Suggested answers a) He used to / would drink beer. b) He used to have a beard . c) He used English File third edition Upper-intermediate Student's Book. How to use the English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate CD-ROM to learn vocabulary English Grammar In Use 3 Intermediate Upper Intermediate Book. English. Vocabulary in Use upper-intermediate. & advanced. Michael McCarthy. Felicity O'Dell. units of vocabulary reference and practice self-study and.
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English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate With answers . Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Currefit English, edited by A. S. Hornby (fourth edition .. first is mi, the second is ni and the third is mum) and the stress is on the first syllable. English Vocabulary in Use upper intermediate lesforgesdessalles.info - Download as PDF File . pdf) or Academic Vocabulary in Use Edition With Answers Vocabulary in Use 2 . English Vocabulary in Use Upper Intermediate (3rd Edition) with Answers and Eckart Straube 2b79zc Vest Pocket Webster Dictionary Self-Pronouncing pdf.
The book has two-page units. English Vocabulary in Use 47 Addition There are a number of ways of adding one idea to another in English. Find words on the left-hand page for the following. If someone is terribly thin and refuses to eat, they may be anorexic. A sudden gust of wind turned my umbrella inside out. The meanings are explained in brackets.
Do any of the job names not have a suffix? Rewrite each sentence by changing the underlined words, using a suffix from the left-hand page. Make any spelling changes needed. Most of his crimes are The Club refuses. Her only fault is. This firm has been very. I found the book very. Can you think of anything in your country which should be nationalised e. Which word is the odd one out in each group and why? The opposite of 'comfortable' is 'uncomfortable', the opposite of 'convenient' is 'inconvenient' and the opposite of 'similar' is 'dissimilar'.
Other examples are 'unjust', 'inedible', 'disloyal'. Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective will use to form its opposite. When you learn a new adjective note down whether it has an opposite formed with a prefix and, if so, what it is. Similarly in- becomes ir- before a word beginning with 'r', and ilbefore a word beginning with 'l', e. The prefix in- does not always have a negative meaning - often it gives the idea of inside or into, e.
Although it is mainly adjectives which are made negative by prefixes, un- and dis- car1 also form the opposites of verbs too, e. The prefix is used here to reverse the action of the verb. Here are some more examples: Many other prefixes are used in English.
Here is a list of prefixes which are useful in helping you to understand unfamiliar words. Some of these words are used with a hyphen. Check in.. Contradict the following statements in the same way as the example.
Not all the words you need are on the left-hand page. He's a very honest man. I don't agree. I think he's dishonest. Which negative adjective fits each of the following definitions? Choose a negative verb from B to fit each of the sentences below. Put it in the correct form. The runner was disqualified after a blood test. Answer the following questions. The answers are all in the table opposite. He's in favour of the American approach.
He's pro-American. Think of two more examples for each prefix in C opposite. English Vocabulary in Use 19 10 Roots Many words in English are formed from a set of Latin roots with different prefixes and suffixes.
Knowing the roots of such words may help you to remember or guess their meaning when you see them in context. These words are usually fairly formal. In their formation, they can perhaps be seen as the Latinate, formal, equivalent of phrasal verbs. Here are some examples of the more common Latm roots, with some of the verbs derived from them.
In each case an example sentence is given with the meaning of the verb in brackets at the end. You'll find some easier to understand than others. Note that for all the verbs listed, there is usually at least one noun and at least one adjective as well. Here are some examples. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below using words from the table in C. I found it very. Can you work out the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences below?
T o help you, here are the meanings of the main Latin prefixes: He always seems t o oppose everything I suggest. They have a very good induction programme for new staff in that company. I don't think it is healthy to repress one's emotions too much.
Perhaps you can deduce what the word means from the way it is formed. The documentary exposed corruption in high places. She tried hard to suppress a laugh. She transposed the music for the flute. Think of three other words based on each of the roots listed in B opposite. Put each into an appropriate phrase. Pair the formal verbs below with their phrasal verb equivalents.
Thus happiness, intention and shock are abstract nouns whereas, for example, pen, bed and trousers are not. There are a number of suffixes which are used particularly frequently in the formation of abstract nouns. Some of the most common are -ment, -ion, -ness and -ity.
Here are some examples of abstract nouns using those suffixes. Here are chance idea reason thought You will find more examples of the use of suffixes in Units 8 and 10 and of abstract nouns in Units 68 and II I Exercises What is the abstract noun related to each of the following adjectives?
All the nouns are formed in ways described on the opposite page although not all are listed opposite. I abstract noun contentment argument emptiness intensity satisfaction sentiment strength adjective verb adverb content ed to content contenedly Which of the words in the list below is being described in the following quotations?
Its meaning is usually clear from the words it combines. The second part of the compound adjective is frequently a present or past participle. A large number of compound adjectives describe personal appearance. Here is a rather far-fetched description of a person starting from the head down. Tom was a curly-haired, sun-tanned, blue-eyed, rosy-cheeked, thin lipped, broad-shouldered, left-handed, slim- hipped, long-legged, flat-footed young man, wearing an open-necked shirt, brand-new, tight-fitting jeans and open-toed sandals.
Another set of compound adjectives describes a person's character. Here is a rather lighthearted description of a girl. The meanings are explained in brackets.
Melissa was absent-minded [forgetful], easy-going [relaxed], good-tempered [cheerful], warm-hearted [kind] and quick-witted [intelligent] if perhaps a little big-headed [proud of herself], two-faced [hypocritical], self-centred [egotistical] and stuck-up [snobbish colloquial ] at times. Another special group of compound adjectives are those where the second part is a preposition. Some of these adjectives are listed below with a typical noun.
For example, curly-haired, long-haired, red-haired and straight-haired; first-hand knowledge , first-class ticket and first-born child. English Vocabulary in Use Exercises Fill each of the blanks to form a new compound adjective.
Use a dictionary if necessary. List as many compound adjectives beginning with self, as you can. Mark them P or N for positive or negative characteristics, or write neutral. Answer the questions by using a compound adjective which is opposite in meaning to the adjective in the question. Note that the answer may or may not have the same second element as the adjective in the question. Is he working full-time? No, part-time. Add a preposition from the list below to complete appropriate compound adjectives.
It's definitely a one-. Which of the adjectives from this unit could you use t o describe yourself and other students in your class or members of your family? English Vocabulary in Use 25 13 Compound nouns - combinations of two nouns A compound noun is a fixed expression which is made up of more than one word and functions as a noun.
Such expressions are frequently combinations of two nouns, e. A number of compound nouns are related to phrasal verbs and these are dealt with in Unit Compound nouns may be written as two words, e. Some expressions are occasionally written with a hyphen and occasionally as two separate words. For instance, both letter box and letter-box are correct.
Sometimes they may be written as one word, e.
Compound nouns may be countable, uncountable or only used in either the singular or the plural. There are examples of each of these types below. Check that you understand the meanings of each of the expressions listed.
If you understand both elements of the expression, the meaning will usually be clear. If the meaning is not fairly obvious, then it is provided below. Usually the main stress is on the first part of the compound but sometimes it is on the second part.
The word which contains the main stress is underlined in the compound nouns below. Here are some examples of common countable compound nouns. These are never used with an article. Add extra bubbles if you need them. In some cases more than one compound noun can be formed from one particular element. What, for example, are the two expressions listed opposite with blood as an element and what are the two based on control? Complete the following compound nouns with a noun other than the one suggested opposite.
In each case the answer is a compound noun opposite. Choose any article in a magazine or newspaper and write down all the compound nouns which you find.
Look at all the compound expressions you have worked with in this unit. Mark all those that you feel you need to be able to use yourself rather than just to understand when others use them. In Sections B to E you will see a number of examples of such nouns in context.
The meaning of the compound noun is indicated in brackets at the end of the sentence. To form the plural, 's' is added to the end, e. Nouns based on phrasal verbs often have an informal feel to them and they are particularly common in newspaper reporting.
Here are examples of such nouns in use. In response to the pay offer, there was a walk-out at the factory. The takeover of one of our leading hotel chains has just been announced.
What the computer produces depends on the quality of the input. Many of the problems were caused by a breakdown in communications. Guess the meaning of the underlined word from its context.
There was a terrible hold-up on the bridge. Which of the words studied on the opposite page would be most likely to follow the adjectives given below? Let's find another one. Here are some more words of this type. In each case the preposition element of the noun is given but the other part is missing.
Choose from the list of possibilities. English Vocabulary in Use 29 15 Words with interesting origins people and places - A number of words in English have originated from the names of people. A number of names of different kinds of cloth originate from place names. The place of origin is shown in brackets. Complete the networks below with as many other words as you can from the words listed on the opposite page.
Don't forget your Let's go somewhere quieter. Where did you get it? Here are some more words of this type in English. Can you explain a their meaning and b their origin? It has taken many expressions from the ancient languages, Latin and Greek, and these borrowings usually have academic or literary associations.
From French, English has taken lots of words to do with cooking, the arts, and a more sophisticated lifestyle in general. From Italian come words connected with music and the plastic arts. German expressions in English have been coined either by tourists bringing back words for new things they saw or by philosophers or historians describing German concepts or experiences.
The borrowings from other languages usually relate to things which English speakers experienced for the first time abroad. For example, from Japanese, tycoon, karate, origami, judo, futon and bonsai.
From Arabic, mattress, cipher, alcove, carafe, algebra, harem, mufti and yashmak. From Turkish, yoghurt, jackal, kiosk, bosh [nonsense colloquial ], tulip and caftan; from Farsi, caravan, shawl, taffeta, bazaar and sherbet, and from Eskimo, kayak, igloo and anorak.
Use a dictionary to check the meanings of any words you are not sure about. Is your own language represented on the opposite page? If so, can you add any words to the lists opposite? If not, do you know of any words English has borrowed from your language?
There are almost sure to be some. Do the words mean exactly the same in English as in your language? Are they pronounced in the same way? Look at all the words opposite and complete the following networks.
Make two or three other networks to help you to learn the words on the opposite page. Match the adjectives on the left with the noun they are most likely to be associated with, on the right. Have some words or expressions been borrowed from English into your own language?
Give some examples. English Vocabulary in Use 33 Onomatopoeic words Onomatopoeic words are those which seem to sound like their meaning. The most obvious examples are verbs relating to the noises which animals make, e. See Unit 73 for more about animal noises. If the vowel sound in a word is short, an onomatopoeic word usually signifies a short, sharp sound. If it is long- indicated in the International Phonetic Alphabet by,: Horses go clip-clop on the road.
English Vocabulary in Use Exercises - Which of the consonant combinations listed in C opposite exist in your language? Do they ever have similar associations? Look in your dictionary. Can you find any other examples of words beginning with gr-, cl-, sp- or wh- with the associations described opposite?
Which of the words from C opposite fit best in the sentences below. Almost all the words in C opposite can be both nouns and regular verbs. There is, however, one irregular verb, one word which is only an adjective, one word which is both verb and noun but the noun has a rather different meaning from the verb.
What are these words? Choose from the alternatives offered below. Can you guess the meanings of the underlined words from their sounds?
Don't mumble. What words on the page opposite do these pictures represent? Pair the words below so that in each case there is a noun and a matching verb. This page looks at some of the words which cause most pronunciation difficulties for learners of English. The phonetic transcription is provided for some of the words below.
If you are not sure of the pronunciation of any of the other words, check in the index at the back of the book. To master English pronunciation you need to learn the 20 phonetic symbols for English vowel sounds. It is not really necessary to learn the consonant symbols as it is usually not difficult to know how consonants should be pronounced.
Vowels are important because the vowel letters can be pronounced in many different ways. The letters below in bold are silent in the following words: I Mark all the silent letters in each of the following sentences. Underline or highlight the stressed syllable in each of the words in bold. You might like to ask a teacher to help you answer this question. Note any such words down with their phonetic transcription beside them.
English Vocabulary in Use 37 Homonyms Homonyms can be subdivided into homographs and homophones. Homographs are words which are written in the same,way but have different meanings. Homophones are words which are pronounced in the same way but are spelt differently, e. Here are some more examples of homographs. I live in the north of England. Iwaundl He suffered a terrible wound in the war. Ihauzl The sow has five piglets. Choose a word with a similar sound from the brackets.
I need it for a recipe. Write one sentence using both of the words corresponding to the phonetic script. Match the first part of each of these children's jokes with the second part and then explain the play on words involved in each. Because it's got a tender behind. A drum takes a lot of beating. I think I'm going down with something. A nervous wreck. He wanted to draw the curtains. Because it's full of dates. Let's play draughts. You're too young to smoke. Before going to work..
Previously I'd only been to Rome. I was out earlier on, [before then, fairly informal] The city is now called Thatcherville. Formerly it was Grabtown. While waiting, I read After locking up I We went to the castle. Then we caught a bus to the, beach. First we went to the theatre. After that, we had a meal. He fell ill and was admitted to hospital. He died soon afterwards. As soon as we've packed we can leave.
I stayed in that hospital the time that I broke my leg. I met Pollv at Ken's wedding. O n that occasion she was with a different man. In the meantime, relax and have a drink. Till then, we'll have to use the old ones. I last met him in Since then I haven't set eyes on him. By the time I retire, I will have worked here 26 years. English Vocabulary in Use Exercises Answered all the mail, Sat then felt I could watch W!
Lots ofphone calls! Sun Sandra, Joyce - and 18 Dougy all in a row! Lazy day! Manchester, then Thu Glasgow. Met Maura a t 15 Nick?.
Up early. Said goodbye t o Nick and left. Fill in the blanks with connectors. An example is given. This time it was Dougy. Make more sentences with connectors you haven't used, based on the diary information. Think of things that are true for you in these situations and complete the sentences.
Add more sentences if you can. An example has been done. Earlier on, I was If you can, get hold of a news report in English. Underline all the time connectors and see if there are any which you can add to those on the left-hand page.
If there are, write a whole sentence in your notebook showing how the connector is used. English Vocabulary in Use 41 21 Condition As well as if, there are a number of other words and phrases for expressing condition.
They are less formal and not so strong as on condition that but stronger and more restricting than as long as, e. Note the use of supposing and what if usually in spoken language for possible situations in the future. What if is more direct, e. Conditions with -ever However you do it, it will cost a lot of money.
You'll get to the railway station, whichever bus you take. Whoever wins the General Election, nothing will really change. That box is so big it will be in the way wherever you leave it. These four sentences can also be expressed using no matter.
No matter how you do it, it will cost a lot of money. You'll get to the railway station, no matter which bus you take. Some nouns which express condition Certain conditions must be met before the Peace Talks can begin. A good standard of English is a prerequisite for studying at a British University.
It's awful! Notice in the examples in A and B how the present tense is used in the clause with the conditional word or phrase. Don't say: Take your umbrella in case it will rain. I hear from you, I'll assume you are coming. I lent you my car, would that help? The pictures show conditions that must be met to do certain things.
Make different sentences using words and phrases from the opposite page. You can have a passenger on a motorbike provided they wear a helmet. They don't cater for non-meat eaters here. What would your answers be to these questions?
English Vocabulary in Use 43 1 Cause, reason, purpose and result Cause and reason You probably know how to use words like because, since and as t o refer t o the cause of or reason for something.
Here are some other ways of connecting clauses t o express causes and reasons.
Note how verbs and nouns can d o the same job as conjunctions. Look at the picture of an accident, on the right. Here are several ways of talking about it. Owing t o the icy conditions, the two lorries collided. The collision was due t o the icy conditions. ICE The collision was caused by ice on the road. The cause of the collision was ice on the road. Here are some other 'cause' words and typical contexts they are used in.
The rise in prices sparked off a lot of political protest. Results H e did no work. Look at B opposite if you aren't sure. There was a controversial decision. She wrote to the local newspaper to protest. I'd lost your phone number. This contract is illegal. It was in order to control prices. I wonder why?
She applied for the job. Imagine what the causes might be and describe the events in different ways. Fill in the missing words. English Vocabulary in Use 45 23 Concession and contrast Concession means accepting one part of a state of affairs but putting another argument or fact against it. Although they were poor, they were independent. He is a bit stupid. He's very kind, nevertheless. I admit I was wrong, but I still think we were right to doubt her.
I concede that you are right about the goal, but not the method. You have won this point in our argument. That's all well and good, but how are you going to pay us back? You shouldn't seem so surprised. After all, I did warn you. It's all very well saying you love dogs, but who'll take it for walks if we do get one? He is boring, and he is rather cold and unfriendly, but, for all that, he is your uncle and we should invite him. Admittedly, she put a lot of effort in, but it was all wasted.
Contrast I expected Mr Widebody to be fat. The reverse was true. We're not almost there at all; quite the opposite. We've got five miles to go yet.
Everywhere in Europe they use metric measures. In contrast, Britain still uses non-metric. It's not actually raining now. O n the other hand, it may rain later, so take the umbrella. O n the other hand means 'that is true and this is true'; O n the contrary means 'that is not true, but this is true', e. John, quiet? On the contrary, he's the noisiest person I know or John is rather arrogant. O n the other hand, he can be very kind. Note also these collocating phrases for contrast. When it comes to politics, Jim and Ann are poles apart.
There's a world of difference between being a friend and a lover. There's a great divide between left and right wing in general. A yawning gap divides rich and poor in many countries. There's a huge discrepancy between his ideals and his actions. Write a beginning for these sentences, as in the example. The reverse was true; she was short, with fair hair. On the other hand, it does have a big garden, so I think we should rent it.
On the contrary, it's one of the cheapest hotels in town. In contrast, the traffic in Britain drives on the left. I feel quite full. I had a huge breakfast. If you can't, look at C opposite.
Across 1 a Now use the phrases from the word puzzle to make comments on these statements. She does quite the opposite. Sandra's a total atheist. Complete the sentences with phrases from B opposite. English Vocabulary in Use 47 Addition There are a number of ways of adding one idea to another in English. You probably already know words like and, also and too.
In addition you need some experience. Video cameras are becoming easier to use. Furthermore Moreover What's more" It'll take ages to get there and it'll cost a fortune. Likewise We'll have all the stress of going to court and giving evidence. O n top of all that: I they should respect their teachers. Note also: To keep fit you need a good diet plus regular exercise. He's on the school board, as well as being a local councillor.
Alongside her many other hobbies she restores old racing cars. Jo Evans was there, along with a few other people who I didn't know. This last group are followed by nouns or by -ing. Do not say: As well as she speaks French, she also speaks Japanese. You can say: As well as speaking French, she Try to do it without looking at the opposite page.
Dear M r Stoneheart The course covered t h e usual areas: I hope you will give my application due consideration. Yours sincerely u r n Hope Nora Hope Rewrite the sentences using the word or phrase in brackets at the end. Excessive study can rapidly reduce mental powers too. This sentence in isolation does not mean much: We decided to look at the problem again and try to find a solution. What problem? We need to refer to some other sentence or to the context to find out.
Problem and solution help organise the argument of the text, but they do not tell us the topic of the text. They refer to something somewhere else. What the word in bold refers to is underlined.
Pollution is increasing. The problem is getting worse each day. Should taxes be raised or lowered? This was the biggest issue in the election.
Let's discuss crime. It's always an interesting topic. Note the words in bold connected with problems and solutions here and try to learn them as a family. The situation in our cities with regard to traffic is going from bad to worse. Congestion is a daily feature of urban life.
The problem is now beginning to affect our national economies. Unless a new approach is found to controlling the number of cars, we will never find a solution to the dilemma. In this dialogue, two politicians are arguing on the radio. Note how the words in bold refer to parts of the argument. Your claim that we are doing nothing to invest in industry is false. You have ignored this fact.
But the investment has all gone to service industries.
The real point is that we need to invest in manufacturing. That argument is out of date in a modern technological society. Our position has always been that we should encourage technology. But that view will not help to reduce unemployment. Utter rubbish. Here are some more words associated with problem-solution texts. They are grouped in families associated with the key-words in bold. The prepositions which are normally used with these words are given in brackets.
That's quite a big How do you propose we should deal with the. This is a If you don't like that. I wonder if it is viable? These newspaper headlines have got separated from their texts. Put each one with a suitable text.
English Vocabulary in Use 51 26 Uncountable words Uncountable nouns are not normally used with a n o r the plural, e. It is a good idea t o learn uncountable nouns in groups associated with the same subject o r area.
Here are some possible headings. Travel luggage accommodation baggage Am. Travel broadens the mind. Day-to-day household items soap C toothpaste washing powder washing-up liquid polish Paper Food - - The word food is uncountable. Try adding more uncountable words t o this list.
Some rather abstract words are uncountable She gave me some advice on how t o study for the exam. She's made a lot of progress in a very short time. She has done some research o n marine life. They've done a lot of work o n the project. E Materials and resources For making clothes, etc.: W h a t a terrible weather! She has long- hairs. I have a news for you.
W e bought some new furnitures. What terrible weather! She has long hair. W e bought some new furniture. See also Unit I 52 I have Tip: English Vocabulary in Use Exercises Say whether these sentences need a n or not. Some of the nouns are not on the left-hand page. Use a dictionary that tells you whether the nouns are uncountable.
I can't come. I have I think I'll get about five rolls. Sort these words into two columns side by side, one for uncountables and one for countables.
Then join the words which have similar meaning. Make a list of what you would pack and consider how many of the items on your list are uncountable nouns in English.
Correct the mistakes in these sentences. My knowledges in that area are very poor. She has done a lot of original works recently. Another area that has a number of uncountable words is personal qualities and skills. For example, we might say that a secretary should have intelligence, reliability, charm and enthusiasm.
These are all uncountable nouns. Choose from the list and say what qualities these people should have. Say whether they need some, a lot or a bit of the quality.
Use a dictionary for any difficult words. Practise asking for these everyday items and decide whether you must say a or some. The military authorities have established their headquarters in the old Town Hall. The acoustics in the new opera-house are near-perfect. The contents of the house were sold after her death. Looks are less important than personality in a partner.
As you come to the outskirts of the village, there are traffic-lights. Turn left there. The stairs are a bit dangerous; be careful.
The proceeds of the concert are going to the children's fund. A terrorist has escaped from prison. Her whereabouts are unknown. Words with plural form but used mostly with singular verbs Names of some games: Is there a cheap means of transport I could use to get there? How many of the words are plural? Check the left-hand page or in a dictionary.
Fill the gaps with an appropriate plural-form noun. Get your It's time to go to bed. I've never heard such clear sound. In each of these groups, one of the nouns is always used in the plural. Which one? Change the text where appropriate. I decided that if I wanted to be a pop star I'd have to leave home and get lodging in London. I finally got a room, but it was on the outskirt of the city. The owner didn't live on the premise, so I could make as much noise as I liked.
The acoustic in the bathroom was fantastic, so I practised there. I made so much noise I almost shook the foundation! I went to the headquarter of the Musicians' Union, but a guy there said I just didn't have a good enough look to be famous. Oh well, never mind! English Vocabulary in Use 55 28 Countable and uncountable with different meanings When we use a noun countably we are thinking of specific things; when we use it uncountably we are thinking of stuff or material or the idea of a thing in general.
Be careful! We had fish for dinner. Hamlet is one of Shakespeare's most famous works. Here are some more nouns used in both ways. Make sure you know the difference between the uncountable and the countable meaning.
Did you buy a paper this morning? Where in those places would you expect to find them? Use a n if the meaning is countable. Oh dear! I've spilt water on the floor! Here's a cloth; j u s t wipe i t up. He's just left school and he's not really academic.
He needs a job. Have some sauce with your hot dog. Shall I make a sauce with the fish? Can I have some light? Can I have a light? English Vocabulary in Use 57 29 Collective nouns Collective nouns are used to describe a group of the same things. People involved in the same joblactivity A team of surgeonsldoctorslexpertslreporterslscientistslrescue-workersldetectives arrived at the scene of the disaster.
The crew were all saved when the ship sank. Out on the lake there is a small group of islands. Exercises As we looked over the side of the boat, we saw a There was a You'll see a Will you fetch them for me, please? The government has appointed a The English Vocabulary in Use Upper-Intermediate With Answers 2nd Revised edition we think have quite excellent writing style that make it easy to comprehend.
Teacher's Book. Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press Business Benchmark Second edition Upper Intermediate The exercises, End-of-chapter activities are revised to reflect the growing use of e-mail as a common communication tool.
This user-friendly edition motivates with activities that www. That means English Vocabulary in Use is a vocabulary book for upper-intermediate and advanced learners of English, primarily designed as a self-study reference and practice book, but can also Pearson Cambridge University Press Cruttenden, 6th ed. Arnold Halliday, M Santiago Remacha Esteras This newly revised textbook is orientated to usage in technical colleges but is also English Language Programs Vocabulary in Use.
Vocabulary in Use Upper Intermediate helps high-intermediate to advanced learners increase their fluency in personal and academic-content areas.