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Marja, , Besides meeting Abdullah bin Ubay, the Meccan envoy also met with the Muslims and delivered a declaration that Mecca would fight them so they would not be able to live quietly in Medina. Flag for inappropriate content. Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam 7, no. Arbi, Nila Noer Fajariyah Jakarta:
Kedua konsep itu sangat penting untuk memberikan kita semacam pemahaman tentang bagaimana kita bisa meminimalkan tingkat dan struktur konflik serta menciptakan jalan baru bagi kerjasama dan kesesuaian. Penelitian ini mencoba untuk menyoroti dikotomi dasar antara dua konsep tersebut. Setiap konflik dapat diselesaikan dan diubah jika struktur dan hubungan kedua pihak yang berkonflik sepenuhnya dipertimbangkan. Kedua teori mendiagnosa penyebab dan sumber konflik dan keduanya dapat digunakan sebagai metode untuk menyelesaikan dan mengubah konflik yang berbeda.
Akhirnya, makalah ini adalah karya ilmiah untuk memahami perbedaan dan kesamaan utama antara resolusi konflik dan transformasi konflik.
Resolusi konflik, transformasi konflik, penyebab konflik, dan kondisi untuk penyelesaian konflik secara damai. About the Authors: Princenton University Press, , In a communication perspective, the most important conflict resolution is the sincere desire to resolve conflicts. So that the conflict between Quraysh and the Muslims could be resolved peacefully. However, communication did not succeed in alleviating the conflict.
The choice of the Prophet PBUH and all the Muslims to the second migrate to Madinah was part of the act of negotiation with the Quraysh and the conflict itself. With the migration, the risk that will arise in the process of conflict resolution is the cessation of communication with Quraysh. But the Hijrah that was carried out by the Prophet PBUH , was carried out after the communication failed to solve the problem or ease the pressure.
Migrate to Madinah is a conflict resolution that aims to separate or distance from the conflict arena and creators of the conflict itself. At this point, migration is the second step of resolution after communication fails. Basically, this action is a conflict reduction by the Prophet and only emerged when the Quraysh of Mecca did not stop intimidating and persecuting the Muslims. Therefore, a peaceful resolution is needed in the form of an agreement that binds all Medina residents to obey it.
This peaceful resolution itself, in the modern context, is known as the Medina Charter. This agreement is an agreement that regulates the social relations of the people of Medina which consists of Aus, Khazraj, and migrants from Mecca, as well as Medina Jews. The naming of migrants as Muhajirin and naming the Aus and Khajraz people as Ansor or the helpers is an identity of respect and form of gratitude in the framework of the peaceful resolution of the Prophet PBUH in Medina.
This, of course, contradicts the interpretation which states that the Medina Charter is a step towards the preparation of the Prophet PBUH to fight the Quraysh of Mecca by building an alliance with Aus and Khazraj.
Hijrah as a conflict resolution was carried out by the Prophet PBUH before the conflict turned into a war. The aim is to protect the Muslims from the intimidation and persecution of the Quraysh.
Intimidation and persecution of the Quraysh can be seen as primordial violence, their hatred, and hostility to the Muslims. Primordial violence, hatred, and hostility are basically the trinity that forms war. War is a condition of conflict that escalates into organized armed violence.
This condition will not occur if there is no systematic engineering from the political elite. On the other hand, conflict resolution can also be considered as any process that resolves or ends conflicts through methods that can include violence or war. Makmur Cahaya Ilmu, , Jurnal Politik Internasional 1, no. However, of the many expeditions and battles that took place in the war, there were many battles and expeditions that did not cause any casualties or any contact with weapons.
The battle can be seen as a show of force from the Prophet PBUH to force his opponents to peacefully negotiate. This is clearly seen in the events of the Battle of Waddan which was called the first battle in the Mecca - Madinah War. This prevention becomes important as part of the conflict resolution carried out by the Prophet PBUH. This is due to the fact that the source of the conflict between the Prophet PBUH and the Quraysh of Mecca was the question of the difference of belief between the Prophet PBUH and the Muslims who were monotheistic with the Quraysh who were polytheists.
Meanwhile, the Arabs generally embraced polytheistic beliefs, so it was feared that Quraysh could provoke other tribes who shared the same belief to fight the Prophet PBUH and the Muslims.
Darul Falah, , 1,4,5, 67, , , , With this diplomacy, the Prophet PBUH brought the Quraysh of Mecca to the negotiating table and negotiated the articles regarding the termination of the war for ten years. This step is not an easy step considering the process towards the ceasefire agreement passed several critical events.
In this Hudaybiyah incident, the Prophet PBUH really showed an effort to bring conflict from the bullet to the ballot. When the ceasefire negotiations took place and the Quraysh figures tried to intimidate the Prophet PBUH and the Muslims with the conditions of a ceasefire that burdened the Muslims, the Prophet PBUH still tried to accept these unfair conditions. This shows that the Prophet PBUH intended that a ceasefire could actually occur so that bloodshed could be avoided.
The conflict resolution technique that tends to be used in armed violence is peace-making, humanitarian assistance and peace keeping. A ceasefire can be part of a comprehensive peace agreement. Therefore also, the Hudaybiyah agreement which conditions more burdensome the position of the Muslims remained agreed upon by the Prophet PBUH. Hisyam, Sirah Nabawiyah, 2: Although the ceasefire was severe in the implementation of the Muslims, the Prophet PBUH showed an obedient attitude to the ceasefire articles.
This can be seen from historical information about an important event where a Meccan resident who fled to Medina to enter Islam was returned by the Prophet PBUH to the envoy of the Quraysh who took him to Medina.
In fact, when the Meccan man returned to Medina after killing the emissary of Quraysh who picked him up, the Prophet PBUH still refused to accept his presence in Medina even though he had become a Muslim.
On the other hand, the Quraysh who actually benefited from the articles in the ceasefire actually violated the agreement on negotiations with the Muslims.
As such, both parties have returned to war conditions. Quraysh who 54 Hisyam, Sirah Nabawiyah, 2: Masturi Irham and Abidun Zuhri Jakarta: However, sirah nabawiyah gives very important information regarding the actions of the Prophet PBUH next. Mecca then fell into the hands of the Muslims.
How did the Quraysh who had been so offensive and mightier than the Muslims during the Mecca-Medina War could surrender in their own homes? Even the subjugation of the Quraysh without significant resistance to the Muslims. The history records that on the eve of the Muslim troops approaching Mecca, the Prophet PBUH gave orders to every member of the army to make a bonfire. The spies of the Quraysh who lurked in the Muslim forces later thought that the number of troops brought by the Prophet PBUH was very large.
Where the people of Mecca will be given protection by Muslim troops as long as they enter the Grand Mosque, to the house of Abu Sufyan or remain silent in their own homes. In his speech on the morning of the liberation of Mecca, the Prophet PBUH also affirmed the illegitimate status of Mecca for bloodshed. With this arbitration, the Prophet PBUH tried to erase revenge and hatred which in turn would encourage the creation of permanent peace. Fuad Ibn Rusyd Jakarta: Turos, , When hijrah to Medina had separated the Quraysh and the Muslims, the Quraysh leaders systematically increased the escalation of conflict into organized armed conflict namely war.
During this period, the Mecca-Medina War took place.
During war period, the Prophet Muhammad PBUH offered conflict resolution in the form of peace agreements with other Quraysh tribes and initiated a ceasefire in Hudaybiyah. When a ceasefire was violated, the Prophet PBUH faced it by conducting a show of force to subdue Quraysh without bloodshed. With this conflict resolution, the Prophet Muhammad PBUH ended the war by minimizing casualties and narrowing the scope of the war.
As we all know, radicalism in the name of religion has caused prolonged conflict in the Muslim World and internationally. Thus, the offer of sirah nabawiyah-based conflict resolution becomes quite relevant to be applied. At least, the conflict resolution method of the Prophet PBUH can enrich references in conflict resolution discourse. Perang Muhammad SAW: Zaman, Translated by Fedrian Hasmand.
Penerbit Noura Book, Adejimola, Amuseghan Sunday. Afandi, Agus, and Sjafiatul Mardliyah. The Politics of Ceasefires: Al Asqalani, Ibnu Hajar. Fathul Bari: Syarah Shahih al-Bukhari Jilid Translated by Ahmad Yunus, Abdillah. Al Kharbuthli, Ali Husni. Translated by Fuad Ibn Rusyd. Turos, Al Mishri, Syekh Mahmud. Sirah Rasulullah SAW: Perjalanan Hidup Manusia Mulia. Translated by Kamaluddin Irsyad, et. Tinta Medina, Al Mubarakfury, Shaffiyurahman.
Sirah Nabawiyah. Translated by Kathur Suhardi. Arafat, Ahmad Tajudin. Ash-Shallabi, Ali Muhammad.
Peperangan Rasulullah SAW. Translated by Arbi, Nila Noer Fajariyah. Ummul Qura, Pain Relief: Pair With Out Bond: Paradiso de' Giesuati. Del R. Paolo Morigi milanese dell'ordine di Giesuati di san Girolamo diuiso in sei libri. Ne' quai si racconta la miracolosa vita del b. Giouanni Colombini, fondatore di esso ordine con parte delle sante vite d'alcuni frati della medesima religione, molte essemplari.
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Jibril menjelaskan bahwa mereka adalah manusia yang merasa berat untuk melaksanakan kewajiban sholat. Kemudian beliau juga bertemu sekelompok kaum.
Kemudian Jibril menjelaskan bahwa itu adalah panggilan Yahudi. Masyitoh adalah tukang sisir anak perempuan Firaun. Setelah dihadapkan kepada Raja yang Lalim itu. Ketika beliau melanjutkan perjalanan. Kemudian Jibril berkata: Setelah itu mereka melanjutkan perjalanan sampai akhirnya bertemu dengan suatu kaum yang menanam benih pada hari itu dan langsung tumbuh besar dan dipanen hari itu juga.
Jibril menjawab: Begitu pula beliau mendapat seruan serupa dari sebelah kirinya. Masyithoh menjawab: Kemudian beberapa saat kemudian beliau mencium bau wangi semerbak. Mengetahui keteguhan iman Masyithoh. Kemudian dia mengancam akan memberitahukan hal ini kepada Firaun. Setelah melanjutkan perjalanan. Jibril berkata: Kemudian di tengah perjalanan.
Maka Firaun memerintahkan agar disediakan kuali raksasa dari tembaga yang diisi minyak dan air kemudian dipanasi. Baitul Maqdis. Kemudian setelah beliau menyempurnakan segalanya.
Jibril meminta izin agar pintu langit pertama dibuka. Setelah itu sekejab mata tiba-tiba masjid sudah penuh dengan sekelompok manusia. Kemudian beliau masuk ke dalam masjid bersama Jibril AS. Ketika beliau dan Jibril sampai di depan pintu langit dunia langit pertama. Kemudian dikumandangkan adzan dan iqamah.
Sungguh merupakan nikmat dan anugerah yang luar biasa bagi umat ini. Setelah mengetahui kedatangan Rasulullah malaikat yang bermukim disana menyambut dan memuji beliau dengan berkata: Sebab ibadah lainnya diperintah hanya dengan turunnya wahyu kepada beliau. Cukup kiranya hal ini sebagai kemulyaan ibadah sholat. Setelah itu Rasulullah SAW merasa haus. Rasulullah memilih wadah berisi susu lantas meminumnya. Beliau turun dari Buraq lalu mengikatnya pada salah satu sisi pintu masjid. Kembali beliau mendapat jawaban salam dan doa yang sama seperti Nabi-Nabi sebelumnya.
Nabi Adam menjawab salam beliau seraya berkata: Mereka adalah manusia yang suka memakan riba. Nabi berkomentar: Kemudian Rasulullah melanjutkan perjalanannya di langit pertama ini. Nabi saw menyifati Nabi Isa bahwa dia berpostur sedang. Disana beliau juga menemui suatu kaum.