Exposure classes, structural classes and concrete cover .. Determination of the bending reinforcement for the T-beams The revised concrete code titled “Code of Practice for Structural Use of. Concrete ” was formally promulgated by the Buildings Department. Reinforced Concrete. Topic. Slide numbers .. The OSHA comprehensive crane standard: lesforgesdessalles.info Regulation.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Subramanian Narayanan and others published INTRODUCTION TO REINFORCED CONCRETE. In the design and analysis of reinforced concrete members, you are presented Design of members and structures of reinforced concrete is a problem distinct. Reinforced concrete: mechanics and design / James K. Wight, F.E. Richart, Jr., Rev. ed. of: Reinforced concrete / James G. MacGregor, James K. Wight.
M and S. For this purpose, frame analysis is done by Moment Distribution Method. Initially, the requirements proposed by the client are taken into consideration. The latest I. In such cases, the column should be so oriented that the depth of the column is perpendicular to major axis of bending so as to get larger moment of inertia and hence greater moment resisting capacity. Cement and Concrete Composites.
The state-of-art report has been elaborated over a period of 4 years by Task Group 7. In October the final draft of the Bulletin was presented to the public during the 1st fib Congress in Osaka. It was also there that it was approved by fib Commission 7 Seismic Design.
Join the fib. Concrete structures COM2: Existing concrete structures COM4: Reinforcements COM6: Prefabrication COM7: Sustainability COM8: Durability COM9: Dissemination of knowledge COM Membership Commissions and Task groups. Remember Me. Substitute EL for WL. While assessing the long term effects due to creep, the dead load and that part of the dead load and live load likely to be permanent may only be considered.
For building upto 4 storeys, wind load is not considered, the elements are required to be designed for critical combination of dead load and live load only.
For deciding critical load arrangements, we are required to use maximum and minimum loads. For this code prescribes different load factors as given below: This condition will occur when maximum load i. The loading arrangement giving maximum span moment, say span AB is shown in below figure 1. Thus, concrete is known by its compressive strength. Compressive strength: There fore a single representative value known as characteristic strength , is arrived at using statistical probabilistic principles.
Characteristic strength: Characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member: Taking this into consideration the characteristic strength of concrete in a flexural member is taken as 0.
According to I. According to the code, the value of ultimate creep coefficient is 1. It depends mainly on the duration of exposure. If this strain is prevented, it produces tensile stress in the concrete, and hence concrete develops cracks. Short term modulus of elasticity Ec The secant modulus obtained by testing a concrete specimen at 28 days under specified rate of loading is known as short term modulus of elasticity because inelastic deformations under this loading are practically negligible.
According to the code short term modulus of elasticity of concrete is given by: Therefore, the long term modulus of elasticity of concrete takes into account the effect of creep and shrinkage and is given by: Effect of the reduction In E ce with time is to increase deflections and cracking with time.
As the modulus of elasticity of concrete changes with time, age at loading etc, the modular ratio also changes accordingly. Code gives the following expression for the long term modular ratio also changes accordingly. Code gives the following expression for the long term modular ratio taking into account the effects of creep and shrinkage partially.
It is also required for calculating the properties of a transformed section of a R. The structural plan will be drawn showing therein: After the preparation of structural plan, the calculations will be done for unit loads as: Once these preliminaries are over design the frame components starting from slab, followed by beams, columns and column footings provided sufficient time is provided.
Local by laws etc.. This enables the occupations to enjoy the natural gifts. Such as sunshine, breeze, scenery etc. Different rooms in building needs different aspects. It so because north aspect receives natural north lights which is used in most of the daytime. One must feel the sense of pride in having a house, which is pleasing in appearance and is reflecting its individuality.
Living room, drawing room, kitchen, classroom, laboratory room, office room etc. Generally for the plans, position of beds, furniture pieces like sofas, cub hoards, dining tables etc. The feeling of space i. Maximum benefits should be obtained from maximum dimensions required for the furniture's expected to be achieved from the space.
A square room is found to be inconvenient as compared to rectangular room of the same area from utility point of view.
For examples in residential building, dining room should be close to the kitchen. At the same time kitchen should be kept away.
Main bedroom should be so located that there is no independent and separate access from each room towards the sanitary units directly or thought other passages. Circulation between rooms of the same floor is known as horizontal circulation.
Passages, corridors, hall etc. They should be well lighted and ventilated. Their location should be such that they don't cause any disturbance in any part of the building. In residential building in particular optimum privacy has to secured in planning. The internal privacy means, screening interior or one room from other room's parts.
The extent of privacy of a building from the street lanes and neighboring buildings depends on its function. Disposition of doors and windows greatly affect internal privacy. Lighting may be natural or artificial. Natural lighting is achieved by properly positioning the adequate number of windows to admit the required amount of sum inside the room.
Good day lighting means not too much light but sufficient light free from glare. Sanitary Convenience: Urinals, Bathrooms and their number should be sufficient in relation to the occupant load. The other factors are: The visualization of elevation should always be kept in mind while preparing plan. Architectural design and composition should be studied in detail for achieving success in creating an elegant structure. Selection of site for the building greatly affects the elegance.
A slight adjustment or modifications in the elevation through the requirements of the plan are maintained will definitely improve the elegance of building. Economy restricts the liberties which otherwise would have been enjoyed by the planner to.
But economy should no affect the utility and strength of the structure. Infact, no rules can be framed to achieve economy. It is at ingenuity of an individual. Which he would like to adopt. This consideration is very important for designing the houses for middle class families or other building where economy is the main consideration. Orientation also involves proper placement of rooms is relation to the sun wind rain topography and at the same time providing a convenient access both the street and backyard.
The placing of the building with respect to the geographical directions. The direction of wind and azimuth of sun is known as orientation building. Orientation is relationship to its environment. Good ventilation is an important factor in providing comfort in building. Ventilation is necessary for the following reasons: To create air movement.
To prevent accumulation of carbon-DI-oxide and moisture in a building. To provide required amount of oxygen in air. To prevent condensation in the building. To prevent the concentration of bacterial carrying particles. To reduce the concentration of body odors fumes.
To prevent suffocating conditions in committee halls. From comfort point of view the following factors should be considered they effect ventilation to a greater degree. Rate of supply of fresh air. Air movements or air change.
Temperature of air. Purity or quality of air. Use of building. For accurate analysis a continuous slab carrying ultimate load is analysed using elastic method with redistribution of moments. It transfers the transverse load to its supporting edges by bending in both directions. In fact, since the depth of slab is not known in advance and the width of support is normally greater than the effective depth of slab, in practice the effective depth of slab is taken equal center to center distance between the supports to be on safer side.
In practice spacing is kept between mm to mm. In case of slabs, design shear may be taken equal to maximum shear Vu. In other cases, the maximum shear may be calculated from principles of mechanics.
It is the bottom steel at simply supported end and top steel at Continous end. If not increase the depth. This check for shear is mostly satisfied in all case of slabs subjected to uniformly distributed load and therefore many times omitted in design calculations. It may be noted that when the check of shear is obtained, it is not necessary to provide minimum stirrups as they are required in the case of beams.
The effective depth do is for outer layer of short span steel and effective depth di is for inner layer of long span steel at mid span. As far as support section is concerned, the effective depth is do only for both spans. In this edge strip, only distribution steel will be provided. Distribution steel will be provided for middle strip bars at top of supports. At middle of short edge, Vu. Long edge: So two way slab interior panel.
Design moments: Check for deflection: M kN- Ast mm2 B. M kN- Ast B. A beam is a structural member that is capable of withstanding load by primarily resisting bending.
The designing of the beam mainly consists of fixing the breadth and depth of the beam and arriving at the area of steel and the diameter of bars to be used. The breadth of the beam is generally kept equal to the thickness of the wall to avoid offset inside the room.
It shall also not exceed the width of the column for effective transfer of load from beam to column. The dimensions of the beam that we have chosen are: Procedure to design beams: The beam is analyzed first in order to calculate the internal actions such as Bending Moment and Shear Force.
A simplified substitute frame analysis can be used for determining the bending moments and shearing forces at any floor or roof level due to gravity loads. The Moment distribution method is used for this purpose. In order to analyze the frame, it is needed to calculate the loads to which the beams are subjected to.
The different loadings are as follows: Depending on the position of the slab, the loading may be decided. In the case of two way slabs, trapezoidal load comes from the longer side while the triangular load comes from the shorter side. The load transferred from the slab on the right side is denoted as ws2 and the slab from the left side is denoted as ws1. The equivalent U. M and S. Design ultimate load: Given total No.
While designing it should first be noted if it is a flanged section or a rectangular section. Most of the intermediate beams are designed as rectangular sections. The main beams may be designed as flanged sections. For rectangular beams, the maximum depth of N. A lies at the centre. For flanged sections, check if the N. A lies within the flange or not and then proceed to calculate the moment. The dimensions of flanged section as designed as per the code IS: Reversibility of intervention.
Performance level of quality control. The fibers can be in one or two perpendicular 8. Political and historical significance. Generally there is two types of FRP 9.
Structural compatibility with the existing structural system. FRP sheets. Irregularity of stiffness strength and ductility. FRP rebar. Control damage to non-structural The behavior of FRP sheets is orthotropic or semi- components.
Sufficient capacity of foundation system. Repair materials and technology available. Concentric or existence steel braces. Post-tensioned cables. Shear walls. Masonry in filled.
Base isolator. Steel jacketing. Frp laminates or frp wrapping. Concrete armor. Repairing and strengthening important strength and decreased costs.
FRP cover. High durability. Being lightweight. Characteristics resistance and higher modulus. Handmade covers and vet layup. Corrosion resistance. Pre made composite sheets. Environmental and chemical resistance.