A. CHAND & Co., Imperial Book Depôt MOHAN LAL, Punjab Law Book Depot, wherever the words of his Grammar were applicable to Wazirābād they. Punjabi Grammar Notes PDF Download | Topic-wise Complete Notes Punjabi Grammar PDF Notes for Govt Exams..* Format: Pdf No of Punjab Study Group. Scientist. Punjab Recruitment Previous Year's Papers - Sumir Sethi. Book. Syllabus of 12th Class for Academic Year · Syllabus of 11th Class for Academic Year · Correction in Matriculation Punjabi Book (Shahitmal 10 .
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I use this Punjabi grammar on my phone and my iPad. I just flip through the PDF Workbook in Punjabi. More than 20 We suggest printing out the Punjabi exercise book and doing the exercises with a pencil or a pen. This time trusted. A Reference Grammar of Punjabi was first published as Hartford Studies in Linguistics dealing with morphology and syntax, the Punjabi examples are given in. Download Punjabi Grammar notes for Govt Exams, Punjabi grammar book pdf download. While preparing these notes, We make sure that it.
Page 40 www. Did the professor used to know Arabic and Farsi? H oR3 F. Outside of North America, Punjabi is also taught in Hayes and Slough, two suburbs of London, along with some other towns of England, and has been part of school curriculum in Singapore since Have you told her about me? Page 68 www.
I drink warm milk. They work in the fields. Exercise 8. She buys medicines. I read daily. Do you knit? There are twelve months in a year. Who is in your family? What do they do? Where do they live? Where were you born? Heft Rillft "i' T. HCW5m 8. Describe your classroom usmg as many postpositions as possible: Write sentences.
Mo't letter m. F outcome. Unlike with the present tense. The negative of the past tense is formed by placing the word mlT right before the verb.. You were.
The past habitual consists oftwo parts: The imperfect participle 2. We were.. Page 91 www.. Page 92 www. Some of these expressions utilize the postposition Q. The use of indirect verbal constructions requires the use of the oblique case.
The basic structure of the indirect verbal construction is: The negative in the past habitual tense is formed by reversing the order of the imperfect participle and the past auxiliary and preceding this by the word odf.
Whereas in the direct case the subject and verb are in agreement. As a result. I need a computer. What do you need? Do they need cameras? Because verbal infinitives in this construction are followed by a postposition tT. Do you like to play cards? S QX -et fh. Think of the way in English one says 'He gets angry. Note that in the sentences below. In the second and third sentences. I don't know Punjabi. Ba"'""Er 'alcohol' is the grammatical subject.
Q appears with motion verbs to express various feelings and phenomena. Page 95 www. In the case of indirect objects it acts like 'to' in English. Q is used with direct objects if they are animate i.
We go to Lahore.: My sister goes to Patiala. Q marks them as definite specific. Do you like that painting? It is not translated per se. Qis used to mark the objects of transitive verbs. I give books to Sabina. Do you read this book everyday? Although 0. Q can be used to express knowledge through the construction'S Q [X] t! When used with inanimate direct objects. He doesn't know. Hm-r tR]3 J: They used to buy clothes from this shop.
The people were hungry. Did you used to go to the market? Exercise 9. I used to work in New York. The children used to read books. Did the professor used to know Arabic and Farsi? Their house used to be in the middle of the city. Phrase as. We used to see many Hindi films. My friend used to play the tabla. He used to live in Punjab. A' oro t3H'G"t! Usage of specific forms is determined by a speaker's desired tone of voice and the context. Learn to speak Punjabi. To negate the imperative..
Informal Singular: Page www. There are two different forms of the regular imperative: Do this work. T before the verb.. The most common of these are: Write the letter quickly. Don't eat bad food! Don't forget your luggage! Variant forms: Play like me! Is there anyone in your apartment? Other terms for expressing equality or likeness are: KJT is a suffix that inflects to agree in number and gender with what follows.
In questions. Do you have anything in your room? Note the difference between the two below. It should not be confused with fc. Any other new news? Does anyone on the bus have a ticket? Whose friend is he? Do not ask me difficult questions. Tell me the price of these flowers. T quickly. Exercise Please bring me the newspaper. Sing a lullaby to the children.
Come back soon. Please speak with her. Put that book on this table. Please take that book. Tell me his name. Do not drink that dirty water. Then negate them. As with the simple present and the present habitual. The particle faD'".
M is placed before the main verb. Its construction consists of three parts: The root of the main verb. In this case the auxiliary cannot be dropped. J fcKrr ff?
What were you thinking? It is also can be declined like an adjective and must inflect according to gender and number. It appears in the following ways: What were they doing last Tuesday?
Using the verb erE'" as an example Nouns and Adjectives: It indicates a 'possessor' of some thing or attribute and it also indicates someone who does something in particular. It functions like a postposition and puts the-preceding phrase in the oblique case. I was buying mWI things in the market Verbal Infinitives: It may indicate the doer of an action. It may indicate the intention to perform a particular action or impending action. It may indicate that something is worth doing.
In these constructions.
JRra ftB fc. Punjab tl'H"a trO: B7 T"8. What were you doing last Saturday. I was eating bread with yoghurt. Amarjit was reading in the park 2. She is not going home. What are you saying? She is going to Jasjit's house. I am listening to Hindi film music. This morning. We are not speaking Urdu. What are you doing at home? Last Wednesday she was cooking pasta. Kiran is dancing. Hfle' to scorch. JfJ3'" Saturday m Page www. B union. It is formed by adding the following endings to the root of the verb.
Using the verb. Muslims will observe fasts. Forms are the same for masculine and feminine subjects. There were many boats in the lake. While often the use of these forms is merely incidental. W-at I The day after tomorrow. The subjunctive is formed by adding the following endings to the root of the verb. Got a pen? It conveys the sense of 'may' and 'should' and is often indicated by the use of additional qualifications such as B'"fEt perhaps. WR fc! How many people are there in your class?
The subjunctive is negated by the particle T. May I come in? Differences between the future and subjunctive can be discerned in the following examples: BH orcft2l We should finish this work now. This is omitted in some spoken dialects. Where will we go? Use of this pronoun is especially common with the subjunctive. Ufa n-rB. Where should we go? Shall we go? Let's sit. Actually she is Sindhi. It can also give the sense of 'only. Another emphatic particle is -at.. If that is the case.
So that. W oft BBoT? Hindus l. B orfu.: B 1 to find Incorporate the future and subjunctive as much as possible. Masculine Feminine Singular. Page www.. The rules governing this agreement depend on whether a verb is intransitive or transitive. N W fcR: Masculine Feminine Singular Plural When the perfect participle is used alone..
Person 1st. Lesson 13 m: Intransitive verbs: Intransitive verbs do not take an object and the verb IS in agreement with the subject of the sentence. Transitive verbs with postpositions: When the object is marked with the postposition Q.
Masculine Feminine ora? T Singular to do. The girls laughed. Transitive verbs I: Transitive verbs take an object and can be conjugated in two different ways. Some of these are: Transitive verbs without postpositions: When the object is not marked with a postposition. For transitive verbs the only possible auxiliary forms are the generic singular IJ and plural uo.
The paradigm for intransitive verbs is as follows: In the case of intransitive verbs which agree with the subject all the personal forms of the auxiliary are possible. Masculine Feminine Singular.. Have you told her about me? Masculine Feminine Singular Plural Examples: Its paradigms are exactly parallel to the present perfect.
H oR3 F. The forms are: The boy became sad. What happened? In this way. In the examples above. H crt.
K Lft: K t'" 1. Buddhists trO: EtQt -g'q Qd. K tIT 1. He saw her. I had drunk milk. She has come home. They have done a lot of work. They had done a lot of work. I drank milk. They did a lot of work. He has seen her. She came home. I went to Delhi. He had seen her. I have drunk milk.
Where did you go? Whom did you meet? What did you eat? She had come home. I have gone to Delhi. I had gone to Delhi. IB entered. Examples of such conjunct verbs follow. It occurs in the following structure: Here we look at two auxiliary verbs: The verb mostly combined with nouns and adjectives is OfaOT. The verb. Auxiliary verbs can never be used as independent verbs. Can you write a letter for me? Have you already drunk the soda? Heft tB? Heft t-ret Assist me.
CJtT I look after my niece well.: We will sing together with them. My daughter will start going to school after getting older. R7 T 'to meet. Additional uses of the conjunctive particle: After nouns and pronouns it means 'because of or 'due to': My sister came to the U. Having come to the U. The conjunctive particle followed by another verb links action together in a sequence.
The conjunctive particle can be loosely translated as 'having done X. He did not go to school knowingly. In this indirect construction. A' Do a:: I have to write the letter. This construction has a wide range of use beyond just expressing compulsion. Using a verbal infinitive. This form is used to describe a planned action. A' CfJ: Relat i veL0 the previous construction. Why do you have to go to New York?
Transitive examples: Where were you to go? Intransitive examples: This holds true both for transitive and intransitive verbs. Similar to and yet. Sentence negation in Punjabi is expressed with two negating particles. T and odT. Should we go there or not? Do not read this book! The different uses of both these negating particles are exemplified below. T is used with the subjunctive and imperative forms of verbs. Do you plan to go to Pindi or not?
Recipe Shahi Panir 3Cft: B'tit l IWft' H'R m: R tffi I 3. Infinitive Phrases: Bl-fBT it Rl. Jf I Not eating at proper times is not good. JRra f. JRra -e. Jains- trO: JRra f.!: She has [already] eaten food. He has [already] gone to the office. I cannot come to your house.
I can read Urdu. Can you do this work for me? When will you clean your room? They have [already] had tea. She has [already] written the letter. I can cook Mexican food. We have [already] visited the Darbar Sahib in Amritsar. She can speak Hindi. I cannot fix your car. I have [already] read this story. He can drink a lot of alcohol. Can you sing that song? We have [already] seen this foreign film. He can work today. My friend can play the tabla. They are able to come to our party.
Who are you waiting for? Have you [already] finished your work? Using the present perfect. He has [already] arrived home. I went to the library and looked for a book. Who looks after their children? Perhaps I will finish my work before the party.
Pritam went to the store yesterday and bought a book about Punjabi music.. They praised you highly. Punjabi students should try to speak Punjabi everyday.
Utilize imperative forms as well as the conjunctive participle.. My friend Aman went to the store and bought some chickpeas. Today I made breakfast. Rich people should help poor people. Having arrived at Coney Island we ate hot dogs. My sister Shalini goes to school and works in the library. How can I refuse your request? I am looking for a new job.
Each morning my grandfather gets up and bathes. T t9 mix. Months of the native Punjabi lunar calendar. IJO'B summer f aoR'"3" rainy season.
XctHool It is X0' clock for all times except those involving ft: The terms used to express quarter. The 1: I had gotten up. What is the date today? What time is it? Time expressions indicating minutes before the hour are expressed using the oblique infinitive form. HOT OJ. Muslims lPO: Are you going to Amritsar next week?
What day is today? Summer holidays begin in the third week of June. Everyday I work from 8: Every Friday. I will come to your house tomorrow morning. Today's date is December 15 th. Provide English translations for your conjugations. What was the day before yesterday? Muslims pray together in mosques. In autumn it is difficult to buy fresh mangoes in the market. Why is this season your favorite? What do you enjoy about it?
H3 fuo. W place m. Page www The clauses have a somewhat parallel structure. Oftentimes the coordinating element of the pair. Correlative clause: RJ ft: The man who is in the room. Relative clause: Some sets of relative-correlatives use a special coordinating element which is used only in introducing a second clause.: R R that which.
R'Q fE"J ft: Don't hold the pen that way. These are variants which. Common subordinating conjunctions are: When the kids come from school. The second part stands on its own. I want to eat rice today. Because of X. Even though he liked the movie.
I brought some food to your house. I am taking Gibb to my house. This verb is used to emphasize completion of a change in state. Recall the form of auxiliary verb constructions: He lost. On the other hand. Often it does not add significantly to the meaning of the verb. He died. The rice became cooked. SHills trO: By the time I arrived. Whenever I go to the gurdwara. I will stay healthy.. When I arrive in Delhi. I will reply. I like that girl. I help out in the langar.
Where there is a flower. I live in an apartment. As soon as I get your letter. As long as I eat well. I gave my friend a book. As soon as I came home. Other Useful Words m foundation f fll ' iF. These are created in Punjabi in the following ways: Honda is cheap. The relative-correlative expression ft:: Punjabi makes use of postpositions or relative-correlative phrases: Comparative statements indicate a feature that is greater or lesser in extent than another.
Farsi-derived adjectival fonns of comparison The suffix for adjectival comparisons. Using postpositions of comparison 3' than orB than -e. JTa-f iF. As an emphatic reflexive pronoun. The better thing is that. Why do children fight among themselves? As a possessive pronoun.
Did you use to cook all by yourself? Note that the possessor is the same as the subject or the agent of the action. I show my work to the teacher. Superlative statements indicate that something has a feature to a greater degree than anything it is being compared to. In the English phrase 'I see myself. In this usage it is not a true reflexive and hence. It would be incorrect to say. I eat my food. E1CW tft: WR CI. VB fu: The weather in Delhi is hotter than in Chandigarh.
She was telling us about her country. Although I eat less than her. This is not his car. You are my own. My brother is taller than me. He lives in his brother's room. Punjabi is fairly easy to learn. Karachi is Pakistan's biggest city. Out of Punjabi.
Gurdas Mann's songs are good. Do your own work! I was reading my own book. Sunday is my 1avorite day ofthe week. When it comes to restaurants. What does he think of himself? Please tell me your address. He was in his own room. We were talking amongst ourselves. Their car is the fastest. That store has more books than this one.
These are roughly equivalent to 'hey' or 'O! WtiOO o boys! Inflecting adjectives and other inflecting modifiers such as the possessive postposition t'" and possessive pronouns. It is formed as in the following examples. Basic form. Common examples are as follows: In contemporary Punjabi one finds these forms used in conjunction with a limited number of words.
Strictly speaking. Continuous form. W 3CI Eftt: Although her stomach may feel bad. Progressive form. Positive or neutral habits: Negative habits: B ata. Did you ever use to write stories?
Dialogue Lohri ofu-l:: When it appears twice as ore--ore- it means 'sometimes' and indicates infrequent action. R B"oV tIT?
HB"3 f'3 1U'd. W'3"B f. Have you ever heard the story? Every time I ask the teacher questions and she always gets mad. Shabina keeps on making rice and lentils. The kids kept flying orange. All night snow kept gathering on the ground. His sisters never fight among themselves. She kept on cooking saffron-colored rice. Explain where you need to go and ascertain if the driver knows the directions. She used to get up early once. The father told his sons to continue working.
Remember to negotiate a fare! I to knock vt ffi. It means to cause something to be made. Some of these pairs. Note the meanings of the following three verbs: These verbs convey the sense of getting something done by someone else. Lesson 19 RaP! Verbs with a root ending in a consonant typically form causatives by adding -4jT to the root. There are many pairs of verbs in Punjabi where the verb.
Note the following examples: Verbs with a root ending iL a vowel. Ror and its causatives are often used to introduce people: R 'A": Ror to meet and its causatives have many alternate meanings and uses. Such pairings indicate generality or 'and so forth along these lines.
Adjectives and adverbs are repeated for emphasis: Work fast! Numbers are repeated to give the sense of allocation or apportionment: Nearness in meaning: Punjabi also pairs words that rhyme or alliterate.
In these pairs. When will we get food? Will you have some tea or something? Don't consume anything from outside. Have you got a pencil or pen? Dialogue Basant orn-W3 m: LJRra fc! It is spoken in North western India and in Pakistan.
Punjabi is a tonal language; a characteristic which makes it unusual among Indo-European languages. More Punjabi words and phrases. Learn Punjabi the easy, fun and fast way. Whether you're a complete beginner or you already know a few phrases in Punjabi, you'll be amazed at just how quickly you learn! More than 20 pages of exercises in Punjabi to help you learn the most important words and phrases in the language.
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