A NEW HBO SERIES, HIS DARK MATERIALS, BASED ON PULLMAN'S pdf. Sign me up to get more news about Children's books. Please make a selection Each of the novels in Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy offers an exciting . Book 1: His Dark Materials: The Golden Compass File Size: Kb | File Format: PDF The second book in the "Dark Materials" trilogy. PDF | The purpose of this paper is to analyze five themes of the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman in the light of their similarity to.
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His Dark Materials: The Golden Compass • Book I. The Subtle Knife • Book II. The Amber Spyglass • Book III. Lyra's Oxford. The Broken Bridge. Count Karlstein. His Dark Materials has 22 entries in the series. Philip Pullman Author (). cover image of The Science of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials. His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman PDF, PDF The Golden Compass, The Amber Spyglass PDF Download, His Dark Materials Trilogy PDF.
It will start with an overview of the plot, characters, settings and themes. They both are the two ordinary children who are on the journey to get the thrill and adventure in their life. On the one hand, it is a great adventure story for both children and adults alike, though initially made only for the juvenile audience. You will find some romantic scenes as well as in the novel. In it she wrote that fantasy literature had become exceptionally popular 3.
Book 2: Dark Materials 02 - The Subtle Knife. Scholastic Point; New edition edition 16 Oct The second book in the "Dark Materials" trilogy. Will is 12 years old and he's just killed a man. Determined to discover the truth about his father's disappearance, he steps through a window into another world.
There, he meets a girl called Lyra who, like himself, is on a mission. English ISBN Lyra and Will, the two ordinary children whose extraordinary adventures began in The Golden Compass and continued in The Subtle Knife, are in unspeakable danger. With help from the armored bear Iorek Byrnison and two tiny Gallivespian spies, they must journey to a gray-lit world where no living soul has ever gone.
All the while, Dr. Mary Malone builds a maagnificent amber spyglass. An assassin hunts her down. And Lord Asriel, with troops of shining angels, fights his mighty rebellion, a battle of strange allies—and shocking sacrifices. As war rages and Dust drains from the sky, the fate of the living—and the dead—finally comes to depend on two children and the simple truth of one simple story.
Coulter soon proves to be more harmful than enjoyable because she turns out to be a very dangerous woman. Lyra escapes and finds herself in the Gypsies clan. Over there she learns about her true identity— she is a illegitimate child of Lord Asriel and Mrs. On her way, the rescue party stops by at Dr.
Soon, the group is accompanied by a hired Texan aeronaut Lee Scoresby and an armored bear Iorek Byrnison.
While they make their way to Lapland, Mrs. Coulter meets with General Oblation Board, or G. Unfortunately, the Tartars, a group of soldiers hired by the church, attack the camp, take Lyra and Roger captive, and bring them to the laboratory. Over there Lyra hears all the truth about the experiments and evil practices of the G. Coulter who rescues her just in time. Over there she tricks the untruthful ruler, Ioful Raknison to fight with Iorek.
The battle is won and Iorek is back on his throne as the real king of the Polar Bears. Finally, Lyra accompanied by her friend Roger, reaches the fortress where Lord Asriel is said to be a prisoner.
Lyra and her father have a long talk about everything that has happened so far.
He explains to her all the details about the origin of Dust—the original sin that came into being when Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit. Devastated and filled with hatred towards Lord Asriel and Mrs.
Coulter she decides to follow him into another world and find the Dust that he wants to destroy. The story continues in the second volume of the trilogy The Subtle Knife and begins in the world as in present times. When trying to hide after killing one of the men that have been chasing him, Will finds an anomaly in the air.
He soon discovers that it is a window to another world, and he decides to examine it.
In one of the houses, he meets Lyra. Both are equally astonished: The children soon discover that the city is inhabited by children, while adults are essentially numb, lifeless phantoms. Some sort of ghost creatures called the Specters hunt for adults and feed on their souls.
In the meantime, Mrs. Serafina Pekkala appears just in time and kills the witch to prevent her from revealing all the information. Then, she joins other witches to prepare for fight with Lord Asriel and protect Lyra while Lee Scoresby sets his course to the North to find mysterious man called Stanislaus Grumman.
Soon, she must flee when she reveals that she knows Will who is being searched by the officials. Sir Charles Lantrom, a man she has met before in her own world helps her escape but he steals the alethiometer. Devastated, she goes back to Will and they both visit the man. It is believed that, this knife is a device that can cut through universes and enables travelling.
The children go back, and Will fights over to win the Subtle Knife from the untruthful owner holding captive the proper knife bearer. After the wrestle, during which Will loses two of his fingers, he is taught how to open and close the windows cut by the knife. First, the children decide to use the new device to get back for the stolen alethiometer, which they barely manage to do.
Lee promises to help John to find the knife bearer to share with him an important message. She decides to follow the new instructions. The clan of witches decides to travel to the world where Lord Asriel is preparing himself for the ultimate confrontation. They are attacked by the church forces that try to kill them.
In the heroic but deadly attempt, Lee decides to stay and hold the forces while John Parry manages to escape. It seems that Lyra will become another Eve and she will cause another fall from grace—like in the original story in the Garden of Eden—she will cause people to sin. Coulter decides that she must find the child and kill her. Although Lyra is her daughter, the destiny of the world is more important to her.
After Mrs. Coulter has the necessary information, she kills the witch and Charles Lantrom, her lover. Back in the camp, while Lyra is asleep, Will goes for a lonely walk. He meets his father and they reunite.
John explains to his son that his destiny is connected with the knife, the only device that can kill God, and that he needs to meet with Lord Asriel to give him the tool. Father and son reunion does not take long because John is soon killed by a witch he used to love.
After that, the witch also kills herself. Devastated, Will returns to the camp to discover that it has been attacked by the Specters under command of Mrs. The witches are killed, Lyra is gone, and the only thing left is her knapsack with the alethiometer.
Two angels await Will and urge him to travel with them to meet Lord Asriel. Will is torn inside, on the one hand, he knows he needs to go, but on the other hand, he feels he should find and rescue Lyra. The last part of the trilogy, The Amber Spyglass, starts when Mrs. Coulter holds Lyra captive in a cave in the mountains by feeding her some poison so the girl is asleep. Back in the camp Will decides to find Lyra in her world. He tells Will that all the angels are made of Dust, and that God is not the creator of the universe but one of the angels.
He gained power and started to rule based developing his dominion on lies, deceit, and force. A female being recognized the lie and thus the rebellion against God started ever since. After being attracted by other angels, he manages to reach the fortress, tells Lord Asriel about the place where Lyra is kept and about the plans of the Metatron.
He is one of the rebel angels who took over the power after God became distant and aged and now lives in a crystal chamber called Clouded Mountain. Metatron and Baruch were brothers. After delivering the news, Baruch dies. In the meantime, the Consistorial Court, a branch of the Church, plans to kill Lyra by sending soldiers to the cave and, just in case, a spy called Father Gomez to follow Mary Malone who may lead him to the girl.
They decide to use knife and set Lyra free. During the struggle in the cave, Will drops the knife and damages it. The Church army attacks the cave; during the battle Mrs. After the escape, the children decide to meet Iorek who can fix the knife. Mary Malone finds another world, where strange looking creatures live. The mulefa communicate by their trunks and they travel with use their claws attached to wheels made of seedpods. Soon, Mary learns how to communicate with them, especially one creature called Atal.
He explains to her that Mulefa have existed for about years. According to their version of creation story, in the beginning, a snake told a female zalif—a word for single mulefa—to put her claw through the seedpod.
After she obeyed, her male companion follower her example, and they both saw sraf, or Dust, and became conscious people. It has been that way ever since when the seedpod trees produce oil for the seedpod wheels of the mulefa.
Unfortunately, about years ago, the trees got weaker and started producing less oil. Without oil, the mulefa cannot produce more sraf, and without it they will go back to being numb creatures. To help her new friends, Mary builds a mirror and later a spyglass so she can see Dust and examine the problem. For children it is like tearing apart their own soul inside.
The land of the dead is filled with people, who are hunted by harpies who remind them of all their bad deeds. Lyra decides to free all of the spirits who are constantly tortured.
In an exchange for leading the group to the way out so that they all can escape Lyra promises to tell true stories to harpies from her life. Coulter is taken to Lord Asriel fortress, she escapes to the Consistorial Court using a machine called the Intention Craft.
Coulter has, and cut Mrs. Just in time Lord Asriel arrives and safes her, so Father MacPhail has to sacrifice himself to start the bomb. Back in the world of the dead, Will cuts a window and the spirits can flee. When they hit the air, they dissolve.
Metatron and his angels lead an army to fight against the newly build Republic of Heaven headed by Lord Asriel and his allies. Coulter again escapes and meets with Metatron. Though he is a supernatural being, she is able to seduce him.
She leads him to the edge of the abyss. Together with Lord Asriel they sacrifice their lives and drag him to the great chasm. Will and Lyra manage to save God who is attacked by the cliff ghosts. They notice he is very old and demented so they decide to let him free and he happily dissolves into the air, just like the spirits of the dead. They find and befriend Mary Malone, who soon discovers the cause of the sraf outflow. After Lyra and Will finally realize their love for each other, the sraf stops leaking.
Mary explains to the children what is like to be in love and that physical passion is nothing wrong. She recalls her own story, when she as a nun, resigned after meeting a man of her life. Mary also discovers that every time somebody used the knife for the past years it created a Specter and left a window open—a hole that Dust leak out through. The situation is clear now and Lyra and Will have to make a choice.
Either they can stay together and leave an open window and Dust will leak, or they can live separately, close all the windows, and restore the balance of the Dust in the universe.
Lyra consults her alethiometer but she cannot read it any longer. They both decide to sacrifice their own happiness for the sake of the universe and live separately in their own worlds. All the windows between the worlds are closed, except for one that is left opened for the dead spirits to flee freely, and the knife is destroyed.
Lyra decides to live and learn under the wing of her new tutor, Dame Hannah. She will teach her how to use alethiometer because now, no longer an innocent child, she has lost her ability to read it. Having briefly described the plot and the characters of this extensive series, it seems obvious that it offers a wonderful entertainment for the readers. For children it is an adventurous journey through several enchanted worlds where exciting events happen, and amazing creatures live.
For adults, it offers a deeper discussion over some important questions like religion, spirituality, responsibility and many others. Philip Pullman versus C. There are certain qualities that ensure the high place of the story among others.
Lewis admits, as mentioned in the first chapter, that he wanted to take the familiar Christian story and retell it in a new, refreshing way. However, Philip Pullman, who calls himself an atheist, wants to put himself in opposition and dethrone Lewis and his ideas.
Thus, Pullman is more inclined to suggest there is no divine being that created the world. This assumption leads Pullman towards the Gnostic religion that offers more answers than the Christian one because it fits in the mindset of contemporary times: The term is over: The dream is ended: For Lewis, he says, it is much better to kill than to let the characters live and grow up.
Pullman proposes his republic of Heaven with the following qualities. First, it is a place where people are similar to us, sharing the same feelings and emotions. They live, they die, and later they can come back as ghosts to teach us important lessons about life 30, Second essential feature is that in the republic everything what characters do matters to a great extent and has a broader sense of meaning On the one hand, it is connected with the inevitable process of growing up and reaching maturity, which is a very positive aspect for Pullman.
Another feature that Pullman lists is the sense of connection and responsibility to each other and with the natural world surrounding us. In this matter, he is not far from Lewis, but he extends this idea to acclaim the Neo- Darwinism evolution as the answer to big existential question about the origins of life.
Developing his argument, Pullman asserts that we are here because we are conscious beings and our purpose is to live, to help each other, and to imagine God is the ultimate creator; He is real and our purpose is to love Him and love others. Pullman finishes his lecture by pointing to two important issues. One, in the republic of Heaven there is neither God, who is dead, nor Satan.
The sources of good and evil respectively have no place of reference so now the responsibility lies in the hearts and hands of people Two, Christian myth offers a hope for life after death, but for the republicans there is also a consolidation. The Heaven is here on Earth, and when we die, Pullman says, there is nothing more. It is a state of mind fully awake to experience life.
It is presented many times throughout the series e. Coulter keeps her asleep supposedly to protect her 2, 3. Therefore, according to Lenz, Pullman implants various levels of consciousness to the reader through the book. Another level of consciousness can be found in the idea of the multiple universes and windows between them. Pullman seems to suggest that the escapism to another world or travelling between them can be more harmful than beneficial.
Noticeably, the most common ground of argument between Pullman and Lewis is on the spiritual matters, though Pullman dislikes to openly talk about it. However, his trilogy clearly portrays his version of spirituality, as the following critics will prove. In general, Pullman is very pessimistic about any form of religion and church institution. In the light of these ideas, Leet proves, Pullman stands against any organized religion that praises those who follow the rules and promises them heaven or scorns those who do not follow the rules and threatens them with hell In The Amber Spyglass it is clear that not everything is black and white as it seems.
The description of the land of the dead is rather bleak. It is the land where nothing happens; it is a void deprived of any particular quality. One martyr from the land of dead describes: The good come here as well as the wicked, and all of us languish in this gloom for ever, with no hope of freedom, or joy, or sleep, or rest or peace.
In the preface of The Golden Compass there is a note says: Finally yet importantly, Leet points out the individual faith journey theme in the life of Lyra—the main protagonist. The quest is almost entirely based upon the self-sacrifice to find and rescue Roger and ultimately save the universe by her decision to remain in separate worlds apart from Will. The former one, in the first place, enables Lyra to read and understand the alethiometer.
When she travels through parallel worlds and universes, gaining knowledge and experiencing various events, she is transformed. By the end of the third volume, she loses her ability to read the apparatus. The female angel Xaphania explains to her: Obedience, Disobedience, and the Storytelling in C. Lewis and Philip Pullman. Throughout the series, children are offered a chance to establish with him a relationship and get to the core of what is good, noble, and pure.
Lewis, however, presents the black and white version of authority. Those who align with and obey Aslan associate themselves with good and are rewarded; those who disobey are not only punished but remain uneasy with themselves.
This also leads to establish a sort of an inner circle of those who can fit in the standards: The Authority is introduced gradually. As one of the angels, he gains power and wants to rule over other angels and people, more by his regent Metatron than himself.
As his potential ally, Pullman presents ruthless religion organization, the Church, as a unified body made of the Catholic and Protestant denominations. What Pullman uses as an open criticism to expose and despise the evil practices of the Church, Lewis tried to put aside and promote more individual approach to and relationship with the divine Lewis is more careful, only to let certain type of misfortune and evil to happen, and ultimately the great and powerful Aslan always intervenes and saves the situation.
This raises more questions than offer answers and invites the reader to make one owns moral sense, what, in effect, can lead to disobedience Wood continues her study of differences between the authors on the next level: Lewis in his Narnian story clearly incorporates St. Eating of the fruit was not as much harmful as it was forbidden and caused the fatal fall. He believes that by the disobedient act against God the first men not only became fully conscious but also god-like knowing good and evil.
In His Dark Materials Lyra is a typical rebel that frequently disobeys and stands against the common or accepted rules. Interestingly, her insubordination often has more positive effects than negative consequences. On the first pages of The Golden Compass, she sneaks into the Retiring Room and then hides in a wardrobe not to be discovered. Having heard a secret plan to kill her uncle, she can save his life, and later engage in a life-changing journey and, ultimately, save the universe Last elements that Wood analyses are: On the one hand, evil creatures are those who are ugly, dark-skinned, or consider to be untrustworthy: On the other hand, birds like robin or dogs are thought to be trustworthy and loyal; in terms of people white race is more favourable.
What Lewis proposed, Wood judges, is the black and white dichotomy—love or hate, right or left, saved or dammed Nonetheless, he is less consequent what leads to additional ambiguity of meaning. On the other hand, Pullman is very clear in his understanding of free will. They both decide, and, in the conclusion, they chose to sacrifice love for each other and live separately to ensure the future of the worlds Both Lewis and Pullman made a bold attempt to reach to the core ideas and human values: Lewis, as an ardent believer and Christian apologist, constructed the world of Narnia based on the core of Christian beliefs.
The ultimate good and creator is God, in the form of mighty Lion Aslan. The focus is shifted from judging the religion towards promoting an intimate and personal relationship with the Creator. Lewis guarantees justice to be paid to the evil ones and reward to those who are faithful and obedient. His world may seem to be too black-and-white, but he guides the reader and ensures the positive conclusion of the series—sending his character to the Kingdom of Heaven.
In contrast, Pullman constructs his world where religion is the worst evil possible, in the form of the Church, while God is on a margin.
He is a senile, demented old man, who, finally evaporates in the air. Thus, Pullman is more inclined to empower his characters to freely choose their destiny on the one hand, and to lead them to fulfil it on the other. Their disobedience is often rewarded in the world where truth, values, and virtues are often relative and depend on the situation. Therefore, in opposition to Lewis, Pullman promotes his own version of republic of Heaven here on earth.
Undoubtedly, there are numerous differences between Lewis and Pullman and variation of the same ideas that both writers present in their works and openly commented on. These similarities and overlaps will be discussed in the following chapter. Basically, the difference comes from the two extreme sides of the pendulum. On the one side Pullman, an audacious atheist; on the other side Lewis, an ardent Christian.
However, this chapter will suggest quite the opposite truth. In the first section, it will discuss the ideas that are similar for Pullman and for Lewis. Thus, what Pullman offers, is not as much as an argument or disagreement with Lewis, but rather a constructive dialog.
The two fantasy fiction novels become a point of good discussion on a controversial topics and themes: Nomi Wood lists the most noticeable facts in her article.
Both Lewis and Pullman got their education on Oxford University and later in life lectured there on English Literature. Both were enthusiasts of fantasy genre and draw extensively on the Classical, Norse and English myths, and romantic tradition of the West.
Both were fascinated by the various periods, as well as the transition and connection between past, present and future. Both incorporated a set of characters who are similar in their personality, appearance or intensions like Lucy and Lyra; the White Witch and Mrs.
When asked about his intentions to write a children story, Lewis shared his idea that it all: At first they were not a story, just pictures. The Lion all began with a picture of a Faun carrying an umbrella and parcels in a snowy wood … but then suddenly Aslan came bounding into it … once He was there He pulled the whole story together…. She feels that she should come back, but the temptation to explore is too good to miss.
In the interview with Leonard S. Marcus in The Wand in the Word, Pullman described his desires to write a story. He had a general plan of what it should look like: It was an opening that was hard to fail with. Interestingly, if neither Lyra nor Lucy follows their adventurous cravings, both stories would never be able to develop. Gray argues that Lewis drew his inspiration from MacDonald and treated him as his spiritual teacher. He lists three writers that had had the most influence on him and his writings: Both Lewis and Pullman use the fantasy genre to present their own version of religious ideology.
However, Pullman seems to offer his own version of a message. It can be observed on various occasion when the angel Xaphania offers her words of wisdom to Will and Lyra.
Pullman despised Lewis for excluding Susan to enter the world of Narnia because her interest shifted from what is childish to what is famine in adolescence. In this sense, both authors seem to suggest that developing sexual maturity and exploring it should not be an obstacle to enjoy the fullness of life and participation in heroic quests.
On the one hand, both authors perceive life as a precious gift that should be cherished, valued, and enjoyed, though they disagree to the origins. On the other hand, though Pullman accused Lewis of his violent and purposeless end portraying death as a good thing, his own description of blissful release in the end of his trilogy seems to be gloomy at the core.
Those ideas, averts Gray, lean towards mystic pantheism or Romantic pantheism of Wordsworth treating death as a positive aspect of existence. This assumption leads Gray to discuss how Lewis perceived MacDonald as his influential teacher in terms of his inspiration in his mythopoeic writings rather than a successful writer Nonetheless, Lewis took a great deal from MacDonald, and this connection is relevant to notice some of the elements that Pullman used in his trilogy.
Moreover, as Grays continues, both MacDonald in more anticipated sense and Pullman seem to incorporate ideas populated by German Romanticism and postmodernism as well as English Romanticism , Thus, Pullman used in his writings traditional English background Finally yet importantly, Gray points to the use of Gnostic notions by Pullman that were also a common ground for MacDonald in a general sense.
In conclusion, Gray proves that Pullman is aligned with Lewis on various levels of characters description, development of the story and the themes utilized. Thus, the link for the similarities and parallel ideas lies also in MacDonald. This is clearly visible in the writings of MacDonald, e. Rather, the great potential of mystery lies in the uncertainty and excitement of discovering the future and interpreting it as it unveils These assumptions are similar to what Pullman shared in Achuka interview about his readership audience: Philip Pullman, C.
It seems that Pullman is trying to avoid fantasy on the one hand and still uses all it powerful message. This ambiguous approach not only helps him to alienate from the group of fantasists like Tolkien, Lewis but also makes his story sound more serious than others do.
However, his attempt to oppose his fantasy predecessors results rather contrary to his desires and place him closer than he actually realizes Hade and Oziewicz Moreover, Pullman admitted a high appreciation of the fantasy genre on different occasions because it gave him a vehicle to express concepts and ideas that were in his imagination and other literary forms were insufficient to exploit.
Another obvious reason for his apparent fantasy legacy finds its proof in the fact that both readers and critics clearly read His Dark Materials as a fantasy work. Pullman-the-reader, Pullman-the-author, and Pullman-the-critic. In this matter, it seems that Pullman goes even further and tries to push the limit of the mythopoeic fantasy in terms of questioning or even denying supernaturalism. The list of potential similarities in two stories is long.
The motif of self-sacrifice, prophecy, and journey to the underworld are clearly noticeable in His Dark Materials and in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Akin to Lewis, Pullman employs so called narrative theology. Hade and Oziewicz agree with William Gray that Pullman expands this technique further than Lewis because he not only quotes the Bible verses but also is bold enough to change them and adjust so that they fit within the story Similarly to Gray, Hade and Oziewicz observe the close relationship between Pullman and Lewis but they point to five convergence points In his famous essays: Moreover, they are universal and the question of age is irrelevant because they can reach to any group.
Pullman many times, as Hade and Oziewicz proved, shared similar ideas and seems to be in favour of fantasy genre. He delights in it, and the fact is that his readership audience consists of both adults and children alike Just like Lewis, Pullman in the Lexicon interview expressed his desire to be well understood.
He did write the story to have some moral imperative, but he does not want to preach and push any truth. It was already mentioned by Naomi Wood that both authors admitted that they did not have the story ready from start to finish. It all started with some images and pieces of events involving characters that later developed into a more complex story In this matter, Hade and Oziewicz agree with William Gray whose points were already mentioned.
The last two convergence points in the relationship between Pullman and Lewis are: Engage the class in a discussion about whether having possession of the alethiometer and The Subtle Knife either gives Lyra and Will courage or threatens it. How does it take courage to leave one another and return to their own worlds at the end of the trilogy? Why does he evoke fear in her? How can she be afraid and admire him at the same time?
Discuss how fear is related to courage. Why does this enable Lyra to trust him? Which characters do Serafina Pekkala and Lee Scoresby decide to trust?
Is their trust warranted? Who are the characters that Lyra once trusted, but in the end finds that she cannot? Please be kind to Lyra for as long as she lives.
I love her more than anyone has ever been loved. How does their love affect the fate of the living—and the dead? Ask students to identify the qualities of a hero. Have students select a hero from one of the novels and write a poem about that hero. Encourage students to share their poems in class. It is quite common for writers of fantasy to create their own vocabularies.
Vocabulary, including the names of characters, is often symbolic of the underlying themes and messages of the story. What is the purpose of foster care? Discuss whether Will would qualify for foster care. Would Mary qualify as a foster mother? Art —Masks have been used through the ages to represent animals, monsters, supernatural spirits, dream creatures, etc.
How is it different from other types of depression? From anxiety? Research the treatments for various types of depression.
Malone has the spyglass to aid them in their quests. Though these items are fictitious, scientists have always used tools and instruments to conduct investigations.