Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. Mindset is "an established set of attitudes held by someone," says the Oxford American Dictionary. It turns out. PDF | On Jan 11, , Donna Muller and others published PDF FULL Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol S. Dweck. Download Download Mindset: The New Psychology of Success | PDF books PDF Online Download Here.
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If you want a book that will both inspire and challenge you, then look no further Pilzer, Paul The Millionaire M Beginning English Conversation. From Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol S. Dweck; lesforgesdessalles.info; and lesforgesdessalles.info Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. When you enter a mindset, you enter a new world. In one world—the world of fixed traits—success is about proving you're smart or talented. Validating yourself .
Shirk, Cheat, Blame: Be the first to like this. He goes for piano lessons. Things like a poor grade or a rebuff from a friend or loved one—these are not fun events. Well, the results are depressing.
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Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. Then she threw herself into the number one college team in the United States. I had to keep going and had to know if effort and focus and belief and training could somehow legitimize me as a wrestler.
Miranda was raised in a life devoid of challenge. But when her mother died of an aneurysm at age forty, ten-year-old Miranda came up with a principle. Her effort paid off. At twenty-four, Miranda was having the last laugh. She won the spot for her weight group on the U. Olympic team and came home from Athens with a bronze medal. And what was next?
Yale Law School. People urged her to stay where she was already on top, but Miranda felt it was more exciting to start at the bottom again and see what she could grow into this time. In , Christopher Reeve, the actor, was thrown from a horse. His neck was broken, his spinal cord was severed from his brain, and he was completely paralyzed below the neck.
Medical science said, So sorry. Come to terms with it. Reeve, however, started a demanding exercise program that involved moving all parts of his paralyzed body with the help of electrical stimulation.
Doctors warned that he was in denial and was setting himself up for disappointment. They had seen this before and it was a bad sign for his adjustment. But, really, what else was Reeve doing with his time? Was there a better project? Five years later, Reeve started to regain movement.
First it happened in his hands, then his arms, then legs, and then torso. He was far from cured, but brain scans showed that his brain was once more sending signals to his body that the body was responding to. Not only did Reeve stretch his abilities, he changed the entire way science thinks about the nervous system and its potential for recovery.
In doing so, he opened a whole new vista for research and a whole new avenue of hope for people with spinal cord injuries. When do people with the fixed mindset thrive? When things are safely within their grasp. I watched it happen as we followed pre-med students through their first semester of chemistry. For many students, this is what their lives have led up to: And this is the course that decides who gets to be one. Most students started out pretty interested in chemistry. Yet over the semester, something happened.
Students with the fixed mindset stayed interested only when they did well right away. Those who found it difficult showed a big drop in their interest and enjoyment. I was excited about chemistry before, but now every time I think about it, I get a bad feeling in my stomach. We saw the same thing in younger students. We gave fifth graders intriguing puzzles, which they all loved. But when we made them harder, children with the fixed mindset showed a big plunge in enjoyment.
They also changed their minds about taking some home to practice. This was just as true for children who were the best puzzle solvers. These were their favorites and these were the ones they wanted to take home. It was a clever test for mindset.
Those more responsive to the correction are deemed worthy. This is fun. When Do You Feel Smart: You have to be pretty much flawless. And you have to be flawless right away. People with the fixed mindset said: But people with the growth mindset said: Actually, people with the fixed mindset expect ability to show up on its own, before any learning takes place. I see this all the time. Out of all the applicants from all over the world, my department at Columbia admitted six new graduate students a year.
They all had amazing test scores, nearly perfect grades, and rave recommendations from eminent scholars. It took one day for some of them to feel like complete imposters. They look at the faculty with our long list of publications. They forget the yet. I wonder if this is what happened to Janet Cooke and Stephen Glass. They were both young reporters who skyrocketed to the top—on fabricated articles. Janet Cooke won a Pulitzer Prize for her Washington Post articles about an eight-year-old boy who was a drug addict.
The boy did not exist, and she was later stripped of her prize. Stephen Glass was the whiz kid of The New Republic, who seemed to have stories and sources reporters only dream of. The sources did not exist and the stories were not true. Did Janet Cooke and Stephen Glass need to be perfect right away? Did they feel that admitting ignorance would discredit them with their colleagues? But I understand them as talented young people—desperate young people—who succumbed to the pressures of the fixed mindset.
There was a saying in the s that went: They have to already be. Twenty years ago, at the age of five, Loretta and her family came to the United States.
A few days later, her mother took her to her new school, where they promptly gave her a test. The next thing she knew, she was in her kindergarten class—but it was not the Eagles, the elite kindergarten class. As time passed, however, Loretta was transferred to the Eagles and she remained with that group of students until the end of high school, garnering a bundle of academic prizes along the way.
Yet she never felt she belonged. That first test, she was convinced, diagnosed her fixed ability and said that she was not a true Eagle. Never mind that she had been five years old and had just made a radical change to a new country.
Or that maybe the school decided she would have an easier transition in a more low-key class. There are so many ways to understand what happened and what it meant. Unfortunately, she chose the wrong one.
For in the world of the fixed mindset, there is no way to become an Eagle. If you were a true Eagle, you would have aced the test and been hailed as an Eagle at once. Is Loretta a rare case, or is this kind of thinking more common than we realize?
To find out, we showed fifth graders a closed cardboard box and told them it had a test inside. This test, we said, measured an important school ability. We told them nothing more.
Then we asked them questions about the test. How much do you think this test measures an important school ability? All of them had taken our word for it.
Next we asked: Do you think this test measures how smart you are? They also believed—just as strongly—that it could measure how smart they were. They granted one test the power to measure their most basic intelligence now and forever. They gave this test the power to define them. The fixed mindset says yes. You can simply measure the fixed ability right now and project it into the future. Just give the test or ask the expert.
No crystal ball needed. So common is the belief that potential can be known right now that Joseph P.
What had Downey—later a famous television personality and author—done? Why, he had worn red socks and brown shoes to the Stork Club. And in some of these cases, it may well have been true that they did not stand out from the crowd early on.
How can we know where effort and time will take someone? Who knows—maybe the experts were right about Jackson, Marcel, Elvis, Ray, Lucille, and Charles—in terms of their skills at the time. Maybe they were not yet the people they were to become. Some of the paintings were pretty bad. They were overwrought scenes, some violent, with amateurishly painted people. People with the growth mindset know that it takes time for potential to flower. Recently, I got an angry letter from a teacher who had taken one of our surveys.
The survey portrays a hypothetical student, Jennifer, who had gotten 65 percent on a math exam.
It then asks teachers to tell us how they would treat her. Teachers with the fixed mindset were more than happy to answer our questions. Their recommendations abounded. Riordan, by contrast, was fuming. To Whom It May Concern: I feel that the study itself is scientifically unsound. Unfortunately, the test uses a faulty premise, asking teachers to make assumptions about a given student based on nothing more than a number on a page.
Performance cannot be based on one assessment. You cannot determine the slope of a line given only one point, as there is no line to begin with. A single point in time does not show trends, improvement, lack of effort, or mathematical ability.
Sincerely, Michael D. Riordan I was delighted with Mr. It was disturbing how many teachers thought otherwise, and that was the point of our study.
The idea that one evaluation can measure you forever is what creates the urgency for those with the fixed mindset. Who can afford the luxury of trying to grow when everything is on the line right now? Is there another way to judge potential? NASA thought so. And remember Marina Semyonova, the famed ballet teacher, who chose the students who were energized by criticism.
They were all rejecting the idea of fixed ability and selecting instead for mindset. Even superior. Until I discovered the mindsets and how they work, I, too, thought of myself as more talented than others, maybe even more worthy than others because of my endowments. The scariest thought, which I rarely entertained, was the possibility of being ordinary.
This kind of thinking led me to need constant validation. Every comment, every look was meaningful—it registered on my intelligence scorecard, my attractiveness scorecard, my likability scorecard. If a day went well, I could bask in my high numbers. One bitter cold winter night, I went to the opera. That night, the opera was everything you hope for, and everyone stayed until the very end—not just the end of the opera, but through all the curtain calls.
Then we all poured into the street, and we all wanted taxis. I remember it clearly. It was after midnight, it was seven degrees, there was a strong wind, and, as time went on, I became more and more miserable. There I was, part of an undifferentiated crowd. What chance did I have?
Suddenly, a taxi pulled up right next to me. Not only was I special. It could be detected from a distance. The self-esteem movement encourages this kind of thinking and has even invented devices to help you confirm your superiority. I recently came across an ad for such a product. From January through November, they clip candidate items from catalogs or download them from the Internet. In December, they select the winners. One of my all-time favorites is the pocket toilet, which you fold up and return to your pocket after using.
By looking into it, you can administer the message to yourself and not wait for the outside world to announce your specialness. Of course, the mirror is harmless enough.
The problem is when special begins to mean better than others. A more valuable human being. A superior person. An entitled person. He believed that talent was all.
He did not love to learn. He did not thrive on challenges; when the going got rough, he often folded. As a result, by his own admission, he did not fulfill his potential. But his talent was so great that he was the number one tennis player in the world for four years.
Here he tells us what it was like to be number one. McEnroe used sawdust to absorb the sweat on his hands during a match. This time the sawdust was not to his liking, so he went over to the can of sawdust and knocked it over with his racket.
His agent, Gary, came dashing over to find out what was wrong. I was actually screaming at him: This is what it was like to be number one. He goes on to tell us about how he once threw up all over a dignified Japanese lady who was hosting him. The next day she bowed, apologized to him, and presented him with a gift. Is everything okay? Would you?
You get to abuse them and have them grovel. In the fixed mindset, this is what can pass for self-esteem. People were praising me like I was a religious cult or something. That was very embarrassing. He was a person who had struggled and grown, not a person who was inherently better than others. Tom Wolfe, in The Right Stuff, describes the elite military pilots who eagerly embrace the fixed mindset.
Having passed one rigorous test after another, they think of themselves as special, as people who were born smarter and braver than other people. He just stretched himself farther than most. In summary, people who believe in fixed traits feel an urgency to succeed, and when they do, they may feel more than pride. However, lurking behind that self-esteem of the fixed mindset is a simple question: There had never been a child as bright and creative as theirs.
After that, the Martins cooled toward him. He was no longer their brilliant little Robert. He was someone who had discredited himself and shamed them. At the tender age of three, he was a failure. As a New York Times article points out, failure has been transformed from an action I failed to an identity I am a failure. This is especially true in the fixed mindset. In sixth grade, I was the best speller in my school. The principal wanted me to go to a citywide competition, but I refused.
In ninth grade, I excelled in French, and my teacher wanted me to enter a citywide competition. Again, I refused. Why would I risk turning from a success into a failure?
From a winner into a loser? Ernie Els, the great golfer, worried about this too. Els finally won a major tournament after a five-year dry spell, in which match after match slipped away from him.
What if he had lost this tournament, too? He would have been a loser. Each April when the skinny envelopes—the rejection letters—arrive from colleges, countless failures are created coast to coast. Jim Marshall, former defensive player for the Minnesota Vikings, relates what could easily have made him into a failure.
In a game against the San Francisco 49ers, Marshall spotted the football on the ground. He scooped it up and ran for a touchdown as the crowd cheered. But he ran the wrong way. He scored for the wrong team and on national television. It was the most devastating moment of his life. The shame was overpowering.
I realized I had a choice. I could sit in my misery or I could do something about it. Nor did he stop there. He spoke to groups. He answered letters that poured in from people who finally had the courage to admit their own shameful experiences. He heightened his concentration during games. Instead of letting the experience define him, he took control of it. He used it to become a better player and, he believes, a better person. Bernard Loiseau was one of the top chefs in the world.
Only a handful of restaurants in all of France receive the supreme rating of three stars from the Guide Michelin, the most respected restaurant guide in Europe. His was one of them. Around the publication of the Guide Michelin, however, Mr. Loiseau committed suicide.
He had lost two points in another guide, going from a nineteen out of twenty to a seventeen in the GaultMillau.
And there were rampant rumors that he would lose one of his three stars in the new Guide. Although he did not, the idea of failure had possessed him. Loiseau had been a pioneer.
A man of tremendous energy, he was also an entrepreneur. Besides his three-star restaurant in Burgundy, he had created three eateries in Paris, numerous cookbooks, and a line of frozen foods.
In fact, the director of the GaultMillau said it was unimaginable that their rating could have taken his life. But in the fixed mindset, it is imaginable.
Their lower rating gave him a new definition of himself: So, on a lighter note. One day, we signed up for a lesson in fly fishing. It was taught by a wonderful eighty-year-old cowboy-type fisherman who showed us how to cast the fishing line, and then turned us loose. Well, time passed, the mosquitoes bit, but not so the trout.
None of the dozen or so of us made the slightest progress. Suddenly, I hit the jackpot. Some careless trout bit hard on my lure and the fisherman, who happened to be right there, talked me through the rest. I had me a rainbow trout. Reaction 1: He was the one who thought my catching the fish was exciting.
But I knew exactly what they meant. Shirk, Cheat, Blame: Not a Recipe for Success Beyond how traumatic a setback can be in the fixed mindset, this mindset gives you no good recipe for overcoming it. If failure means you lack competence or potential—that you are a failure—where do you go from there? In one study, seventh graders told us how they would respond to an academic failure—a poor test grade in a new course. Those with the growth mindset, no big surprise, said they would study harder for the next test.
But those with the fixed mindset said they would study less for the next test. And, they said, they would seriously consider cheating! For example, they may go looking for people who are even worse off than they are. College students, after doing poorly on a test, were given a chance to look at tests of other students.
Those in the growth mindset looked at the tests of people who had done far better than they had. As usual, they wanted to correct their deficiency.
But students in the fixed mindset chose to look at the tests of people who had done really poorly. That was their way of feeling better about themselves.
Jim Collins tells in Good to Great of a similar thing in the corporate world. It was never his fault. One time he lost a match because he had a fever. One time he had a backache. One time he fell victim to expectations, another time to the tabloids. One time he ate too close to the match. One time he was too chunky, another time too thin. One time he was undertrained, another time overtrained. His most agonizing loss, and the one that still keeps him up nights, was his loss in the French Open.
Why did he lose after leading Ivan Lendl two sets to none? An NBC cameraman had taken off his headset and a noise started coming from the side of the court. Not his fault. What he means is that you can still be in the process of learning from your mistakes until you deny them. When Enron, the energy giant, failed—toppled by a culture of arrogance—whose fault was it? The world did not appreciate what Enron was trying to do.
Soon after the deal closed, Kidder, Peabody was hit with a big insider trading scandal. A few years later, calamity struck again in the form of Joseph Jett, a trader who made a bunch of fictitious trades, to the tune of hundreds of millions, to pump up his bonus. Welch phoned fourteen of his top GE colleagues to tell them the bad news and to apologize personally.
Were you thinking that? As a psychologist and an educator, I am vitally interested in depression. It runs wild on college campuses, especially in February and March. The winter is not over, the summer is not in sight, work has piled up, and relationships are often frayed.
Some let everything slide. Others, though feeling wretched, hang on. They drag themselves to class, keep up with their work, and take care of themselves—so that when they feel better, their lives are intact.
Not long ago, we decided to see whether mindsets play a role in this difference. Every day they answered questions about their mood, their activities, and how they were coping with problems. First, the students with the fixed mindset had higher levels of depression.
Our analyses showed that this was because they ruminated over their problems and setbacks, essentially tormenting themselves with the idea that the setbacks meant they were incompetent or unworthy: And the more depressed they felt, the more they let things go; the less they took action to solve their problems.
Although students with the fixed mindset showed more depression, there were still plenty of people with the growth mindset who felt pretty miserable, this being peak season for depression. And here we saw something really amazing. The worse they felt, the more determined they became! In fact, from the way they acted, it might have been hard to know how despondent they were.
Here is a story a young man told me. I was a freshman and it was the first time I had been away from home. Everyone was a stranger, the courses were hard, and as the year wore on I felt more and more depressed. Eventually, it reached a point where I could hardly get out of bed in the morning.
But every day I forced myself to get up, shower, shave, and do whatever it was I needed to do.
One day I really hit a low point and I decided to ask for help, so I went to the teaching assistant in my psychology course and asked for her advice. Temperament certainly plays a role, but mindset is the most important part of the story. When we taught people the growth mindset, it completely changed the way they reacted to their depressed mood.
The worse they felt, the more motivated they became and the more they confronted the problems that faced them. In short, when people believe in fixed traits, they are always in danger of being measured by a failure. It can define them in a permanent way. Smart or talented as they may be, this mindset seems to rob them of their coping resources.
And if abilities can be expanded—if change and growth are possible—then there are still many paths to success. The lesson was supposed to be that slow and steady wins the race. But, really, did any of us ever want to be the tortoise? No, we just wanted to be a less foolish hare. We wanted to be swift as the wind and a bit more strategic—say, not taking quite so many snoozes before the finish line.
After all, everyone knows you have to show up in order to win. The story of the tortoise and the hare, in trying to put forward the power of effort, gave effort a bad name. It reinforced the image that effort is for the plodders and suggested that in rare instances, when talented people dropped the ball, the plodder could sneak through.
The little engine that could, the saggy, baggy elephant, and the scruffy tugboat—they were cute, they were often overmatched, and we were happy for them when they succeeded. In fact, to this day I remember how fond I was of those little creatures or machines , but no way did I identify with them. The message was: You can be a sweet, adorable little slogger, and maybe if you really work at it and withstand all the scornful onlookers even a success.
The problem was that these stories made it into an either—or. Either you have ability or you expend effort. And this is part of the fixed mindset. Late one night, I was passing the psychology building and noticed that the lights were on in some faculty offices. Some of my colleagues were working late. They must not be as smart as I am, I thought to myself.
It never occurred to me that they might be just as smart and more hardworking! For me it was either—or. And it was clear I valued the either over the or. Malcolm Gladwell, the author and New Yorker writer, has suggested that as a society we value natural, effortless accomplishment over achievement through effort. We endow our heroes with superhuman abilities that led them inevitably toward their greatness.
This captures the fixed mindset perfectly. After all, if you have savoir-faire [a mixture of know-how and cool], you do things effortlessly. For them, even geniuses have to work hard for their achievements.
They may appreciate endowment, but they admire effort, for no matter what your ability is, effort is what ignites that ability and turns it into accomplishment. Seabiscuit Here was a horse who was so broken, he was supposed to be put to sleep. In fact, here was a whole team of people—the jockey, the owner, the trainer—who were damaged in one way or another. Yet through their dogged determination and against all odds, they transformed themselves into winners.
A down-and-out nation saw this horse and rider as a symbol of what could be accomplished through grit and spirit. Felled in her college years by severe, recurrent chronic fatigue that never went away, she was often unable to function.
Seen through the lens of the growth mindset, these are stories about the transformative power of effort—the power of effort to change your ability and to change you as a person. High Effort: The Big Risk From the point of view of the fixed mindset, effort is only for people with deficiencies. Effort can reduce you. Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg made her violin debut at the age of ten with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Yet when she arrived at Juilliard to study with Dorothy DeLay, the great violin teacher, she had a repertoire of awful habits.
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Carol S Dweck Publisher: New York: Random House, Reveals how established attitudes affect all aspects of one's life, explains the differences between fixed and growth mindsets, and stresses the need to be open to change in order to achieve fulfillment and success. Click here for access and availability jeffco. Show all links.