Welcome to the world of CAD - In this tutorial you will be learning the basics of AutoCAD. develop basic 2D drawings and print them out to scale. and Tutorials - Lesson - Basic Drawing and Modifying Commands - AutoCAD AutoCAD 3D Tutorials. - 6 -. Viewports. 1. Open a drawing or create simple objects as shown Launch A Mastering AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT AutoCAD 3D Tutorial. - 1 -. Written by Programs, Autodesk,AutoCAD Workspaces . drawing for 2D Wireframe, 3D Wireframe, 3D Hidden, Realistic, or .
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AutoCAD® Tutorial. First Level: 2D Fundamentals. Text by. Randy H. Shih. Oregon Institute of Technology. MultiMedia CD by. Jack Zecher. improvements in precision and flexibility while working in both 2D sketches and 3D are bringing a PDF into AutoCAD, there are significant enhancements to the underlay . animated arrow. This function acts as a mini AutoCAD tutorial. All AutoCAD commands can be typed in at the command line. Many commands also have one . AutoCAD 2D Tutorial. UNITS Command 1. Choose Format .
If not click the Modify button and make revisions to the Array dialog fields. The dialog disappears and the name appears in the Select Linetype dialog. When that part of the drawing which is required is on screen a right-click calls up the menu as shown in Fig. Dynamic Input. Note the following illustrations: Editing Meshes.
Standard toolbar Fig. As with all palettes, an AutoHide icon and a right-click menu are included. Modify toolbar Fig. Menu bar and menus: The menu bar is situated under the title bar and contains names of menus from which commands can be selected.
Left-click 3D Views in the drop-down menu and a sub-menu appears, from which other sub-menus can be selected if required.
The mouse as a digitiser Many operators working in AutoCAD will use a two-button mouse as the digitiser. There are other digitisers which may be used — pucks with tablets, a three-button mouse etc. To operate this mouse pressing the Pick button is a left-click.
Pressing the Return button is a right-click. Pressing the Return button usually has the same result as pressing the Enter key of the keyboard. When the wheel is pressed drawings in the AutoCAD screen can be panned.
Moving the wheel forward enlarges zooms in the drawing on screen. Moving the wheel backwards reduces the size of a drawing. The pick box at the intersection of the cursor hairs moves with the cursor hairs in response to movements of the mouse.
The length of the cursor hairs can be adjusted in the Options dialog page Palettes A palette has already been shown — the Command palette. Two palettes which may be frequently used are the DesignCenter palette and the Properties palette. These can be called to screen from the Tools drop-down menu Fig.
DesignCenter palette: A fastener block drawing can be dragged from the DesignCenter for inclusion in a drawing under construction. Properties palette: The polyline can be changed by the entering of new figures in the appropriate parts of the palette. Right-click in the title bar of the palette and a popup menu appears. Click on Control panels and click against all the names which appear in the sub-menu except 2D Draw control panel. This can be reduced in size by dragging at corners or edges, or hidden by clicking on the Auto-hide icon, or moved by dragging on the Move icon.
This panel holds all the tool icons contained in the Draw and Modify toolbars. These details are shown in Fig. Settings can be made in many of the dialogs, files can be saved and opened and changes can be made to variables. Examples of the parts of dialogs are shown in Figs 1.
The first example is taken from the Select File dialog Fig. The second example shows part of the Options dialog Fig. The Options dialog can be opened with a click on Options. Title bar: Close dialog button: Popup list: A click on the Cancel button closes the dialog. Preview area: Note the following in the Options dialog: Check boxes: No tick indicates the function is off.
A click in a check box toggles between the feature being off or on. Radio buttons: No dot and the feature is off. A click on a button turns that function on, if it is off, a click on a button when it is off turns the function back on. Similar results can be obtained by using function keys of the computer keyboard keys F1 to F When set on, the cursor under mouse control can only be moved in jumps from one snap point to another.
See also page When set on, a series of grid points appears in the drawing area. When set on, lines etc. When set on, a small tip appears showing the direction and length of lines etc. When set on, an osnap icon appears at the cursor pick box. Dynamic UCS. Also toggled by the F6 key. Used when constructing 3D solid models. Dynamic Input. When set on, the x,y coordinates and prompts show when the cursor hairs are moved.
When in Paper Space a button can toggle Model Space and Paper Space and a new button appears for toggling between Maximizing and Minimizing the workspace. Note the square light-blue button at the right-hand end of the status bar — the Clean Screen button.
Left-click this button and a screen clear of all but the menu bar and the command palette appears. When in the Clean Screen workspace another click on the button and the screen reverts to its original state. Note When constructing drawings in AutoCAD it is advisable to toggle between Snap, Ortho, Osnap and the other functions in order to make constructing easier. A 2D point can be determined in terms of X,Y in this book referred to as x,y. A 3D model drawing as if resting on the surface of a monitor is shown in Fig.
Drawing templates Drawing templates are files with an extension. Templates are files which have been saved with predetermined settings — such as Grid spacing, Snap Templates can be opened from the Select template dialog see Fig. An exam- ple of a template file being opened is shown in Fig. In this example the template will be opened in Paper Space and is complete with a title block and borders.
To adapt this template: In the command palette enter type grid followed by a right-click or pressing the Enter key. Then enter 10 in response to the prompt which appears, followed by a right-click Fig. In the command palette enter snap followed by right-click. Then enter 5 followed by a right-click Fig. In the command palette enter limits, followed by a right-click. Right- click again.
Then enter , and right-click Fig. In the command window enter zoom and right-click. Then in response to the line of prompts which appears enter a for All and right-click Fig. In the command palette enter units and right-click.
The Drawing Units dialog appears Fig. In the Precision popup list of the Length area of the dialog, click on 0 and then click the OK button. Note the change in the coordinate units showing in the status bar. Click File in the menu bar and click Save As. The Save Drawing As dialog appears. The templates already in AutoCAD are displayed in the dialog. Click on acadiso. Notes 1. Now when AutoCAD is opened the template saved as acadiso.
Other features will be added to the template in future chapters. Method of showing entries in the command palette Throughout the book, where necessary, details entered in the command palette will be shown as follows: At the command line: Note In later examples this may be shortened to: In the above enter means type the given letter, word or words at the Command: Right-click means press the Return right button of the mouse or press the Return key of the keyboard.
Tools and tool icons An important feature of Windows applications are icons and tooltips. When the cursor is placed over a tool icon a tooltip shows with the name of the tool as shown in the tooltips in the Draw and Modify toolbars Fig.
If a small arrow is included at the bottom right-hand corner of a tool icon, when the cursor is placed over the icon and the pick button of the mouse depressed and held, a flyout appears which includes other tool icons Fig.
The example given in this illustration shows a flyout from the 2D Draw control panel. All toolbars and palettes disappear from the screen except for the command window leaving a larger workspace. A new screen appears with an enlarged working area Fig. Tools can be selected from the 2D Draw control panel for the construction of drawings within this enlarged area. Other workspaces can be designed as the operator wishes. This particular workspace has the advantage that it uses all the area available on the computer screen being used at the time.
When this happens it may be desirable to delete the 2D Draw control panel with a click on its Close button. Revision notes 1. Or right-click on the shortcut, followed by a left-click on Open in the menu which then appears.
From now on this part of the book Part I which deals with the construction of 2D drawings will show examples constructed mainly in the Classic AutoCAD screen, which opens show- ing the Draw and Modify toolbars. A left-click on a menu name in the menu bar brings a drop-down menu on screen. In drop-down menus: All constructions in this book involve the use of a mouse as the digitiser. When a mouse is the digitiser: The item moves in sympathy with the mouse movement. Palettes are a particular feature of AutoCAD The Command palette, the DesignCenter palette and the Properties palette will be in frequent use.
Tools are shown as icons in the toolbars and panels. When a tool is picked a tooltip describing the tool appears. Dialogs allow opening and saving of files and the setting of parameters.
A number of right-click menus are used in AutoCAD A number of buttons in the status bar can be used to toggle features such as snap and grid. Functions keys of the keyboard can be also used for toggling most of these functions. Drawings are usually constructed in templates with predetermined settings.
Some templates include borders and title blocks. Introducing AutoCAD 19 The drawing of simple outlines using the Line, Circle and Polyline tools from the Draw toolbar or the 2D Draw control panel. Drawing to snap points. Drawing to absolute coordinate points. Drawing to relative coordinate points. The use of the Erase, Undo and Redo tools.
However the methods of construction will be the same if the reader wishes to work in other workspaces. If the 2D Draw control panel is on screen, tools can be selected from the panel. In this chapter illustrations will show tools mainly selected from the Draw toolbar, but a few will show tools selected from the 2D Draw control panel.
Whether working with the Draw toolbar or the 2D Draw control panel, the sequences and prompts which appear at the command line will be the same. Drawing with the Line tool First example — Line tool Fig. Open AutoCAD. The drawing area will show the settings of the acadiso. Left-click on the Line tool in the Draw toolbar Fig.
Note a The tooltip which appears when the tool icon is clicked. Introducing drawing 21 Fig. Move the mouse around the drawing area. The position of the pick box will show as coordinate numbers in the status bar left-hand end. Move the mouse until the coordinate numbers show 60,,0 and press the Pick button of the mouse left-click.
Move the mouse until the coordinate numbers show ,,0 and left-click. Move the mouse until the coordinate numbers show 60,,0 and left-click. Then press the Return button of the mouse right-click. Clear the drawing from the screen with a click on the Close drawing button Fig.
Make sure it is not the AutoCAD window button. The warning window Fig. Click its No button. Left-click on New. Left-click on the Line tool icon and enter figures as follows at each prompt of the command line sequence: The result is as shown in Fig. Close the drawing and open a new acadiso. The figures typed at the keyboard determining the corners of the out- lines in the above examples are two-dimensional 2D x,y coordinate points. When working in 2D, coordinates are expressed in terms of two numbers separated by a comma.
Coordinate points can be shown as positive or negative numbers. The method of constructing an outline as shown in the first two examples is known as the absolute coordinate entry method, where the x,y coordinates of each corner of the outlines are entered at the command line as required. The method of constructing an outline as in the third example is known as the relative coordinate entry method — coordinate points are entered relative to the previous entry.
In relative coordinate entry, the symbol is entered before each set of coordinates with the following rules in mind: The next example the fourth shows how lines at angles can be drawn taking advantage of the relative coordinate entry method. Introducing drawing 25 Fifth example — Line tool Fig.
When Line is in use, as each Specify next point: Drag the rubber-band line in any direction and enter a number at the keyboard, followed by a right-click. The line is drawn in the dragged direction of a length in units equal to the entered number.
In this example because all lines are drawn in either the vertical or the horizontal direction, either press the F8 key or click the ORTHO button in the status bar.
Close the drawing just completed and open the acadiso. Left-click on the Circle tool icon in the Draw toolbar Fig. Enter numbers against the prompts appearing in the command window as shown in Fig. The circle Fig. Second example — Circle tool Fig. Close the drawing and open the acadiso. Left-click on the Circle tool icon and construct two circles as shown in the drawing Fig. Click the Circle tool again and against the first prompt enter t the abbreviation for the prompt tan tan radius , followed by a right-click.
The command line prompts when Circle is called , R55R55 Fig. The radius circle tangential to the radius circles The radius circle tangential to the two circles already drawn then appears Fig. When a point on either circle is picked a tip appears Deferred Tan- gent. This tip will only appear when the OSNAP button is set on with a click on its button in the status bar, or by pressing the F3 key of the keyboard. Circles can be drawn through 3 points or 2 points entered at the com- mand line in response to prompts brought to the command line by using 3P and 2P in answer to the circle command line prompts.
The Erase tool If an error has been made when using any of the AutoCAD tools, the object or objects which have been incorrectly constructed can be deleted with the Erase tool. The Erase tool icon can be selected from the Modify toolbar Fig. First example — Erase Fig. With Line construct the outline in Fig.
An incorrect outline 2. Assuming two lines of the outline have been incorrectly drawn, left-click the Erase tool icon. The command line shows: And the two lines are deleted right-hand drawing of Fig.
Select objects Result after Erase Fig. Left-click the Erase tool icon. And the two lines are deleted as in the right-hand drawing of Fig. Undo and Redo tools Two other tools of value when errors have been made are the Undo and Redo tools. To undo the last action taken by any tool when construct- ing a drawing, either left-click the Undo tool in the Standard toolbar first corner opposite corner Fig.
Introducing drawing 29 Fig. No matter which method is adopted the error is deleted from the drawing. Drawing with the Polyline tool When drawing lines with the Line tool, each line drawn is an object in its own right. A rectangle drawn with the Line tool is four objects. A rectangle drawn with the Polyline tool is a single object. Lines of different thickness, arcs, arrows and circles can all be drawn using this tool as will be shown in the examples describing constructions using the Polyline tool.
Constructions resulting from using the tool are known as polylines or plines. The Polyline tool can be called from the 2D Draw control panel Fig.
First example — Polyline tool Fig. Left-click the Polyline tool Fig. Note the prompts — Arc for constructing pline arcs; Close to close an outline; Halfwidth to halve the width of a wide pline; Length to enter the required length of a pline; Undo to undo the last pline constructed; Close to close an outline. Only the capital letter s of a prompt needs to be entered in upper or lower case to make that prompt effective.
Other prompts will appear when the Polyline tool is in use as will be shown in later examples.
Second example — Polyline tool Fig. In the following sequences, when a prompt line is to be repeated, the prompts in square brackets [ ] will be replaced by [prompts].
Left-click the Polyline tool icon. Third example — Polyline tool Fig. And the circle in Fig.
Introducing drawing 33 Revision notes The following terms have been used in this chapter: Left-click — press the left-hand button of the mouse. Click — same meaning as left-click. Double-click — press the left-hand button of the mouse twice in quick succession. Right-click — press the right-hand button of the mouse; it has the same result as pressing the Return key of the keyboard. Drag — move the cursor on to an object and, holding down the right-hand button of the mouse pull the object to a new position.
Enter — type the letters of numbers which follow at the keyboard. Pick — move the cursor on to an item on screen and press the left-hand button of the mouse. Return — press the Enter key of the keyboard. This key may also be marked with a left-facing arrow.
In most cases but not always it has the same result as a right-click. Dialog — a window appearing in the AutoCAD window in which settings can be made. Drop-down menu — a menu appearing when one of the names in the menu bars is clicked. Tooltip — the name of a tool appearing when the cursor is placed over a tool icon from a toolbar.
Prompts — text appearing in the command window when a tool is selected which advise the operator as to which operation is required. Methods of coordinate entry — Three methods of coordinate entry have been used in this chapter: Absolute method — the coordinates of points on an outline are entered at the command line in response to prompts.
Relative method — the distances in coordinate units are entered preceded by from the last point which has been determined on an outline. Tracking — the rubber band of the tool is dragged in the direction in which the line is to be drawn and its distance in units is entered at the command line followed by a right-click.
Line and Polyline tools — an outline drawn using the Line tool consists of a number of objects equal to the number of lines in the outline. An outline drawn using the Polyline is a single object no matter how many plines are in the outline. Construct the outline in Fig. The coordinate points of each corner of the rectangle will need to be calculated from the lengths of the lines between the corners. Using the Line tool, construct the outline in Fig. Exercises 1. Using the Line tool construct the rectangle in Fig.
Introducing drawing 35 4. Using the Circle tool, construct the two circles of radius 50 and Then, using the Ttr prompt, add the circle of radius 25 Fig. In an acadiso.
Then, using the Ttr prompt, add the circle of radius Using the Line tool construct the two lines at the length and angle as given in Fig. Then with the Ttr prompt of the Circle tool, add the circle as shown. R50 R25 R30 , , Fig. With the Polyline tool construct the arrows shown in Fig. Using the Polyline tool, construct the outline given in Fig. To describe the uses of the Polyline Edit pedit tool. To introduce the AutoSnap system and its uses. To introduce the Object Snap osnap system and it uses.
Introduction The majority of tools in AutoCAD can be called into use in any one of the following four ways: By entering an abbreviation for the tool name at the command line in the Command palette.
For example the abbreviation for the Line tool is 1, for the Polyline tool it is pl and for the Circle tool it is c. By entering the full name of the tool at the command line.
In practice operators constructing drawings in AutoCAD may well use a combination of these four methods. In the examples which follow, entering initials for these characteristics in response to prompts at the command line when the Arc tool is called allows arcs to be constructed in a variety of ways.
To call the Arc tool click on its tool icon in the Draw toolbar Fig. A sub-menu shows the pos- sible methods of constructing arcs Fig. The abbreviation for calling the Arc tool is a.
Second example — Arc tool Fig. Third example — Arc tool Fig. The Ellipse tool Ellipses can be regarded as what is seen when a circle is viewed from directly in front of the circle and the circle rotated through an angle about its horizontal diameter.
Ellipses are measured in terms of two axes — a major axis and a minor axis; the major axis being the diameter of the circle and the minor axis being the height of the ellipse after the circle has been rotated through an angle Fig. The abbrevia- tion for calling the Ellipse tool is el. First example — Ellipse Fig. Third example — Ellipse Fig.
Saving drawings Before going further it is as well to know how to save the drawings constructed when answering examples and exercises in this book. When a drawing has been constructed, left-click on File in the menu bar and on Save As. The Save Drawing As dialog appears Fig. In the File name: The file name extension.
Left-click the Save button of the dialog. The drawing will be saved to the floppy with the file name extension. Osnap, AutoSnap and Dynamic Input In previous chapters several methods of constructing accurate drawings have been described — using Snap; absolute coordinate entry; relative coordinate entry and tracking.
Osnap, AutoSnap and Draw tools 41 Fig. To save a drawing to a floppy in drive A: Place a floppy disk in drive A:. In the Save in: Object Snaps Osnaps Osnaps allow objects to be added to a drawing at precise positions in rela- tion to other objects already on screen. With osnaps, objects can be added to the end points, mid points, to intersections of objects, to centres and quadrants of circles, etc. Osnaps also override snap points even when snap is set on. To set Osnaps, at the command line: Click the Object Snap tab in the upper part of the dialog and click in each of the check boxes the small squares opposite the osnap names.
See Fig. When osnaps are set ON, as outlines are constructed using osnaps, osnap icons and their tooltips appear as indicated in Fig. The following examples show the use of some of these abbreviations. First example — Osnap abbreviations Fig. The result is shown in Fig.
In this illustration the osnap tooltips are shown as they appear when each object is added to the outline. Osnap, AutoSnap and Draw tools 43 Fig. Second example — Osnap abbreviations Fig. With AutoSnap set, each time an object is added to a drawing the AutoSnap features appear as indicated in Fig.
Part of a drawing showing the features of a number of AutoSnap points is given in Fig. Osnap, AutoSnap and Draw tools 45 Fig. To set AutoSnap, right-click in the com- mand window and from the menu which appears click Options. The Options dialog appears. Click the Drafting tab in the upper part of the dialog and set the check boxes against the AutoSnap Settings on tick in boxes. These settings are shown on Figs 3. To see the drop-down menu giving the prompts available with DYN press the down key of the keyboard and click the prompt to be used.
Notes on the use of DYN 1. A click on the Clean Screen icon in the bottom right-hand corner of the AutoCAD window produces an uncluttered workspace area with only the menu bar Fig. The command palette can also Some operators may well prefer working in such a larger than normal workspace. All the tool names or abbreviations can be entered at the keyboard. Thus working with DYN set on can be of benefit to those who prefer doing so. An example of using DYN Fig. Turn DYN on with a click on its button in the status bar.
Enter commandlinehide to hide the command palette. Enter pl for Polyline at the keyboard followed by pressing Return. Funny Video. Getting Started. Creating Objects. Viewport - Navigation. Object Selection - Display. Modifying Objects. Editing Meshes. Compound Object. Creating Materials. Working With Maps. AutoCAD Software.