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Preface Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive rhetoric the third edition will find these changes: the Fourth Edition • Part I, Writing a. Writing Academic English 3rd Edition by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Introduction to academic writing/Ann Hogue. Alice Oshimard ed. p. ern. Includes index. I. English language-Rhetoric-Handbooks. manuals. etc. 2. English.
Reasons for a universal language I. Their papers are too often full of opinions and generalizations without the fac- tual details needed to support them. Paragraph I You ca. Plant the seed, leaving the top half exposed. The bars in this graph show median eamings at each level of education. Population Reference Bureau. Do the ideas and sentences flow smoothly?
Book Description Condition: Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory n. Alice Oshima ; Ann Hogue. Addison-Wesley , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition: Synopsis Intermediate-Advanced Level. Buy New View Book. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Published by Addison-Wesley New Softcover Quantity Available: When you revise.
During the first revisioh, do not try to correct grammar. Duringthefirst revision. Thisishowto proceed: Focus on thegeneral aspectsofthepaperandmakenotesin themarginssothatyoucan rewriteparts thatneedtobeimproved.
Youraudienceshouldbeabletofollowyour ideaseasilyandunderstandwhatyouhavewritten. Be certain that each paragraph gives the reader enough information to understand the main idea. If the main point lacks sufficient information.
Usingconcretesupporting detailswill betakenupinChapters6and7. Ifyou wrotea final comment,isitonthetopic? Now rewriteyourparagraph. Thisis yourseconddraft. If areshy.
PartI WritingaParagraph Step 3: Proofreading tbe Second Draft Step 4: Writing tbe Final Copy Thenextstepis to proofreadyourpapertocheckfor grammar, sentencestructure. YQurinstructorwillexpectit tobe writtenneatlyandlegiblyininkortyped. Besurethatyoumakeallthecorrectionsthat younotedonyourseconddraft. Rememberthatwritingisa con- tinuousprocessofwritingandrewritinguntilyouaresatisfiedwiththefinalproduct. Thefollowingmodelsshowyouhowonestudentworkedthroughtheprocessof writingandrevisingdraftsbeforearrivingatthefinalcopy.
Use the correction symbols explained in Appendix D. CommunicationProblems students in theUnited Statesface communication p Americans. Zit is a kind ofcultureshocktothem. The assigned topic was "culture shock. However,shedecidedthat sentence7wasoffthetopic,soshecrosseditout. Shecouldn'tthinkof anexampleof anunclear expression,soshecrossedoutherreferencetounclearexpressionsinsentence9.
J troublepronouncing,'sand rs. M't4'1 0, Thesearethe correctionsshemade: Sentencfl structure: Thisstudentknowsthatoneofherwritingproblemsissentencesthataresometimes tooshort. PartI WritingaParagraph 1. ShecrossedoutthreewordsinsentenceIandchangedsitting in his car driving up a wall todriving his car up a wall insentence14toimprovethesesentences.
It was not clear who They referred to in sentence 7 Americans orinternational students? This student knows that she occasionally makes mistakes with verbs and omits subjects,soshecheckedcarefullyfortheseproblems.
When theyfintarriveintheUnited States,they soonrealizethattheirverbal skills arepoor. Antof all. Forexample,afewdays ago,I askedanAmericanstudenthowto gettothelibrary. I finally hadtowriteit ona pieceof paper. Americanstalk toofast. In addition. Americansalsousea lotof slangandidioms whosemeaningsnonnative speakersdo notknow. In short. Aftera while,however,theirearsget usedtotheAmericanway of speaking. The number of sentences is unimportant; however.
A paragraph may stand by itself. An Overview A paragraph may also be one part of a longer piece of writing such as a chapter of a book or an essay. You will first learn how to write good paragraphs, and then you will learn how to combine and expand paragraphs to build essays. Read it carefully two or three times, and try to analyze its structure.
First of all. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example. Another " important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science.
For many years. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its 10 beauty but also for its utility. The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the tOpiC to one or two areas that can be dis- cussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The specific area is called the controlling idea.
Notice how the topic sentence of the model states both the topic and the controlling idea: Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence, That is, they explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples. Some of the supporting sentences that explain the topic sentence about gold are First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was mint- ed twenty-three centuries ago.
Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. The most recent use of gold is,in astronauts' suits. I lustrous: Theconcludingsentencesignalstheendoftheparagraphandleavesthereader withimportantpointstoremember: Inaddipontothethreestructuralpartsof aparagraph,agoodparagraphalsohasthe elementsofunityandcoherence.
Themainidea isstatedinthetopicsentence,andtheneachandeverysupportingsentencedevelops thatidea. If, forexample,youannounceinyourtopicsentencethatyouaregoingto discusstwoimportantcharacteristicsofgold,discussonlythose. Donotdiscussany otherideas,suchasthepriceofgoldorgold mining. Coherencemeansthatyourparagraphiseasytoreadandunderstandbecause 1 yoursupportingsentencesare in somekindoflogical orderand 2 yourideas are connectedbytheuseof appropriatetransitionsignals.
Forexample,intheparagraph aboutgold,therearetwosupportingideas: Each of thesesupportingideasisdiscussed,oneaftertheother,andanexampleisgivenfor eachone. Thisisonekindof logicalorder. InPan Iofthis book,youwillstudyandpracticeeachoftheseelements. FollowtheinstructionsbelowtoformattheaSSignmentsyoupreparefor thisclass. Format Paper Handwritten: Standard 8Y2 by 11 inchwhite binder paper.
Remember thattheholesareontheleft. Standard8Y2 by11 inchwhitetypingpaper. Centerthetitleabout1 Y2 inchesfromthetopofthefirstpage. Save thatformaton yourdisk. Chapter2 WhatIsaParagraph? An Overview Both handwrinen and typed: Onthe otherhand,youmayprefertodotheprewritingstagesofyourpaperwithpenciland paperandthenusethecomputerforthewriting,editing,andrevisingstages.
Keepin mindthataparagraphwrittenonacomputerisformattedlikeatypewrittenone. Writingona computeris themostefficient, timesavingmethodofreorganizing andimprovingthecontentofyourpaper. You canadd, change, and delete words. Youcanalsomove itemsfromonelocationtoanotherinaflash,andifyoudon'tlikethechangeyoujust made,youcanchangeitbackinstantly. Most word processing programs have spelling checkers built into them.
Most also automaticallycorrect errors in capitalization. Asyourwordprocessingskillsimprove,youcanstartaddingboldfaceanditalic typeorevenphotos. Thepossibilitiesare almostunlimited. Itis wellworthyourtimeandefforttolearntouseacomputerfor writing. Givingyourpracticeparagraphstitles, Tille however, may help you to organize and limit your thoughts. For longer essays or reports. Atitle tells thereaderwhat thetopicoftheparagraphis.
It is usuallya word or phrase,notasentence. Itshouldbebrief,butnotsobriefthatitdoesn'ttelllhe erwhattoexpect. Thefirst, last, andall importantwordsinatitlearccapitalized.
Prepositionsand articlesarenotconsideredimportantwordsinatitle. Prepositionsofmorethan fiveletters. Articlesthatbeginthetitle,of course. Use thecenteringicon 3. Everygoodparagraphhasatopicsentence,whichclearlystatesthetopicandthecon- trollingideaoftheparagraph. Itisusually butnotalways thefirstsentenceintheparagraph.
Atopicsentenceisthemostimportantsentenceina paragraph. It briefly cateswhattheparagraphisgoingtodiscuss. Forthisreason,thetopicsentenceis a helpfulguidetoboththewriterandthereader. Thewritercanseewhatinformation toinclude andwhatinformationtoexclude. Thereadercanseewhattheparagraph isgoingtobeaboutandis,therefore,betterpreparedtounderstandit.
Atopicsentenceisacomplete sentence; thatis,itcontainsasubject,averb, and usually acomplement. Thefollowingarenot completesentences: Howtoregisterforcollege dasses. Atopicsentencecontainsbotha topic andacontrolling idea. Itnamesthetopic andthenlimitsthetopictoaspecificareatobediscussedinthespaceofasingle paragraph.
ThefollOwing examplesshowhowa topicsentencestatesboththe topicandthecontrollingideainacompletesentence: Drivingonfreeways requiresskill and alertness. Registeringforcollegeclasses can beafrustratingexperiencefornewstudentS.
Atopicsentenceis themostgenera statementintheparagraphbecauseitgives onlythemainidea. Thefollowingisanexampleofageneralstatementthatcouldserveasatopic sentence: TheArabic origin ofmany English words is notalways obvious.
I velocities: It enables customers to do severa. In addition, a customer ca. Anautomatedtellermachine ATM is a convenientminiaturebank. Forexample,a customerca. After anattackbya greatwhite, stitcheswererequired to sewup anAustra. With their razor-sharp teeth and strongjaws, great white sharks are verydangerous. Nevertheless, one didjusttha.
Great whites do not usually attack humans, but when they do, they alwayscauseseriOUS 1I: Uury andevendeath. Another importa. The earliest sigDifica. TheautomobUe revollitlon1Z8d.
The automobUe enabled them to drive to towns and c1tles comfortably andconveniently. In fact, peoplecouldworkin a busymetropolitancityanddrivehometo the quietsuburbs. I devoured: Example priving onfreeways requires skill and alertness. Drivingonfreeways requiresnerves ofsteel.
Spectacularbeaches makePuertoRico a tourist paradise. Living in an American college dormitory'can be a stressful experienCUQr newlyarrivedinternationalstudents. Participating in class discussions in EngliSh is a problem for internatiop. If itistoo general,thereadercannottellexactlywhattheparagraphisgoingtodiscuss. Thinkofatopicsentenceasbeinglikethenameof aparticularcourseona restaurantmenu. Fruit saIad? Americanfood is terrible. American food is tasteless andgreasy becauseAmericans use too many canned,frozen,and prepackagedfoods and becauseeverythingis fried in oil orbutter:.
American food is tastelessand greasy. Donotincludetoomanyunrelatedideasinyourtopicsentence;ifyou do. San Franciscois famousfor itstemperateclimate. The three parts of this controlling idea are too unrelated for a single paragraph. San Francisco is famous for its cosmopolitan atmosphere. Russian origin. WritingaParagraph B. Inotherwords, givetwoorthreecontrollingideasforthesametopic. Example Topic: Television's effects on children Topic sentences: I Televisionis harmfultochildrenbecauseit teachesthem violenceas away ofsolvingproblems.
Withyourclassmates,choosethreetopicsthatinterestyouasa group. Write a topicsentenceforeachtopic. Be suretoincludeacontrollingidea. The'Concludlng Sentence Nowthatyouknowhowtowriteagoodtopicsentencefora paragraph,youshould also learnhowto writea goodconcludingsentence.
Aconcludingsentenceis not absolutelynecessary;infact. Jltothereaderbecauseitsignalstheendofthepara- graphandbecauseitisareminderof theimportantpoints.
A concludingsentenceservesthreepurposes: Itsignalstheendof theparagraph. It summarizesthemainpointsof theparagraph. UseoneofthefollOwingend-or-paragraphsignalstointroduceyourconcluding sentence: In conclusion. In summary, In brief. Therefore, In short. I I Theseexamplesshowthat.. I I Therecan be nodoubtthat I Theevidence suggests that Overview The examples that follow demonstrate two different types ofconcluding sen- tences. Thefirstoneparaphrasesthetopicsentence;thatis,theconcludingsentence repeatsthemainideaofthetopicsentenceindifferentwords.
Thesecondexample summarizesthetwomainpointsoftheparagraph,whichwerenotspecificallystated inthetopicsentence. Forexample,thewords stingy and frugol both mean"carefulwith money. Gold "ald. Gold never needstobe polishedandwill remain beautifulforever. For example,a Macedonian coin J remains as untarnished todayas theday itwas minted twenty-threecenturies.
Anotherimportantcharacteristic ofgold is its usefulnesstoindustry science. Ithas been used in hundredsofindustrial applications Astronautsweargold- plated heatshieldsforprotectionoutsidespaceships. COld Is;:: STEP1 Underlinethetopicsentenceineachparagraph. You mayeitherparaphrasethe topicsentenceorsummarizethemainpoints.
Paragraph I You ca. Whenyou a. Furthermore, don'tinterruptwhile someone is spea. Every good paragraph has unity, which means that only one main idea is discussed. For examp1e, if your para- graph is about the advantages of oWning a compact car. Do not dis- cuss the disadvantages. If you begin to discuss another advantage, start a new paragraph. Sometimes it is possible to dis- cuss two or even three aspects' of the same idea in one paragraph f they are' closely I aspects: HIY is spreading rapidly in countriesthat had almostno cases a few years ago.
In China. HIY infection rates aredeclining. This is a resultofa combination ofprevention methods. In thecountries ofsub- SaharanAfrica. In Kenya. The follOWing short essay has notbeen divided into paragraphs, but it should containsix: STEP1 Read theentireessayonceortwice. STEP2 Decide where each new paragraph should begin.
STEP3 Underlinethefirstsentenceofeachparagraph. CUlture,Logic, I and. Bhetoric Logic, whichis thebasis ofrhetoriC, comes from culture; itis notuniversal. Rhetoric, therefore. The rhetorical systemofonelanguage is neitherbetternorworsethanthe rhetorical system of anotherlanguage.
A good English paragra. In eithercase, however, theflow of ideas occurs ina straightlinefrom theopeningsentence tothelastsentence.
Furthermore, a well-structuredEnglishparagra. Whereas Englishwritersuse a linearsequence. In English, maturityof style1s oftenjudgedbythedegreeofsubordinationS logic: Therefore, the Arabie and Persian styles of writing, with their emphasis on coordination, seem awkward and immature to an English reader. Some Asian writers, on the other hand, use an indirect approach. In this kind of writing, the topic is viewed from a vari- ety of angles.
The topic is never analyzed directly; it is referred to only indi- rectly, Again, such a development in an English paragraph is awkward and unnecessarily vague 6 to an English reader. Although a Spanish paragraph may begin and end on the same topic, the writer often digresses into areas that are not directly related to the topiC.
Spanish rhetoric, therefore, does not follow the English rule of paragraph unity. Both of the following paragraphs break the rule of unity because they contain one or more irrelevant sentences-sentences that do not directly support the topic sentence. STEP 2 Find the irrelevant sentence s and cross them out. Paragraph I Adventure travel is the hot trend ill the tourism industry.
Ordinary people are no longer content to spend their two weeks away from the office resting on a sunny beach in Hawaii. More and more often, they are choosing to spend their vacations rafting down wild rivers, hiking through steamy rain forests, climbing the world's highest mountains, or traversing 7 slippery glaciers. K People of all ages are choosing educational study tours for their vacations.
Paragraph 2 Daredevil 9 sports are also becoming popular. Young people especial- ly are increasingly willing to risk life and limb 10 while mountain biking, backcountry snowboarding, or high-speed skateboarding. Soccer is also becoming popular in the United States, where it was not well known until recently.
One of the riskiest new sports is skysurfing, in which people jump out of airplanes with graphite boards attached to their feet. Indent and use CClpitalletters A. B, q No number or letter An outline is like an architect's plan for a house. An architect plans a house before it is built to make sure that all the parts will fit. Uke an architect, you should plan a para- graph before you write it to make sure that all of your ideas will fit.
Learning to outline will improve your writing for three reasons. First of all, it will help you organize your ideas. Specifically, an outline will ensure that you won't include any irrelevant ideas, that you won't leave out any important points, and that your supporting sentences will be in logical order.
Second, learning to outline will help you write more quickly. It may take some practice at first, but once you become used to outlining your ideas before you start to write.
Preparing an outline is 75 percent of the work. The actual writing becomes easier because you don't have to worry about what you are going to say: Finally, your grammar will improve because you will be able to concentrate on it, not on your thoughts or organization. Improved organization, speed, and grammar make learning to outline well worth the effort.
There are several different outline forms that can be used. The form used in this book is particula. However, your instructor may recommend a different form. A simple outline for a short paragraph might look like this: First Supporting Point ] These are equal in importance B. Second Supporting Point and written in parallel form C.
This particular paragraph has three main supporting points; others may have only two or as many as ten. Also, some paragraphs may not have a concluding sentence, and in others, the topic sentence may not be the first sentence. Study the simple outline below for the second paragraph above. Then reread the paragraph to see how the writer used this plan to write a well-organized paragraph that is easy to understand. It will help you organize your Ideas. It will help you write more quickly.
It will help you Improve your grammar. Improved organization. Chapter3 UnityandOutlining The Btjuiv. Medialresearcherswill producesomeamazingadvancesin theverynearfuture. Cloningof thefirsthuman in thesameyear. By,mostdiseases diagnosed and treatedathome. Bytheyear,cancerand heartdiseasewipedout. Thesearejustafew examples ofmedical miracles thatareexpected in the next fewdecades.
Inanoutline, ideasthathavethesamekindofletterornumbermusthave equal value. Thismeansthatmainsupportingpointsall shouldhavethesamekindofletterornumber. Detailsshouldhaveadifferentkindof letterornumber. Itwill helpyouorganizeyourideas. You won'tIncludeirrelevantideas. You won'tleaveoutimportantpoints. Yoursupportingsentenceswill bein logical order.
Itwill helpyouwritemorequickly. It maytakepractice. Seventy-five percentof theworkis done. You don'tworryaboutwhatyou aregoingtosay. It will helpyouimproveyourgrammar: You will be abletoconcentrateonit. ThedetailunderpointC hasnonumberbecausethereisonlyonedetailforit.
Afurtheroutliningrulestates,"IfthereisnoB, therecannotbeanA; if thereisno2, therecannotbea1. Givetheitemswith equalvaluethesamekindofletterornumber. You mayfollow thesystemofcapital lettersandnumbersusedinthemodelabove, oryourinstructormayrecommenda differentsystem.
Sports surfing scubadiving teamsports wrestling fishing basketball soccer boxing basebaJI siding iceskating AmericanfootbaJI individualsports tennis hiking snowboarding volleyball marathonrunning bicycleracing Part I Writing aParagraph.. Review Try towrite some compoundsentenceswith conjunctive adverbs instead of coordinating conjunctions. To learn how. Allsup- portingsentencesmustdirectlysupportthetopicsentence.
An outline is useful as a plan for a paragraph. It organizes the ideas. Outlines shouldbewritteninparallelformandfollowtheequivalentvaluerule. STEP 5 Writeaseconddraft,andproofreaditforgrammarandmechanics.
Thesource s ofonetypeofpollution Chapter. The Latin verb cohere means "hold together. There must be no sud- den jumps. Each sentence should flow smoothly into the next one. There are four ways to achieve coherence. The first two ways involve repeating key nouns and using pronouns that refer back to key noun's. Gold C;old. In thefolJowing paragraph. IbIglish EngJ. Exceptfor Chinese, morepeople speakitt. SpaniShis the officia. Itis the primarylanguageontheInternet.
Ininternationalbusiness, itis usedmorethana. Moreover, although Frenchusedto be thela. In the following passage about dolphins.
Dolphins Dolphins areinterestingbecausethey display almosthumanbehaviorat times. Forexample, theydisplaythehumanemotions ofjOy and.
Furthermore, theyhelp each other whenthey a. If one is Sick, itsendsouta. Theypushittothesurfaceofthe wa. Theystaywithitfor days orweeks-untilitrecovers ordies. Theyaresointel11gent andhelpful, infact, thattheU. Use ofConsistent Pronouns Whenyouusepronounsinsteadofkeynouns,makesurethatyouusethesameper- son and numberthroughout your paragraph.
J droop: Correctthemto make Using Consistent thisparagraphmorecoherent. FirstofaJl, if youhope to competeinanOlympicsport,youmustbephysicaJ],y strong. Forthe mostdemanding. Sports, t. In add. This meansthatyouhavetobetotalJ;y dedicated toyoursport, ofteng1v1ng upa normal school.
Beingmentallystrongalso meansthat heorshemustbe abletowithsta: I'inalJy, noteveryonecan If win a medal, so t. UsingtransitionwordsasagUide makesit easierforyourreadertofollow your ideas.
Bothparagraphsgivethesameinformation, yetoneparagraphiseasierto understandthantheotherbecauseitcontainstransi- tionsignalstoleadthereaderfromoneideatothenext. Whichparagraphcontainstransitionsignals andis morecoherent?
Circle all of thetransitionsignalsthatyoucanidentify. Paragraph I A differenceamongtheworld'sseasandoceans is thatthe Salinity1 va. There arereasonsfor this. Inwarmclimates, waterevaporates 9 rapidly. The concentration lO ofsalt 5 is greater. The surroundingi. In cold climate zones, watereva. The I'UIloff createdby meltingsnowadds a considerable amountof freshwater to dilute the salineseawater. I rigorously: LookatCompound Sentences with Coordinotors on pages for more examples.
Furthermore, the runoff created by melting snow adds a considerable amount of fresh waterto dilute thesaline'sea water. The runoff created by melting snow.
My parentswantme to become an engineer. In warmclimatezones. Thecompany's sales increased lastyear;nevertheless. Many societiesin theworldarematriarchal: SomeEnglish wordsdonothave exactequivalents in otherlanguages;for example, thereis no Germanwordfortheadjective fair, as in fo;r ploy. In amatriarchy,themotheris thehead of thefamily. Thecompany's sales increased last year. Yet is preferredwhen thesecond clauseis anunexpected orsurprisingcontrastto thefirst clause. Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age twelve.
I wanttostudyart. I Independentdause: Althoughthecompany'ssales increased lastyear. Thecompany's netprofitdeclined lastyear;althoughits sales increased.
Otbers Thetransitionsignals inthis group includeadjectivessuchas addidonal. Therearenospecialpunctua- tionrulesfor thisgroup. The company's netprofitdeclined lastyearinspiteofincreased sales. Despite increased sales,the company's net profit declined last year.
Thecomma isnecessarybecausetheprepositionalphrasecomesbeforethesubjectofthe sentence. An additional reason or the company's bankruptcy was the lack of competent management. STEP1 Circleallofthetransitionsignalsinthefollowingparagraphs. STEP2 Punctuatethetransitionsignalsifnecessary. Genetic"'Engineering Genetic research has produced bothexcitingandfrightening possibilities.
S"cientiSts arenow able to create new forms of life inthelaboratory due to the developmentofgene spliCing. Forexample itis very s expensive to obtain insulin! Genetic engineers have createda newtomato thatdoesn't spoil quiok- ly. Consequently toma.
A tauD. The waves are very longand low in open water, butwhen they get close to land, theyencounterfriction J becausethe wateris shallow the wavesincreaseinheightandcancauseconsiderable damagewhentheyfina.
STEP1 Fillineachblankwithanappropriatetransitionsignalfromthelistpro- vided. The greatestaccess" into theJapanese mar- kethas beenbythe food industry, Traditionally, the proteinstapleS inJapan hasbeenfish products, inthelastdecade orso, the III Japaneseha.
Infact, annual percapita 6 con- sumptionis expected to beabout seven kilos inthe nextdecade. Japanis importingeels fish from Taiwan, asparagus vegetable from Thailand, and mangoes fruit from the Philippines.
Itwill certainly increase internationaltrade, which will definitely be advantageous to many countries ofthe world. Julius July.
In this chapter, you will practice using them in paragraphs. III Anexactduplicateofhersix-yetlr-oldmother,Dollywasthe firstanimalclonedfrom thecellsofanadult.
Her birthrepresentedagiantstepincloningtechnology. ThecloningofDolly involved several steps. First,cellsthathad previously been takenfrom Dolly's motherwerestarvedforfive days. This interruptionofthecells' division cycle made it easierfor themto reprogramthemselvestostartgrowinga neworganism. In the nextstep.
Thenthe eggwasimplanted into a differentsheep. Whenthesheepfinally gave birth. What are the two uses ofchronological orderthat the two model paragraphs exemplify? Howwould yououtlineit? Whattransitionsignalsandtimeexpressionsareusedinthefirstmodeltoshow chronologicalorder? Whattransition signalsandtimeexpressions are used in thesecond model to showthestepsintheprocess? Noticethatthetopicsentenceof achronologicalparagraphin somewayindicatesthe timeorder. STEP1 Putacheckinthespacetotheleftofeverytopicsentencesuggestingthata chronologicalparagraphwillfollow.
STEP2 In thesentencesyouhavechecked. I organism: A person'sInteIDgence. Imon is a fasC1na. There are two main reasons I believe women In the army should not be a.
Surviving a maJor ea. Americandirectness oftenconflicts withAsianmodesty. Thetraditions ofChristmasoriginatedInseveraldifferentcountries. You canavoidjetlagaftera longflightifyoufollow. You haveto beveryclearaboutthesequenceofevents: Didoneeventhappenbefore,atthesame timeas, orafteranotherevent? Keepinmindthatany timeexpressioncanserveasachronologicaltransitionsig- nal.
Laterthatmorning, In the nextfifteen years. Twenty-five years ago. FromJune throughAugust. In Before the invention ofthefax machine. Cbronologfcai Transitiol1 Signal'! Furthermore,surgerymay be impossible because bloodwould float aroundinside theoperatingroom. Anotherhealth problem is thepotentialfor bonedeterioration. Astronauts mustexerciseatleastthreehoursa day to 10 preventboneloss. Asecond majorproblem is maintainingastronaUts' mental health.
Being confinedfor long periodsoftime in darkand hostile 2 space undoubtedly producesanxiety.
How many maiR groups is the topic of this paragraph divided into? What arethey? Doesthetopicsentenceoftheparagraphtell you thetopicsofthesegroups? Whereelsearetransitionsignals used? Doyouthinkthatoneismoreimportantthantheother, oraretheyapproximatelyequalinimportance? J, VI J11,,-l"l! V, IV"': A secondconcern is maintaining astronauts' mental health. Rereadthemodelparagraph"LifeinSpace"onpage62andcircleallofthetransi- tionsignalsusedtoshowlogicaldivision.
Suggest changes in the transition signals to show that one group of problems physicalorpsychological ismoreimportantthantheother. Thetopicsentenceoflogicaldivisionandorderofimportanceparagraphsoftenindi- catesthenumberofgroupsthetopicisdividedinto. Gold,aprecious metal,is prizedfortwO importantcharacteristics. Inflation has threecauses. Inflation has threecauses: Thetopicsentencefororderofimportancediffersonlyinthatitmaycontainanorder ofimportancetransitionsignal.
Put acheck V in thespacetotheleftofeverytopicsentencethatsuggests logical divisionasamethodoforganization. Putadoublecheck VV ifthe 7bpu: My eighteenthbirthdaywas a day I will neverforget. In most occupatiOns, women are still unequal to men in three areas: LiVing in a dormitory offers several advantages to a newly arrived international student. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants manufacture theirown food. EarthquakepredictionisstillaninexactSCiencealthoughseismologistsI learnmore eachtime they monitora quake 8.
A college degree in international business today requires first, a knowledge ofbusiness procedures and second. A computer is bothfaster and more accurate thana human. Teenagers demonstratetheirindependencein severalways. Suggestchangestothetopicsentenceofthemodelparagraph"LifeinSpace"on page62toshowthatonegroupofproblems physical orpsychological is more importantthantheother.
Two Topic Sentence Tips3. Parallelism is explained in Chapter Herearetwo tipstohelpyouwritetopicsentencesfor logical division andorderof importanceparagraphs: Formoreinformationabout theuseofcolons,seeAppendixA, page In one shocking week of Use paired correlative conjunctions when there are only two groups. Paired conjunctionsareboth. Rememberthatpaired correlative conjunctionsfollowtheruleofparallelism. If you putanounafterthewordboth, youmustputa nounafterthewordand.
If youuseaprepositionalphraseafternot only, youmustuseoneafterbut also. I seismologists! Contrast WritingaParagraph Paragraph1 Therearesomedifferences. Whereasyou will find more PCs in businessoffices. In general. Writing Teclmique Questions I. Which paragraph shows comparison? Which paragraph shows contrast? Turn backto theparagraphaboutFrenchandAmerican managementstylesonpage Onhowmanypointsare theycontrasted?
To showdifferences? Refer tothefollowingcharts. Review the topicsentencepractice Practice5 onpage Findtwo topicsen- tencesthatcouldindicatecomparisonI contrastorder. You can achieve coherence in writing by stating your ideas in logical order. There are several kinds oflogical order: Eachkindoflogicalorderhasspecialwordsandexpressions,ortransitionsignals, thatwillsupportyourlogic.
Belowisalistoffifteen possibleessayquestionsthatmightbeaskedonatypicalcol- legeexamination. Thefirstfivearegeneralquestionsthatmightbeaskedonacollege writingtest. Thelasttenarespecificto afield ofstudy. Gettogetherwithagroupof one or two other students and brainstorm: Which logical order might you use to answereachquestion-chronologicalorder. Discuss some issue of personal, local, national, or inter- nationAl concernandits importancetoyou.
Write aboutyourideaof a. They fail because they do not support their points with concrete details. Their papers are too often full of opinions and generalizations without the fac- tual details needed to support them. A sue. I concrete: Womenlive longerthan men.
Lung canceramongwomen is increasing. Men arebetterdrivers than women. Engineeringstudentsdonotneedtotakea lotofEnglish courses. Americansareonlysuperficially' friendly. It iscertainlyacceptabletoexpress opinionsin academicwriting. Herearesomeexamplesofstatementsthatneedfurthersupporttobeacceptable infqnn8. I academicwritingandofadditionalnecessaryconcretesupportingdetails. Smokingcancause lung cancer. TheAmerican CancerSocietyreports thatthenumberonecauseof lungcan- ceramongmen andwomenis smoking.
WriteFforfact,0 foropinion. WriteNFSfor"needs furthersupport"nexttothosethatdo. Earlyinthenextdecade, morewomentha. Smokingisattractingmoreand more adults. I superficially: According to a recent New York Times a. Red-light MlIlIlers z musttakea driver's eduoa. Then theywill become saferdrivers.
Red-light MlIlIlers oa. Nationwide, the number of red-light running a. In , 2,deathsresulted, and in , the numberrose to 2, Thereareseveralkindsofconcretesupportingdetailsthatyoucanusetosupportor prove your topic sentence. Among the mostcommonare examples, statistics.
Read thefollowing articleaboutthechangingAmericanfamily. Notice howthedifferentkindsofconcretedetailssupportthewriter'smainideas. Elizabeth Lee is themedical directorin chargeofcommunicable diseases in thecounty"whereshe lives.