacent system standards. Buttresses connected to tube and fitting scaffolding may be regarded as providing attachment of the scaffold to the facade for a 3m length measured from each side of the buttress. Single Unjointed Raking Tubes Single unjointed raking tubes coupled to the scaffold at 6m intervals and tied back to the scaffold at the foot may be considered as providing adequate stability in the direction of the raker for scaffolds up to 6m high.

The tube should be at an angle of not more than 2 vertical to 1 horizontal and not more than 6m in length. Plan bracing is required to provide tying to adjacent system standards between the rakers. Figure Tie Spacing The spacing of ties is determined mainly by the loading and layout of the scaffold.

As the loading, height, number of working platforms or number of boarded platforms or the wind loading increases, so does the number of ties required. The system manufacturers instructions for tie spacing should be followed; for tube and fitting scaffolds, the spacing of the ties determined by the designer must be followed. System Scaffold Ties Each type of system scaffold has a characteristic tying pattern recommended by the manufacturer.

These patterns should be followed unless structural design calculations show any proposed variations to be safe. The system scaffolding manufacturers recommended tying arrangements should be available to the scaffolders. The recommended tying arrangements should also be provided to the persons responsible for inspecting the system scaffold during use.

Many system scaffolds require every standard to be tied and for the first level of ties to be no more than 4m above the base plate.

Where this is required but is not possible for an individual standard, the manufacturer may permit plan or cross bracing to be provided between ties to give stability to the untied standard. Such bracing will transfer more load to the existing ties, these ties should be able to resist the increased loading and at least two couplers should provide restraint in each direction at both the scaffold and the wall end of the tie.

Tube and Fitting Scaffold Ties The number of ties must be determined by the designer, in accordance with the requirements of I. When tying sheeted scaffolds the top lift must be tied. In addition, ensure that the coupler capacity is adequate and that there are at least two couplers providing restraint in each direction at both the scaffold and the wall end of the tie.

Bracing Bracing is required to stiffen the scaffold and prevent it from swaying. In system scaffolds swaying can cause instability, weld deterioration and can over stress the standards.

Refer to the manufacturers erection manual for specific requirements for bracing. In tube and fitting scaffolds, each plane of the scaffold should be braced by installing diagonal tubes that divide it into a complete series of triangles from the bottom to the top of the scaffold. The braces should be fixed as close as possible to the standardledger intersections. Refer to Table A4 in Appendix A for the. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds characteristic values of the resistances for couplers.

Faade Bracing Faade bracing runs parallel to the building and examples include: The scaffold should incorporate one type of faade bracing see Figure System scaffolding should be braced in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. The recommended maximum faade brace spacing for system scaffolds ranges from 3 unbraced bays to 8 unbraced bays; however this depends on the system used and the manufacturers erection manual must be referred to.

EN Scaffold Access & working platforms | Scaffolding | Safety

Tube and fitting scaffolds should be braced at least every 5 bays, unless movement along the building is prevented by other means.

Bracing should be fixed as near to the standardledger intersections as possible. The bracing should extend to the bottom of the scaffold with no breaks. Ledger Bracing Ledger bracing runs at right angles to the faade and is in a vertical plane. Some types of system scaffold do not require cross bracing unless: Where ledger bracing is installed for the above reasons, the loads on the adjacent ties will be increased.

The system manufacturers instructions should be consulted to determine whether ledger bracing is required. Section Showing Example of Ledger Bracing refer to manufacturers instructions for ledger bracing requirements. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds Ledger bracing should be installed on tube and fitting scaffolds. Brace alternate pairs of tube and fitting standards, ensuring that the bracing forms a complete series of triangles from bottom to top of the scaffold.

Install the bracing from ledger to ledger or from standard to standard. For tube and fitting scaffolds, brace each pair of standards where the bracing is installed from the inside ledger to the guard-rail of the lift below to allow access along a boarded lift. When clear access is required on base lifts of tube and fitting scaffolds, the cross bracing may be omitted on the base lift provided the first lift does not exceed 2. In either case, the loading capacity of the scaffold will be reduced.

Plan Bracing Plan bracing should be installed on those horizontal planes of the scaffold that are not stabilised against lateral distortion. The bracing should be connected from standard to standard, forming a complete series of triangles. Examples where plan bracing is required include: Missing ties Where an individual tie cannot be installed at the manufacturers recommended spacing, plan bracing may be used to help span the extended distance between the adjacent ties.

Note that the loading on the ties will be increased. Lateral loading Where loading bays are connected to the scaffold, the bays should be wing plan braced off the scaffold. Example of Plan Bracing refer to manufacturers instructions for plan bracing requirements.

Working Platforms Working platforms should be wide enough and be sufficiently boarded out to allow safe passage of persons along the platform.

They should also be capable of resisting the loads imposed upon them, including high wind loads that could dislodge the scaffold boards. Where a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury, the working platform should be of the widths given in Table A5, Appendix A.

A clear passageway, at least mm wide, should be maintained for persons to pass between stored materials and the side of the platform. Decking Decking may consist of timber boards or proprietary decking units. Where timber boards are used they should comply with I. The scaffold boards should not exceed the spans given in Table A2 in Appendix A.

These spans may need to be reduced to accommodate heavy loading. The transoms of many system scaffolds are constructed to provide a secure support for standard-length boards. Where the transoms do not positively restrain the boards from moving or tipping, the boards should be installed so that they overhang the transoms by at least 50mm but by no more than 4 times their thickness.

Boards that are nominally 38mm thick and less than 2. Platforms should be maintained in a fully boarded or decked condition. Where a platform has not been fully boarded or has lost boards, either all boards should be removed or it should be fully boarded as soon as possible. Immediate steps should be taken to prevent access to partially boarded platforms by removing ladders, placing barriers across access points including windows and placing scaffold incomplete warning signs at all potential entry points.

The use of the scaffold should be monitored so as to ensure that the manner in which the works are being undertaken is not damaging the working platform, e. Toe-Boards Toe-boards help prevent materials from falling and they also help prevent persons falling between the guard-rail and platform. Toe-boards and end toe-boards should be fixed to all working platforms where a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury.

The toe-boards should have a height of at least mm above the platform and they should be securely fixed to the standards. Maximum Gap between Building and Platform The scaffold should be erected as close to the finished structure as is practicable. The maximum gap between the scaffold and the structure should be mm where workers are required to sit on the edge of the platform nearest the structure and where ropes or chains provide a safe and secure handhold.

Where practicable, the gap should be closed by using cantilever platform brackets at platform level. Cantilever Platform Stage Brackets Cantilever platform stage brackets may be used to fill the gap between the scaffold and structure and are available up to three boards wide. Some system.

1 bs en pdf 12811

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds cantilever brackets require a stabilising tie to be installed. It is essential to fit this tie, as without it the bracket can swivel on the standard and the boards can become dislodged. Account should be taken of the extra load imposed by cantilever brackets on the inside line of standards. Fitting cantilever platform brackets will generally reduce the working platform service load and reduce the allowable number of boarded lifts and working lifts.

Guard-Rails Guard-rails should be provided on all working platforms, including boarded trestles, where a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury. The height of the guard-rail should be at least mm above the working platform. An intermediate guard-rail must be provided such that the maximum distance between the rails and between the lower rail and the toe-board does not exceed mm see Figure Guard-rails should be capable of resisting reasonably foreseeable horizontal and vertical loadings.

In any case, guard-rails should be capable of resisting a downward load of not less than 1. Falling Object Protection Measures should be taken to prevent materials from falling from working platforms. A risk assessment will identify the most appropriate precautions for different areas of the site.

Areas above pedestrian traffic, particularly those areas above entrances into the structure or above where persons are working, will present the highest risk and will require the greatest precautions. Brick Guards Brick guards may be hung from the guard-rails and secured to prevent outward movement.

Sheeting Sheeting may consist of netting, corrugated sheets or timber sheets. It should be fixed securely to prevent materials from passing through the sheeting. Sheeting should be inspected regularly, particularly after strong winds. Sheeting will.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds significantly increase the wind loading on a scaffold and on the ties and tie couplers. Fans Fans normally consist of an inclined support extending from the building and covered in decking. Fans are often the most suitable method of protecting pedestrian traffic areas and access points into the structure. The loads imposed on a scaffold by a fan, i.

The top of the fan should be tied to the scaffold where it is tied to the permanent structure and the bottom tube of the fan should be propped against the structure. Figure 17 shows two different arrangements for protection fans. Type 1 is where the fan is at a lift level. For Type 2 the fan is detailed at a lower level, in order to pass under a boarded lift.

Note that in both cases additional toe-boards should be used to prevent material rolling off the fan. Access to the Scaffold A safe means of access to all working platforms on the scaffold should be provided. This may include gangways, stairways, landings, ladders, ramps or hoists.

Sufficient access points should be provided so that workers may easily gain access to their place of work. An inadequate number of access points may lead to unsafe practices such as workers climbing scaffold components to gain access to or egress from their place of work. Ladder Access Scaffold access ladders should meet the following minimum standards: If it is not reasonable or practicable to close the opening by means of a permanently attached trapdoor, a protective guard-rail should be installed.

If a trapdoor is used to protect operatives from the access opening, then it shall be capable of being fastened in the closed position; and landings should be provided with guard-rails and toe-boards.

En 1 bs pdf 12811

Example of Ladder Access Tower note: Refer to manufacturers instructions The provision of staircase towers or ramps should be considered when justified by the frequency of passage, height to be negotiated, duration of use or evacuation requirements see Figure Example of Stair Access Towers toe-boards omitted for clarity.

Loading of the Scaffold 3. Loading Bays The weights of pallets of building materials such as blocks and bricks are usually in excess of the recommended load ratings of the system scaffold manufacturers.

A loading bay will therefore be required where it is necessary to lift pallets of heavy materials onto a scaffold. The provision of properly constructed loading bays can avoid the excessive loading of access scaffolds and the obstruction of gangways that can otherwise occur.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds The type of loading bay required will vary depending on the chosen method for transporting materials around the site and loading materials onto the scaffolding. A loading bay designed for use by a teleporter is different to a loading bay for use with a crane see Figures 20 and Internal plan bracing can be used instead of wing bracing, contact with external bracing or where wing bracing cannot be installed due to site restrictions.

Refer to the system manufacturers instructions for the erection of loading bays. Loading bays should be diagonally braced on all four sides or braced in compliance with the system manufacturers recommendations. Where the internal faade bracing hinders access onto the scaffold from the loading bay, the brace may be placed on the main scaffold adjacent to the loading bay or in accordance with the system manufacturers recommendations. Issues that require consideration include: Standard transoms at standard spacings and timber deckings at standard spans are not usually adequate to carry the higher loadings in a loading bay.

System scaffold loading bays incorporate special load-bearing transoms, often at reduced spacing. Where load-bearing transoms are directly connected to the outside face of a scaffold, the capacity of the standards to support the combined loads imposed by the working platforms and the load-bearing transoms should be assessed.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds Plan bracing should be installed from the outside corner of a loading bay to the main access scaffold and the main scaffold should be tied to the building with supplementary ties opposite these braces at intervals not exceeding 3m. Where guard-rails must be removed temporarily to facilitate loading, effective compensatory measures to prevent falls should be provided. These measures may include movable guard-rails or panels, handholds or safety harnesses affording an equivalent standard of protection as guard-rails.

Temporarily unguarded openings or edges should not be left unattended and guard-rails should be replaced as soon as practicable. Signs Easily comprehensible signs showing the safe working load, for each working lift, should be placed on scaffolds and loading bays. Loading Charts Supervisors and equipment operators, e. This information will enable them to estimate the load they are placing on the scaffold and ensure that it is less than the safe working load indicated on the signs.

Free-Standing and Mobile Access Towers Free-standing and mobile access towers can provide a safe means of working at a height provided that they are properly constructed and used.

Access towers have, however, been associated with serious accidents due to overturning or contact with overhead electricity lines. Components may include prefabricated frames, platforms, bracing, castor wheels and outriggers. Steel towers are constructed from system scaffold components or from tube and fitting components.

Type C: Stairway or Stairladder Tower Type D: EN , Mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated elements Materials, dimensions, design loads, safety and performance requirements gives minimum specifications for standard mobile prefabricated towers with platform heights from 2. Manufacturers Instructions The manufacturers and suppliers of prefabricated tower scaffolds should provide instructions which comply with I. Mobile access and working towers Rules and guidelines for the preparation of an instruction manual.

These instructions should be available to persons assembling and using these scaffolds and they must be followed. Falls from a Height During Assembly and Dismantling There are currently two methods of providing a safer environment during the assembly, altering and dismantling of mobile access towers. These methods take account of the need to prevent falls during these processes.

Advanced Guard-Rails This method uses an additional set of equipment allowing guard-rails to be placed ahead of the platform from the safety of the level below so that collective fall prevention measures are in place before the operative stands on the platform see Figure 24 toe-boards omitted for clarity.

Falls from a Height Personal Fall Protection Equipment It is recommended that you do not attach safety harness lanyards to mobile access towers.

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In the event of an arrested fall, you are likely to cause the tower to overturn, not only increasing the risk of further injury to yourself, but also putting others in the vicinity in danger from the falling tower. Stability The conditions of use of the tower and environmental forces such as wind can adversely affect tower stability.

Where the conditions of use or the wind forces are likely to be different from those covered by the manufacturers instructions or this Code, or where the tower is erected in a location exposed to high winds, the overturning forces should be calculated by a competent person. Appropriate measures should be taken to ensure that the tower has a factor of safety against overturning of at least 1.

Ground Surface The ground surface should be suitable for the type of tower to be used. Where castors are to be used, the surface should be even and holes, ducts, pits or gratings should be securely fenced or covered. Where the surface is sloping, the tower should be prevented from slipping. Base plates and sole boards should be used where the ground is soft. Bracing Prefabricated towers should be braced in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Where the tower is constructed of tube and fitting components, it should be adequately braced on all four sides and be braced in plan at every alternate lift.

Castors Castors should be fitted with adequate brakes and they should be securely fixed to each leg of the tower to prevent accidental uncoupling. Working Platform The deck units or boards should be securely fixed to the frame.

Toe-boards and guard-rails should be provided. The platform should not be overloaded. Tower Access Access should be provided to the tower using vertical or integral ladders, inclined internal ladders or stairways erected in accordance with the manufacturers directions.

Ladders should be attached to the shorter side of rectangular towers and within the base area of the tower. External ladders should not be used with aluminium towers. Access to the platforms should be through a hatch that is capable of being closed and secured.

Overhead Electricity Lines Mobile access towers should not be used in locations adjacent to overhead power lines. Where mobile access towers are being used in the same general area as overhead electricity lines, physical barriers and warning notices should be provided to prevent them coming close to the overhead electricity lines.

Instruction, Training and Supervision Prefabricated towers such as aluminium alloy towers may only be erected by competent workers with adequate skills and training.

Workers should be provided with adequate and comprehensible instructions both for the erection and checking of the tower. A basic or advanced scaffolder is already deemed to be competent to erect mobile towers. Competent supervision should be provided to ensure that towers are safely erected, checked and used.

Tower Use Vertical or horizontal forces capable of overturning a tower should not be applied. Such forces may arise from pulling or pushing the tower along at a high level, lifting loads up the outside of the tower or hauling heavy ropes or cables.

Using hand tools such as drills can cause an additional horizontal force on the tower. The tower should not be moved with workers or materials anywhere on the tower. It should be moved manually, pushing the tower at or near the base. Mechanical means should not be used to push towers. The tower or its platforms should not be overloaded. The castors should always be locked, except when moving the tower.

Chocks should be used where there is any doubt about the adequacy of the brakes. Standard-width scaffold couplers should not be used on aluminium alloy towers. The access tower should be inspected and form GA3 see Appendix C , or some. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds other suitable method of recording the required information, should be completed before using the tower.

Warning notices should be placed on incomplete towers. This lightness is a positive advantage in relation to ease of erection and use and may help to avoid manual handling injuries. A light aluminium or GRP tower will, however, be less stable than a heavier steel tower of the same dimensions. Prefabricated towers designed and constructed in compliance with I. Where winds approaching this speed are expected, precautions should be taken such as tying the tower to adjoining structures or dismantling the tower to prevent it being blown over.

Work on prefabricated towers should cease when wind speeds exceed Towers should be inspected after high wind events and the results of the inspection should be recorded. The manufacturers instructions should be followed and the tower should not be assembled to a height above that recommended by the manufacturer for the specified stabilisers or outriggers, which must be installed correctly and at the appropriate point in the assembly sequence.

Steel Towers The height to least base dimension ratio for unsheeted mobile towers should not be greater than 3. When used in exposed situations, the tower should be tied to the building it is serving. The maximum height in this Code is 8m; mobile towers higher than this should be designed. Towers outside are usually exposed and are therefore subject to wind forces. Frequently towers with a height to least base dimension ratio greater than 3.

For these circumstances, the wind forces should be calculated and the tower restrained by kentledge or guys, to give a factor of safety against overturning of 1.

In calculating the height to base ratio, measure the height from ground level to the working deck or top lift and measure the base width as the least base dimension, centre to centre, of the shortest side of a rectangular tower.

Overhead Electricity Lines Overhead electricity lines can present a serious safety risk, particularly in areas where construction activities are being carried out, unless appropriate measures are taken to identify and control the risk. The erection and removal of scaffolding in the vicinity of overhead lines can present particular risks as scaffolding materials are normally good conductors of electricity, are handled manually and may have the potential to come into contact with or come within arcing distance of the live overhead line conductors.

Furthermore, once scaffolding has been erected, work activities being carried out on the scaffolding can present similar safety risks, especially while materials are being handled or long handle tools are being used.

Risks can also arise in windy conditions from live conductors blowing towards or making contact with the scaffold and thereby making the entire scaffold assembly live. These measures will normally include one or more of the following, in order of preference: In addition, scaffolds erected adjacent to overhead lines should be earthed. Any party who has a responsibility for design, erection, dismantling or use of scaffolding near overhead electricity lines should refer to it see Appendix E.

It gives the appropriate Hazard Zone and Exclusion Zone dimensions that apply for the different voltage levels of overhead lines. In situations where any part of the scaffold, if erected, would be within the Hazard Zone for the line voltage involved i. In the particular case of LV overhead lines i. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds conductors to facilitate scaffolding and certain work activities within the Hazard Zone of such lines.

Where LV overhead line conductors have been temporarily shrouded or appear to be insulated, it does not mean that they are safe to touch. The effectiveness of the shrouding or insulation will depend on conditions such as the prevailing weather. Where insulation or shrouding has been provided by ESB Networks as a means of temporarily reducing the risk of inadvertent contact by a third party working near a live LV overhead line, the third party should ensure that if the protection is damaged or dislodged that all work within 3m of the damaged area is stopped and that ESB Networks is notified immediately.

All control measures specified by ESB Networks should be implemented and all relevant employees and sub-contractors should be aware of the safety requirements. In the event of an accident or an emergency with an overhead electricity line or underground cable, contact ESB Networks hour emergency telephone number.

Portable Electrical Equipment Portable tools rated less than 2kV amperes and used in construction should operate at no more than V AC and be centre tapped to earth. Lightning Scaffolds on the roofs of high buildings or associated with some topographical features are susceptible to being struck by lightning.

Such scaffolds should be earthed. The precautions will, however, need to be greater because of the large numbers of people who may be at risk, their unfamiliarity with the dangers and their curiosity about the work. High standards of physical protection and effective systems of work and supervision should be provided to protect the public.

The public should be excluded from the area around the work during scaffold erection, modification and dismantling. This requirement may involve getting permission to close streets or footpaths while the scaffold is being erected or dismantled.

Where the public cannot be excluded, effective physical protection should be provided to prevent persons being struck by falling tools or materials. Where footpaths are closed, adequate provision should be made to protect pedestrians from traffic. Local Authorities may require a contractor to apply for a hoarding licence and a scaffolding licence.

Through Access Where members of the public are permitted to walk through the base of the scaffold, precautions should include: Where ledger bracing is omitted from the bottom lift up to a height of 2. Ties should be fitted at alternate standards. Adjacent Parking or Traffic The scaffold should be protected from traffic by the use of appropriate warning signs, lights, barriers or traffic cones.

Where vehicles are permitted to park adjacent to the scaffold, the risk of damage to the scaffold is high, particularly so if the vehicles park nose-in or tail-in to the scaffold. Vehicle damage should be avoided by preventing such parking or by providing barriers. Where this is not practicable, the scaffold should be inspected frequently so that damage may be detected and remedied quickly. Inspection and Handover An adequate handover procedure for transferring control of the scaffold from the erector to the user is an important part of managing scaffold safety.

Both the scaffold erector and the user should be satisfied that the scaffold can provide a safe working platform and can carry the imposed loads safely. An adequate handover procedure will include: The scaffold inspection checklist given in Appendix B Checklist Inspection of Scaffolding in Use or another suitable checklist may be used; removing scaffold incomplete warning notices from the finished scaffold; preparing a report of the inspection, e.

A copy of the report should be retained on site; and identifying the person responsible for further modifications and inspections of the scaffold. Figure 27 outlines the steps that a scaffolder should follow when handing over the control of the scaffold to the end-user. Use, Modification and Maintenance 5.

Scaffold Users A scaffold should not be used unless it is properly constructed and is suitable for the purpose for which it is required, has been inspected and form GA3 Report of results of inspections of Work Equipment for Work at a Height see Appendix C has been completed.

Where the scaffolding exceeds 2m in height, each contractor including subcontractors and the self-employed should be satisfied that the scaffold has been inspected by a competent person within the previous 7 days and should therefore ask to see the report of the inspection, which can be form GA3 or any alternative form that contains the required information.

Users including contractors and workers who discover a serious defect in a scaffold, which may adversely affect their or anothers safety, should stop using that scaffold and report the defect to the site management. Users should: Modification Uncontrolled modification of a scaffold, particularly if carried out by persons without adequate competence, can lead to instability and an increased risk of persons falling from the scaffold. Modifications to ties, bracing, ledgers, transoms and decking should be identified, requested and made in good time see Section 2.

Only competent persons who have been trained and are experienced in this kind of. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds work may make modifications to scaffolds. A sufficient number of competent scaffolders should be available to ensure that modifications are made in good time. Guard-rails and toe-boards in a single bay may be temporarily removed by persons who have been appropriately instructed in the safe means of removing and replacing the guard-rail.

Such persons should be instructed about the legal requirement to remain in attendance at the location of the removed guard-rail or toe-board until it has been replaced. Maintenance The scaffold should be maintained in a safe condition for the entire period of its use see Section 2. Inspection Before and During Use Scaffolds should be inspected before use and again at least every 7 days and after any circumstance that might affect the stability or safety of the scaffold.

Such circumstances include: The scaffold inspection checklist given in Appendix B or another suitable checklist may be used. A report of the inspection should be made on a suitable form, such as form GA3 see Appendix C , and a copy of the report should be retained on site. Dismantling Dismantling a scaffold can place large loads on the scaffold unless the work is planned to keep the amount of material stored on the scaffold to a minimum.

The work should be planned so that the scaffold remains stable, workers are prevented from falling from the scaffold and others are protected from the risk of falling materials. Stability The scaffold should be examined to ensure that the foundation is adequate and that all ties and braces are in position and are effective.

Any defects found in the scaffold should be made good before commencing dismantling. The dismantling should be planned so that stability is assured by providing adequate bracing and ties and by restricting the imposed loads due to stacked scaffold components.

Where the scaffold must be used to temporarily store large amounts of components, it should be strengthened and stabilised, e. Prominent warning notices should be placed and access to the danger zone should be prevented.

Protection from Falling Objects Workers and members of the public should be protected from the risk of being struck by falling scaffold components see Section 3.

Competence The risks associated with the erection, use and dismantling of scaffolding are potentially very high. Persons given the task of erecting, altering, using or dismantling scaffolding should have the necessary competence to perform their tasks safely, as outlined in Figure Competence of Scaffolders A scaffold should not be erected, substantially added to, altered or dismantled unless the work is performed by: In the case of scaffolding, close personal supervision is intended to ensure that the trainees safety is protected at all times and that the skills necessary to safely complete the job are comprehensively communicated and demonstrated.

To achieve this, the supervising scaffolder must ensure that the trainee scaffolder can be organised, directed, observed, communicated with and monitored at all times. In considering the nature, scale and complexity of the scaffolding activities, the scaffolding contractor must at all times ensure that the trainee scaffolder is undertaking work that is within his or her training, knowledge, experience and capabilities.

Under no circumstances should a trainee scaffolder be performing duties without close personal supervision. A competent person is a person who has been fully trained, has acquired the necessary knowledge and practical experience and has received the necessary instructions for the erection, alteration or dismantling of the type of scaffold. Training Formal training is required for those who erect, substantially add to, alter or dismantle a scaffold.

The training should include instruction on any risks involved. The extent of training required will depend on the type of work normally undertaken and on the type of scaffold.

Scaffolding activities beyond the range of general access scaffolds require the erector to be trained to an advanced level. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds 7. Experience A competent and experienced person should supervise the erection, alteration or dismantling of a scaffold.

The person should be experienced in the kind of work being undertaken. Assessment, Certification and Registration In order to help employers, contractors and project supervisors determine whether scaffolders have the necessary competence to erect or dismantle scaffolding, FS has introduced a programme to assess scaffolders competence, to issue certificates to those with the necessary skills and to keep a register of qualified scaffolders.

On successful completion of the training, each scaffolder is given a logbook, which is intended to provide scaffolders with a means of recording their subsequent work experience.

Employers, contractors and project supervisors for the construction stage should satisfy themselves that persons erecting scaffolding have the necessary training by seeking evidence of FS certification or an equivalent qualification accredited by FS.

Competence for Inspection The designated person inspecting a scaffold should be competent. A competent person is a person who is fully trained, has acquired the necessary knowledge and practical experience and has received the necessary instructions for the inspection of the type of scaffold. While it is relatively easy to inspect for certain defects such as missing guard-rails,. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds an untrained person may not be able to form an opinion on the stability of the scaffold.

Those performing simple scaffold inspections should have received at least one day of formal training in scaffold inspection and be competent. Extra training is required for the inspection of complex scaffolds. Employers, contractors and project supervisors should seek evidence of appropriate certification of training in order to verify that training has been received.

Periodic refresher training should be provided where appropriate. Training and Instruction for Scaffold Users All scaffold users should receive training and instruction in the use of the scaffold. It is important to provide this training and instruction because the users may not otherwise realise when they are at risk, may not request modifications in time and may interfere with the scaffold, putting themselves and others at risk.

This training may be provided as part of the site-specific induction that all persons who are likely to use the scaffold, either for access or as a working platform, should receive. Induction training should ensure that scaffold users: Modifications may only be made by a competent person with the appropriate training and certification; know the maximum loading capacity of the scaffold working platforms and loading towers the training should provide specific comprehensible examples relating to the materials in use on the site ; report defects to a designated person; do not throw materials from the scaffold; and use the designated access points and do not climb the scaffold.

Training and Instruction of Equipment Operators The mechanical placing of materials on a scaffold can give rise to significant impact loads and overloading of the scaffold can provoke a general collapse of the scaffold. Equipment operators such as crane drivers and telescopic fork-truck drivers as well as signallers banksmen should be competent and have received training, assessment and certification.

FS or FS-approved providers offer training courses for equipment operators and assess, certify and register trained operators. Other appropriately qualified bodies may apply to FS for accreditation of courses. Lifting equipment operators should be informed of the safe working load of the scaffold working platforms and loading bays. Comprehensible examples relating to the materials in use on the site should be provided.

It may be necessary to review the information provided if the materials or scaffold layout change. Excavation close to the scaffold can undermine it.

EN 12811-1 Scaffold Access & working platforms

Excavator operators should be informed of the minimum distances that they should observe when excavating in the vicinity of the scaffold. Tube and Fitting Scaffolds Tube and fitting scaffolds form only a small proportion of scaffolds erected in Ireland.

Refer to I. Temporary works equipment Scaffolds Performance requirements and general design for comprehensive information on the design and erection of tube and fitting scaffolds. Access and working scaffolds may be specifically designed and constructed for any particular distributed or point load and for a variety of purposes. Table A1 lists the six distributed load classes specified in I.

EN Part 1. The requirements for concentrated and partial area loads are also included. Further details of these can be found in Table 3 of I. In the absence of wind, in addition to vertical imposed loads, I.

EN Part 1 requires a notional horizontal load applied to each bay of the scaffold of not less than 2. It should be separately applied parallel and perpendicular to the bay at the level of the working platform. Reference should also be made to clause 6. EN Part 1 for the design load combinations to be used. If the specifier quotes no load rating, it is recommended that the selection be made from either Table A1 in this Code of Practice or from Table 3 in I. The following tables are derived from I.

EN Part 1, and I. Checklist 1: Inspection of Scaffolding Materials Before Use Use this checklist to verify and record that scaffolding materials that are delivered to site are in an acceptable condition; before they are incorporated into the temporary structure. Checklist 2: Inspection of Scaffolding in Use Use this checklist while inspecting scaffolding that is in use. Record all defects observed and arrange for a a competent scaffolder to rectify the defects note when completed.

This can help you complete form GA3. Inspected By: Copies to: Date Corrected. Handover of Scaffolding to User Use this certificate to record the particulars of the scaffolding that you have erected and communicate the capacity of the scaffolding to the User. Erected by: Copies to:.

Detail the design information necessary to enable other competent persons to make a full inspection of the scaffold during use i. Erected the scaffolding in accordance with the details above and our quotation: Make sure that the scaffolding is used in accordance with the details above Not alter the scaffolding or overload the scaffolding during use Make arrangements to have the scaffolding inspected at least every 7 days see GA3 form.

12811 1 en pdf bs

This form may be used to record the results of inspections of work equipment for work at a height, as set out in the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work General Application Regulations The HSA produced this form to facilitate the recording of information, as per Regulation This is not an approved or statutory form.

Reports of inspections of work equipment for work at a height may be produced in other formats. GA3 - Report of Results of Inspections of: Work Equipment for Work at a Height Name of person or company for whom the inspection was carried out: Address where inspection was carried out site or other workplace:. Day to day management of the scaffolding is the responsibility of the contractor responsible for the site.

This form may be used to assist in compliance with the Safety Health and Welfare at Work General Application Regulations Regulation Inspection of Work Equipment in relation to scaffolds, guard-rails, toe-boards, barriers or similar means of protection, fixed and mobile working platforms, nets, airbags or other collective safeguards for arresting falls, personal fall protection systems, work positioning systems, rope access and positioning techniques, fall arrest systems, work restraint systems and ladders.

Reports of Inspection may be produced in other formats. This form does not substitute for reports of thorough examination of lifting equipment that may be required under other statutory provisions see GA1 and GA2. Table D1: Mass of Scaffolding Materials. Table D4: Mass of Unboarded 2m Lift One Bay Long including two standards, two ledgers, two transoms and a portion of bracing, ties and fittings.

BS EN 12811-1:2003

Guard-rails are not included. Additional Weight of a Boarded Lift with imposed service load One Bay Long this includes the additional weight of one boarded lift: The figures do not include weight of the scaffold itself, which is given in Table D4.

Statutory Provisions www. Irish Standards www. Couplers for tubes Requirements and test procedures Personal protective equipment against falls from a height Lanyards Personal protective equipment against falls from a height Energy absorbers Personal protective equipment for work positioning and prevention of falls from a height Belts for work positioning and restraint and work positioning lanyards Personal protective equipment against falls from a height Full body harnesses Personal protective equipment against falls from a height Connectors Personal protective equipment against falls from a height Fall arrest systems.

EN , Personal protective equipment against falls from a height Test methods Personal protective equipment against falls from a height General requirements for instructions for use, maintenance, periodic examination, repair, marking and packaging Machine-graded home-grown timber scaffold boards Mobile access and working towers made of prefabricated elements Materials, dimensions, design loads, safety and performance requirements Adjustable telescopic steel props Product specifications, design and assessment by calculation and tests Design of timber structures Safety nets Part 1: Safety requirements, test methods Safety nets Part 2: Safety requirements for the positioning limits Mobile access and working towers Rules and guidelines for the preparation of an instruction manual.

EN Part 1, Faade scaffolds made of prefabricated components Part 1: Products specifications Faade scaffolds made of prefabricated components Part 2: EN Part 1, Temporary works equipment Scaffolds Performance requirements and general design Temporary works equipment Part 2: Information on materials Temporary works equipment Part 3: Load testing Falsework Performance requirements and general design.

British Standards www. Specification Code of practice for access and working scaffolds and special scaffold structures in steel withdrawn Code of practice for falsework Barriers in and about buildings. Code of practice Loading for buildings. Code of practice for dead and imposed loads Health and Safety Authority. Code of practice for wind loads Loading for buildings. Code of practice for imposed roof loads.

Health and Safety Authority Guidance www. Electricity Supply Board www. Building Research Establishment UK www. Other H. References to illustrations are denoted by the suffix illus. A access see also ladders; staircase access towers definition of 19 mobile elevated work platforms 41 points of 56, , 67, 72 preventing 12, 36, 54, 63, towers 58, , 64illus.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds bracing , , 67 cross see ledger bracing diagonal 62 faade 18, 21illus. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds Code of Practice for Avoiding Danger from Overhead Electricity Lines 70, collapse, causes of 6, 15, , 83 collective protective measures 8, 34 see also barriers competence 23, 24, , availability of on site 32, 77 definition of 80, 81 design 29 erection 26, 68, 79, 80 inspection 32, modification 15, 32, , 79, 80, 81, 82 supervision 81 components, definition of 17, 21illus.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds decking 26, 34, 36, 54, 67 see also boards modifications to 76 defects 14, 27, 28, 36, 76, 78 definitions design , 40, 48 definition of 16 process , 23illus. FS 68, 80, 81, 83, foundations 6, 26, 32, , 67 see also ground conditions fragile surfaces, definition of 19 frame access towers 64illus.

EN 39 I. EN 74 37, 85, I. EN 65, 69, I.

EN 65, I. EN 4, 5, 29, 30, I. EN 34, 5, 6, 17, 29, 30, 48, 79, 85, 97, J joint pins, definition of 18 K kentledge, definition of 18 knee braces, definition of 18 L ladders access 34, 36, , 59illus. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds loading materials weights 63, 83, loads dismantling 78 imposed by fans 56 information in written brief 26 lateral 52 restrictions on 32 signs showing maximum 63, 62illus. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds needs of specific users netting see also sheeting definition of 16 nodes, definition of 16 non-movable ties definition of 18, 21illus.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds reveal ties 44, 45illus. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds scaffold boards see boards scaffold system, definition of 17 scaffolds, definition of 20 scaffolding licences 72 scheduling scope of this Code 34 sewers 35 sheeting 26, 35, 40, , 72 definition of 16 side protection, definition of 16 signs see warning notices site surveys 25 sleeve couplers 37, 87 definition of 17 sloping foundations 39, 67 slung scaffolds 35 soft ground 38, 39, 67 sole boards definition of 19, 21illus.

Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds system configurations, definition of 17 system scaffolds, requirements for 5 system width SW , definition of 17 T teleporters for loading materials , 61, 61illus. Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds sway 19 trapdoors 58, , 67 truss-out scaffolds 35 tube and fitting scaffolds bracing , 49, 52, 67 positioning of sleeve couplings 37 requirements for 6, service loads for 86 ties 48 tubes butting 18, 40, 43 weight of 97 types of scaffolding 56 U underground services 29, 35, 39 users duties of 10, , 76 needs of other 32 information for , 33, 63, 76, 82, 83 V vehicle impact 7, 72, 77 voltage of portable tools 71 W Walker, H.

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