Business Grammar and Usage . Unit 16 Business communication skills Practice. A Mission statements. A mission statement talks in general terms about a. If you are required to use English at work but feel you need to build up your grammar, Collins new Business Grammar & Practice is the perfect. Essentials of English Grammar A Quick Guide To Good lesforgesdessalles.info . english- lesforgesdessalles.info Business grammar lesforgesdessalles.info
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Business Grammar & Practice (New Edition) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Business Grammar and lesforgesdessalles.info Learn English, Grammar, Pdf, Learning. Visit Grammar Lessons English Grammar Test, English Grammar Exercises. Grammar Business & Practice is a book that uses a great variety of exercises to develop the intermediate and higher intermediate business student's language competence. Instead of following the . Please use the PDF version of this article .
I have arranged to play golf with him. Oh, I'm sorry to disturb you. I'm afraid the line is busy. I normally use a credit card and cash machines. Degree of chance: Great Grammar Practice 1 - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - This resource features ready-to-go reproducible pages that target key first grade grammar topics—parts of speech, verb tenses, capitalization, punctuation, types of sentences, and more! I h av e b een with the company since
Completed actions over a period of time If we talk about a completed action, particularly if we give details about how much, how many, etc , we can use the present perfect and since but not for. We can also use other phrases of duration such as to d ate, recently, over the p a s t five years, etc. The action itself is finished, but the period of time extends right up to the present: We h av e open ed six new branches since July.
From July until now. For and since with stative verbs Some of these sentences are right and some are not. I've had the same company car for two years How long are you with Microsoft?
We have had an office in Adelaide for several years She has an account with HSBC bank since T CPT is in financial difficulties for several months How long has the office been vacant? They have operated as joint directors since, the company started. Orders have risen Our sales executives have used the same h o te l I can't get hold of Erik.
He has been in a m eeting When I joined the company, I worked in the LA b ran ch Car prices have fallen We have done all our business in Euros It isn't a new Mercedes. He has had i t Finance be. Negatives Rewrite the sentences using the negative form of the present perfect, w ith fo r or since.
Completed actions over a period of time Read the follow ing article about recent developm ents in China. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect tense. The once struggling state-owned factories Enthusiasm for the new industry Some analysts are worried about investing so much in a single industry.
Back in , when there was a big slowdown in demand, many chip factories from Malaysia to South Korea sat unused and thousands of workers lost their jobs.
Western companies Over the last few decades, China 1 Now, it looks like chips are going to follow this trend. In spite of these fears, companies Semiconductor Manufacturing International. In each pair, decide w hich sentence should be in the simple past and w hich should be in the present perfect. Continue these sentences, using a verb in the present perfect negative e.
I haven't don e I haven't tad a stateMent -for se. They used to be one of our major clients, but I used to be quite good at Japanese, but Write a short paragraph about the recent trends or general changes that have taken place in your com pany or industry over the last few years. We have developed several new lines and taken on More than T O new eMployees.
Over the last two or three years Presentation O Form The present perfect continuous is formed with the present perfect of be h av e b een and the -ing form of the verb. Have you been working? Have we been working? Have they been working? Ongoing activities The present perfect continuous is used with for, since, H ow long? The activity may have been going on continuously or repeated several times: They h av e been producing cars here fo r ten years. They started producing cars ten years ago.
They are still producing cars. I h av e been trying to ring them a ll day. I started trying to ring them this morning. I am still trying to ring them. However, we normally use the present perfect simple with stative verbs or for situations we consider permanent see Unit 3: Ken h a s been in London since 9 o'clock this morning, not: I h av e lived in London all my life, not: Finished and unfinished activities We use the present perfect simple if we are talking about an action completed recently, particularly if we give details of how much or how many.
We use the present perfect continuous when something is still going on: I've w ritten a report for the Director. It is finished. I've been writing a report for the Director. I am still writing it. Negatives In the negative, the present perfect simple focuses on the amount of time that has passed since something happened. The present perfect continuous focuses on the verb itself: I haven't h a d a holiday for two years. The last time was two years ago. I haven't been feelin g well recently.
This has been continuing for days. Recently finished activities We can use the present perfect continuous to talk about an activity that has just finished. Often there is something you can see that shows the activity has just finished. Look - the ground is very wet. It h a s been raining. Form Complete the sentences by putting the verbs into the present perfect continuous. Ongoing activities Phoenix Media Inc. Finished and unfinished activities Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous.
They are on your desk now. P eter Negatives Rewrite these sentences, using the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Recently-finished activities M atch the questions in colum n A w ith th e replies or explanations in colum n B. Are you OK?
I've been having a lot of problems with it recently. Production Write short paragraphs answering the questions, giving details about the activities that have been going on. H eV be. Reply to the follow ing questions using a verb in the present perfect continuous. Ves, it 's been raining. What have you been doing? Ink or oil? Presentation O Past simple We normally use the past simple to talk about actions that took place at a time in the past that is separated from the present.
It is used with expressions like yesterday, on M onday; la st w eek, in , a t 6. We can use the past simple and fo r to talk about something that happened during a period that has now finished: I lived in Ecuador fo r three years, then I came back to England. Present perfect The present perfect is used to talk about the present result of past actions and recent events.
It is often used with words like ever, never, ju st, already, yet, and phrases of unfinished time such as so far: H ave you ever tried Chilean wine? We have exchanged emails, but we h a v e never m et. Don't worry about the order form. I'm afraid I h a v e n 't w ritten that report yet.
I'll do it tomorrow. Present perfect simple with for and since The present perfect can be used with fo r and sin ce and stative verbs, or to refer to actions that are seen as long term or permanent.
We use fo r to talk about the duration of a period of time and since to talk about the starting point of an action or state: I h av e b een with the company since I h av e lived here fo r 15 years. It is also used in the negative with fo r and sin ce to talk about the last time something took place: I haven 't seen her since M onday.
I haven 't seen her fo r three days. It is used with since to talk about completed actions: Present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous can be used with fo r and since to talk about: I've been trying to get through to Technical Support, but the line's always engaged. I've been w orking from home because they're re-decorating my office. Past simple or present perfect? Read these reports by a financial adviser and put the verbs into the past simple or present perfect.
In May the company Recently the shares Their last success The latest news is that Oscarwinning director Ben Loach Complete the dialogue by putting the verbs into the past simple or the present perfect. Can I have a word about your trip to Dubai? Yes, of course. Is everything OK? Your tickets 1 have arrived arrive and they're in my office now.
And I Which hotel The Burj A1 Arab. Thank you. What about money? And I can get some traveller's cheques as well if you like. No don't worry, I I normally use a credit card and cash machines. Are you sure you can use your card in Dubai as well? Yes, I think so.
OK, but have a word with Alison Morgan in Production. I know she Present perfect simple or present perfect continuous Underline the correct form of the verb in italics. Review Read the follow ing em ail. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple, present perfect, or present perfect continuous. Dear Ken I'm just writing to let you know how Im getting on with the marketing trip.
Sorry I 1 tave. There is lots of interest in the new organic fertilizer. Last week I So far the feedback at all my meetings I keep hearing the thing - that interest in organic farming Last night I For the last year or so he Id better send this off to you now - I Ill be in touch soon.
Best wishes. Talk about w hat is happening now, w hat you have already done, and w hat you haven't done yet. Write a paragraph from a covering letter applying for a job. You should give details of your general experience, and m ention some specific dates w hen you did som ething.
Complete each of the follow ing sentences in two ways. In one sentence, use the present perfect to say w hat these people have done, and in the other use the present perfect continuous to say w hat they have been doing. Since then Were you working? Were we working? Were they working? Points of time in the past We use the past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was in progress at particular moment of time in the past: Interrupted past action We can use the past continuous to talk about an action or activity that was already in progress, and which was interrupted by another action: He w as checking the accounts when he spotted the error.
W hile he w as checking the accounts he spotted the error. The activity may or may not continue after the interruption: Amlie w as writing a report when her boss asked her to fetch an invoice.
Amlie fetched the invoice and then probably carried on writing the report.
Amlie w as writing a report when the fire broke out. Amlie stopped writing the report and left the office. Sequence of tenses With a time clause like when the phone rang, we can use either the past continuous or the past simple.
The past continuous tells us what was happening up to the point when the phone rang: When the phone rang, I w as talkin g to a client. The past simple tells us what happened afterwards: When the phone rang; I answ ered it. Points of time in the past David's colleague Jack who doesn't have enough work to do has tried to phone him several tim es w ithout success.
Complete their conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past continuous. I rang at 9. Oh, I And I tried again at At I think I And then I rang back again at Yes, I was out.
I thought so, so I rang again at I was out again. The new designer and I I called again, and tried to leave a message but even the answering machine I'd better have a look at it, but the designer and I Anyway, what did you want to talk about? Oh, nothing special. I just wanted to try out my new mobile phone. Interrupted past action Complete the text with the past simple or past continuous form o f the verbs in brackets.
He came back the next day to find that the gas had turned into Teflon, the slipperiest substance in the world.
He 1 was working work in his laboratory one night when he suddenly The glass broke, but did not shatter because it stuck to the celluloid, and this led to the idea of safety glass - two sheets of glass with a central sheet of celluloid. The result was a hugely successful new product that has probably done more to save the rhinoceros than anything else in history.
Sequence of tenses Read each set of inform ation. Decide the order in w hich things happened.
Then write two new sentences based on the inform ation. Begin each one w ith the same words. He went the rest of the way by taxi. He was driving to Bonn for a conference. We were having a meeting. The fire alarm went off. We were losing a lot of money. They made a lot of people redundant. I was having lunch in the canteen. Mr Takashi arrived. He came straight to the office. The chauffeur was waiting.
Review In the follow ing sentences, put one of the verbs in brackets in to the past continuous, and the other into the past simple. Mr Rodriguez when I In a, use the past continuous to say w hat was happening at the tim e. In b, use the past simple to say w hat happened next. Explain w hat was happening up to the point when the follow ing events took place.
Peter handed in his resignation They gave Miss Ling a new company c a r Hlne phoned the service engineer Write a short paragraph about one of the following events. Say w hat you were doing when it happened, and what you did next.
You won some money. You got your present job. You were stopped by the police. You first met your partner. H ad you w orked? H ad we w orked? H a d they w orked? Previous and subsequent events The past perfect is used to refer back to completed actions that happened before other events in the past. W hen I g ot to the hall, the presentation started. I arrived at the hall, and then the presentation started.
W hen I got to the hall, the presentation h a d started. The presentation started before I got to the hall.
I was late. In 1, it is also possible to use As soon a s and A fter in place of W hen.
In 2, it is also possible to use By the tim e in place of W hen. Present perfect and past perfect The past perfect acts as the past form of the present perfect see Units It is often used with adverbs like just, already, never. I am nervous because I h ave never h a d an interview. I am about to have an interview. I was nervous because I h a d never h a d an interview. I was about to have an interview. The past perfect is often used in reported speech structures see Units and in 3rd conditionals see Unit We use the present perfect continuous to talk about how long an activity has been going on up to the present see Unit 8.
We use the past perfect continuous to talk about the duration of an activity up to a point in the past. I h av e been w orking here for nine months. I am still working here now.
When I left my last job, I h a d been w orking there for six years. I started in and I left in WT do not use the past perfect continuous with stative verbs like know, like, etc. Instead, we use the past perfect: I recognized my old boss at once even though I hadn 't seen him for over 20 years. Form Compare these two pictures o f a small town as it was 20 years ago and as it w as last year.
Then com plete the sentences using the past perfect form of the verbs in brackets. They had built build a lot of new offices near the river. Present perfect and past perfect Change the follow ing sentences into the past perfect. I had Already e. Past perfect continuous Look through the notes about the history of Pharm ogen, a genetic engineering com pany th at specializes in producing m edical products. Write sentences about the com pany's activities u ntil it w ent public in When I got there I found th a t Continue the paragraph below.
Use the past perfect to describe the changes, and the past simple to describe the results of the change. Continue the sentences. Say w hat activities had been going on. One of the night security guards When we finally left, w e I haven't seen the minutes o f the last meeting yet. Sorry - I'll em a il them to you now. We often use the will future after I th in k and I don't think: I don't th in k I'll stay on in Geneva after the conference.
Nor will 1. The negative of will is won't w ill not: I won't stay long. I've got a meeting at 2. We don't use won't after I think. I don't thin k I'll come to the conference. Predictions We can use will to make predictions and to state facts that will be true in the future: Over the next few years, there will b e a massive increase in TV channels because o f the growth in cable, broadband and satellite services.
Q Future time words We use a present tense not: I will contact you as soon a s I get the information, not: Offers, promises, requests Will can also be used to ask if someone is willing to do something, to make requests, promises, and threats, and to offer help: I'm afraid the line is busy.
Will you hold? Will you give me a hand with these boxes? O f course - I'll ta k e the big one. Don't worry about the meeting. I w ill support you. The w rord won't can mean is not willing to or is refusing to: There's something wrong with the printer.
It w on't p rin t copies in reverse order. Spontaneous decisions M atch the responses in the box to the com m ents in the speech bubbles. I think I'll work from home tomorrow then, e Thanks, I'll have a look at them later, c No thanks, I'm driving.
I'll have an orange juice. Predictions A governm ent com m ittee is looking at various experts' predictions for the econom y next year.
M atch the notes to the graphs and forecast the changes using will. Future time words Put the verbs in brackets into the w ill future or the present simple. T 8 When the strike Offers, promises, requests Rewrite the follow ing sentences using w ill or won't. Will anyone, collect you TroM -the. The air traffic controllers are on strike. Then I'll talce.
The wine waiter says we have no more Chateau-Lafite ' Look at the topics below. Write three short paragraphs predicting w hat the world will be like in 20 years' tim e.
People will live, longer, and tra n sp la n ts will be. O n the. Complete the sentences using a verb in the present tense. I'll stay here u n til Presentation O Present continuous - arrangements The present continuous see Unit 2 is often used to talk about appointments or things we have arranged to do in the future.
We generally use it with a future time phrase: Are you doing anything this weekend? Have you arranged to do anything? Yes, I'm playin g g o lf with Barry on Saturday. I have arranged to play golf with him. We do not use the present continuous with stative verbs see Unit 3.
According to the papers, Richard Branson is going to buy a second island in the Caribbean. Going to - predictions We can also use going to for making firm predictions when there is some physical evidence that an event will take place: Can you get some more paper for the printer? It's going to run ou t any minute. In many cases, however, it is possible to predict future events using either going to or will.
There is little difference in meaning, but going to usually suggests that the event will happen soon. The present government will win the election next year. The present government is going to win the election next week. Will, present continuous, or going to? The most important differences between the present continuous, going to, and w ill are as follows: W7 use the present continuous for arrangements except with stative verbs: We use going to for decisions and intentions: I've made up my mind.
I'm going to buy a BMW i. We use going to for firm predictions: It's already 28c. It's going to b e very hot today. We use will for spontaneous decisions: I wonder i f Peter is back from his marketing trip? I'll give him a ring. We use will for promises, offers, and requests: It combines grammar with interesting discussion material on business matters. Elementary to Pre-Intermediate This new Elementary level provides clear explanations and examples of key grammar relevant to lower-level learners, with practice activities based on authentic contexts and opportunities for personalization in each unit.
Ideal for general reference, self study, and practice in the class - each unit includes: Michael Duckworth Business Grammar and Practice Suitable for lower-level learners, this title offers clear explanations of grammar points, along with practice activities.
Based on authentic source material, it provides contexts relevant to adult professional learners' needs. Containing progress tests, it also includes short end-of-unit sections allowing students to personalise key grammar. Grammar and Vocabulary Business English Language Practice aims to help learners of Business English develop the grammar and vocabulary needed to participate in business effectively. It opens with a Needs Analysis, encouraging students to consider what they need to focus on in order to get the most out of the book and their learning.
The book features a Learning Journal, providing the opportunity to reflect on and personalize what is studied in the book, and contains the full Answer Key, enabling students to work alone or with a teacher.
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