Manhattan GMAT. Critical Reasoning GMAT Strategy Guide (Guide 6). Файл формата pdf; размером 11,32 МБ. Добавлен пользователем anonymous. Critical Reasoning GMAT Strategy Guide, 6th Edition (Manhattan Prep GMAT Strategy Guides) MANHATTAN GMAT Integrated Reasoning & Essay GMAT Strategy Guide GMAT Math Flashcards from GMAT Prep lesforgesdessalles.info The Manhattan GMAT Advantage: Sophisticated Strategies For Top Scores In order to do well on GMAT Critical Reasoning questions, you must be able to.
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Critical Reasoning. Seepage 7. for details. 9rlanliattan GMAT. the new standard. Learn using Superior Tools developed by. Superior GMAT Instructors. • Scored. MANHATTAN GMAT Critical Reasoning GMAT Strategy Guide This unique guide illustrates how to deconstruct arguments using a four-step process designed to. Manhattan GMAT. Critical reasoning: 1 Argument structure. 2 Diagramming. 3 General strategy. 4 Find the assumption. 5 Draw a conclusion. 6 Strengthen the.
Important note: ECON Beyond providing additions and edits for this book, Chris continues to be the driving force behind all of our curriculum efforts. I f that's not actually the case, then that's a flaw. That's interesting. Actually, I think so.
This preview shows page 1 - 10 out of pages. Subscribe to view the full document. I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero. ECON Manhattan - Critical Reasoning 6th Edition. Understanding the underlying structure of arguments and answer choices is the key to quick reading and accurate analysis. No part of this work may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or web distribution—without the prior written permission of the publisher, MG Prep, Inc.
Layout Design: Amy Pierce. I hope this book gives you just the guidance you need to get the most out of your GMAT studies. Sally introduces new evidence that contradicts one of Bill's premises. Sally does say something new, but does it rise to the level of evidence? We need to cut the recycling program in order to help balance the budget. Consumer Advocate: It costs the city more to throw something out than to recycle it. Two people are talking, [ and I have to explain how one I responds to the other.
Deconstruct the argument Mayor: The CA city more to throw something says that it costs even more to M: I f you cant recycle CA: Probably throw it out. For Describe the Argument questions I have to address how some part o f the argument is made.
In this case, I have to describe how the CA responds to the M. First, it sounds like the CA thinks that the M's plan isn't going to work. The CA doesn't say so directly, but does say that throwing stu ff out is more costly than recycling it. I f that's true, then the plan to cut the recyclingprogram just got a bit worse— it might not actually achieve the ultimate goal, which is to save money to help balance the budget.
The answer I fin d should indicate that the CA disagrees with the M, and specifically the CA disagrees as to whether the suggested action cutting the Rprogram will result in the desired outcome saving money, helping to balance the budget. Oh, I see— this one is better M: It's true that the mayor the mayor has not hasn'tfully considered the potential effects o f M: We will be asked to address the role of a particular sentence or statement within the conversation usually the respondent s statement, if there are two people talking.
Our goal is to identify the specific role played by the statement about which were asked. That can be done by directly attacking what the first person said, or by introducing new information that undermines the first person s argument.
Ad Revenues Media Critic: These executives claim that declining viewership will cause advertising revenue to fall and networks will thus be unable to spend the large sums necessary to produce high-quality programming.
This demonstrates that alternative platforms will not prevent networks from increasing advertising revenue. The portions in boldface play which of the following roles in the media critic's argument? B The first is a prediction that is challenged by the argument; the second is a finding upon which the argument depends. D The first acknowledges a position that the network executives accept as true; the second is a consequence of that position.
E The first opposes the critic's claim through an analogy; the second outlines a scenario in which that claim will not hold. Renaissance Masters Many people praise High Renaissance painting for creating very realistic images from observation, but scholars have documented that some High Renaissance painters used pinhole cameras to project the likeness of their subjects onto the canvas and painted from there.
Thus, people who credit High Renaissance painters with superior artistic skills are misguided. Painting from a projected image requires only an insignificant amount of additional skill beyond that needed to copy a picture outright.
In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles? A The first is a finding that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument rejects; the second is a claim that supports that conclusion.
B The first is a finding that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument rejects; the second is that conclusion. D The first is evidence that forms the basis for the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a claim presented to solidify that position. E The first is evidence that forms the basis for the position that the argument seeks to establish; the second is that position. Democracy As the United States demonstrated during its early development, it is not enough for citizens simply to have rights; the successful functioning of a democracy requires that they also know how to exercise those rights.
Therefore, in order for a democracy to function successfully, its citizens must have access to a formal education. What function does the statement in boldface fulfill with respect to the argument presented above? A It provides support for the explanation of a particular phenomenon. B It presents evidence that contradicts an established fact. C It offers confirmation of a contested assumption. D It identifies the cause of an erroneous conclusion. E It proposes a new conclusion in place of an earlier conjecture.
Digital Marketing Sania: Innovative Design Products with innovative and appealing designs relative to competing products can often command substantially higher prices in the marketplace. But large profits generated by the innovative designs give competitors stronger incentives to copy the designs. Therefore, the best strategy to maximize overall profit from an innovative new design is to charge less than the greatest possible price. A The first is an assumption that supports a described course of action; the second provides a consideration to support a preferred course of action.
B The first is a consideration that helps explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second presents an alternative strategy endorsed by the argument. C The first is a phenomenon that justifies a specific strategy; the second is that strategy. D The first is a consideration that demonstrates why a particular approach is flawed; the second describes a way to amend that approach. Gray Wolf Population Government representative: Clearly, the Minnesota gray wolf population is more likely to survive and thrive long term.
The environmentalist challenges the government representative's argument by doing which of the following? Ad Revenues: The correct answer is B. Media Critic: More claims clining viewership will cause about bad things happening.
Is MC: Conclusion for qual prog no prog for o f the NEs. I'll wait users of alternative platforms are till I fin d the conclusion for sure, MC: The tive platforms will not prevent recyclable materials still have to MC: Okay, the M C is other Ps tising revenue. X P Step 3: The question asks me to fin d the role o f two boldface statements. The second boldface is a P.
I want to fin d the combo X P in that order in an answer choice. The MC: I want this combo: A n d the second one is M C: I dont even MC: A nd they're on MC: Okay, that's fine. It goes against the NE's position. Renaissance Masters: The correct answer is D.
I need to identify the role o f the two boldfaced statements as they relate to the conclusion— which was that people who think H R painters are really skilled are misguided.
The first one is a fact, and the second one is an opinion. Fm going to try to fact I opinion strategy and see how that works. I can eliminate this put forth to support one. This one has to stay in, too. I can eliminate this one. The correct answer is C.
A quick glance at the abstract wording o f the answer choices confirms: The author sjust sort racy to function successfully, its Ex: The author concludes that form al education is necessary in generalfor a democracy to be successful. Is that they establish a precedent for same thing as an analogy? Oh, but Ex: The correct answer is A. Pgas M early European settlers in Hong Kong attributed the malady to poisonous gases supposedly emanating from low- lying swampland.
They ES: Pgas M were responsible for transmitting the used to think it was one thing, disease to humans after observing that That's a Premise. The question specifically asks me what role this information plays: That's the most like a P — a premise that supports somefurther conclusion.
I need to fin d the abstract language that indicates some kind o f premise or support. Pgas M particular phenomenon. That sounds okay. Leave it in. Pgas M established fact. Oh, wait— was that an Let me look at the first sen- I want this combo: Pgas M assumption. First, j I want this combo: P j some people thought one thing, and later, new evidence led some doctors to conclude something else.
But the bold stu ff j! Pgas M an earlier conjecture. Oh, I see— tricky. The first half j I want this combo: P o f the sentence, the non-bold part, is the new conclusion. This isn't it after all! Digital Marketing: The correct answer is E. In order to websites and tools themselves.
SE opt learn on job over er. I need to articulate how Carlos responds to Sania. He doesn't say that she's wrong about the newest workers using social networking tools.
Rather, he says that digital marketers also need this other skill that takes a long time to learn on the job. I f that's the case, then this weakens Sania's claim that the newest workers are the most effective. SE opt learn on job over tant thing to consider.
SE opt learn on job over consider. SE opt learn on job over employers. This is exactly what Carlos does— a tional piece of evidence new piece o f information that hurts the S: SE opt learn on job over long time eff dig mktg 6. Innovative Design: Probably a premise. The second boldface is the conclusion; that gets a C. P C Step 3: The question asks me to determine the role played by each o f 2 boldface statements.
Fve decided the second one is the conclusion and the first is a premise supporting that conclusion, so I want to fin d an answer that gives this combo: P C premise, then conclusion. I don't think so. The first one actually supports the second! That second is that strategy.
Yes, that could be describing a premise particular strategy; the that supports a conclusion. Oh, but the second is a factor against j others copy, so COs charge second goes against the strategy?
The that strategy. Gray Wolf Population: Describe the Argument question. Government representative: The tween and , the gray Minnesota wolf population grew a GR: BUT Mon 8x Min; when j necessarily critical to survival. The GR concludes that the M in wolves are more likely to survive and thrive because the growth rate was a lot higher, but the E responded that the Mon population was already a lot larger, so growth might not have been necessary to keep the population thriving.
The Mon population might already have been stable in the first place. I need to fin d something that explains this is a more abstract way: The E does introduce a new figure, GR: An assumption is something that the author must believe to be true in order to draw a certain conclusion; however, the author does not state the assumption in the argument. For example, what is the author of the below argument assuming must be true? Amy got an A on the test. Therefore, Amy must have studied for a long time.
I for a long time. Note that the author is not just assuming that studying for a long time is one way to get an A on the test. The author concludes that Amy must have studied for a long time, so that is the only way. The diagram above represents the core o f the argument; we previously discussed the core in Chapter 1. The core consists of the conclusion and the main premise or premises that lead to that conclusion, as well as the assumption.
Chapter 4 Assumptions Assumptions fill a gap in the argument; the gap is represented by the arrow in the diagram above. If we insert a correct assumption into the argument, it makes the argument stronger: Studyingfor a long time is the only way to get an A. Any one assumption will not automatically make the argument air-tight, but it will make the conclusion more likely to be true.
Brainstorm some assumptions for this argument: Thomas's football team lost in the championship game last year. The same two teams are playing in the championship game again this year, and the players on Thomas's team have improved. The author is making multiple assumptions here. This brings us to a couple of important strategies for dealing with assumptions on the test. Therefore, Thomas's team will win the championship game this year.
Charles is a sculptor. Therefore, he does not work in a practical field. The first sentence offers a fact; the second offers a conclusion.
Those are the two halves of our core, but what is the gap in between? Sculpting is not practical. Sculpting is not just a hobby done in his spare time. He does not hold a different job in a practicalfield.
The author is making a number of assumptions here; three are shown in the diagram above. Chocolate is Prabha's favorite flavor of ice cream. Therefore, she also likes chocolate candy bars. The Acme Factory has developed a new manufacturing process that uses chemical Q, the residue of which is toxic to babies. In order to protect our children, we need to pass a law banning the use of this chemical. Answer Key for Drill: Brainstorm Assumptions The assumption is noted in italics below the arrow.
You may brainstorm different assumptions from the one shown. Other assumptions are acceptable as long as they represent something that M U ST be true in order to draw the given conclusion. The author assumes that it s not true that she likes chocolate only in the form of ice cream. I emp choose to max i prod! The author assumes a couple of things here.
So the author is assuming that this significant jump does, in fact, represent the maximum productivity. This author is assuming that this is N O T the case— that employees are N O T choosing to take vacation after what they know will be a busy time at work. Each type of question has its own key characteristics and goals, but there are some commonalities across all five types. There will be a conclusion, so we need to make sure to find it. The correct answer should make the argument stronger.
In addition, if the correct answer were not necessarily true, that would significantly harm the argument. Our task is to figure out which answer choice represents something that must hold true according to the author.
Note one especially tricky aspect of these problems: The only issue is whether the author must believe it to be true in order to arrive at his or her conclusion.
Perhaps Prabha really does like chocolate only in the form of ice cream. Here are a couple of examples: Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
When news periodicals begin forecasting a recession, people tend to spend less money on non-essential purchases. Did you come up with any other assumptions? The key is to get our brains thinking about these things, but there are almost always multiple possible assumptions; we may not be able to brainstorm the exact one that will show up in the answers. My core is: On FA questions, traps often involve going toofa r out o f scope the answer is not tied to the conclusion , using reverse logic the answer makes the argument weaker, not stronger , or making an irrelevant distinction or comparison.
A People do not always agree as to which goods should be considered luxury goods. B People are more likely to have read a news periodical recently because more and more periodicals are being published.
C Most people do not regularly read news periodicals. D The consumer perception of the threat of recession increases when news periodicals begin forecasting a recession.
E At least some of the biggest-spending consumers prior to the recession were among those who curtailed their spending after the recession began. Fm not so sure published. You don't absolutely have to believe that in order to draw that conclusion. T il keep it in for now, but maybe I '11fin d something better. I can cross ojfB now. This one sounds good, too. The Negation Technique On harder questions, we might find ourselves stuck between two answer choices. What can we do to distinguish between tempting wrong answers and the right answer?
We can try the Negation technique. On Find the Assumption questions, the correct answer will be something that the author must believe to be true in order to draw his or her conclusion. How do we do this?
Recall the argument itself: What if answer choice B were N O T true? It would say something like: Not really. The number of periodicals being published is irrelevant to the argument. Try negating answer D: On many FA questions, a trap answer will go too far out of scope: Answer A in the above problem is a good example. The issue is not whether different people would agree to classify the same item as a luxury good.
Rather, the conclusion is about what causes someone to spend less money on anything that that individual believes to be a luxury good. Trap answers can also use reverse logic, which we see in answer choice C. Answer E is an example of another trap: The argument does not hinge upon whether the highest-spending consumers do something different from the rest.
Rather, all consumers are lumped together in the argument. Correct answers will represent something that the author must believe to be true in order to draw his or her conclusion. If we get stuck between two answers, we can try the Negation technique: Out of Scope: At heart, we are asked what additional information would help us to try to determine whether the assumption is valid or invalid.
Most Evaluate question stems will contain one of the following: In order to increase its profits, MillCo plans to reduce costs by laying off any non- essential employees. According to the argument: MillCo will lay off non-essential employees reduce costs increase profits Does that sound like a good plan? What is MillCo assuming in claiming that laying off non-essential employees will result in increased profits?
Profits are a measure of revenues minus costs so, for one thing, MillCo is assuming that revenues wont drop a lot as a result of these layoffs. A correct answer might read: There are two possible paths to examine, yes or no: What if we had this answer choice? Whether MillCo might reduce its costs by eliminating some health insurance benefits.
Yes, MillCo can reduce costs by eliminating some health benefits. How will this affect the given plan to lay off employees? No, MillCo cannot reduce costs by eliminating some health benefits.
This incorrect answer choice is trying to distract us by offering a different way to increase profits In order to preserve the health of its local economy, Metropolis should not permit a CostMart warehouse department store to open within city limits.
It has been demonstrated that when CostMart opens a warehouse department store within a city, the bankruptcy rate of local retailers increases in that city by twenty percent over the next several years. A Does the bankruptcy rate of local retailers in a city generally stabilize several years after a CostMart warehouse department store opens?
B Do most residents of Metropolis currently do almost all of their shopping at stores within the city limits of Metropolis? C Have other cities that have permitted CostMart warehouse department stores within city limits experienced any economic benefits as a result?
E Does CostMart plan to hire employees exclusively from within Metropolis for the proposed warehouse department store? Deconstruct the argument i Editorial: This is a premise, so the previous sentence was the conclusion.
Either a CostMart warehouse if new CM store bnkrpt way, there is a bad resultfor at least a few department store opens? I'm not sure what this has to Metropolis currently do do with the conclusion. I f no, then C it is. How do they get us to pick wrong answers on Evaluate questions? Answer E presented us with something that seemed like a benefit at first, until we realized that we had to make an additional assumption in order to know that we definitely had a benefit.
Irrelevant Distinction or Comparison: In the above problem, Answer D does discuss something mentioned by the argument— bankruptcy— but tries to compare a no-CostMart-in-Metropolis scenario with a CostMart-in-other-cities scenario, both of which are not the scenario we want to discuss: Takeaways for Evaluate Questions As always, we use the question stem to identify the question type.
Flaw Weaken Look for this first: Pierre was recovering from the flu when he visited Shelley last week, and now Shelley is showing signs of the flu. If Pierre had waited until he was no longer contagious, Shelley would not have become ill. The author is assuming that Pierre was the one to infect Shelley.
The author is also assuming that there is no other way Shelley could have gotten sick. Perhaps it is flu season, and many people with whom Shelley comes in contact have the flu! The correct answer might be something like: The author fails to consider that there are alternate paths by which Shelley could have become infected. Contrast that language with the assumption itself: Assumption Flaw Only Pierre could have infected Shelley.
The argument is made stronger. The argument is made weaker. The answer still hinges on an assumption, but the correct answer will word that assumption in a way that hurts the argument. In addition, the answer choice language may be a bit more abstract than the answer choices we see on other Assumption Family questions. Bando Inc's manufacturing process releases pollution into the atmosphere. Because Bando sells more light bulbs than any other product, a boycott of light bulbs will cause the most damage to the company's profits.
Deconstruct the argument Environmentalist: They think i f they E: So they're going to est sales volume, light bulbs. Because they sell bulbs than any other product, a more LBs than anything else, E: AMP profits. Long one. Okay, E doesn't like that B pollutes. I need to fin d an answer that will articulate a flaw in that reasoning.
Another might be that consumers might not actually agree to boycott B. It's a little abstract, so I'm not sure E: It'd be good in tive methods by which to generalfor E to do this B MP atmo poll its purpose long it takes. B sells T LBs boyc t damage to prof Common Trap Answers The most common trap on Flaw questions involves making an irrelevant distinction or comparison: Check your answer after each question.
As you improve, consider timing yourself; critical reasoning questions need to be completed in an average of 2 minutes. Exposure to MTC can cause people to develop asthma. In order to halve the nation's asthma rate, the government plans to ban all products containing MTC.
The government's plan to halve the nation's asthma rate relies on which of the fol lowing assumptions? A Exposure to MTC is responsible for no less than half of the nation's asthma cases. C Asthma has reached epidemic proportions. D Exercise and proper nutrition are helpful in maintaining respiratory health.
E Dust mites and pet dander can also cause asthma. With the new tuition increases, these colleges will soon cater solely to students with affluent family backgrounds.
Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the argument? Charity Studies show that impoverished families give away a larger percentage of their income in charitable donations than do wealthy families.
Which of the following best explains why the consultants' reasoning is flawed? A Marketing efforts are only one way to solicit charitable donations. B Not all impoverished families donate to charity. D Percentage of income is not necessarily indicative of absolute dollar value. E People are more likely to donate to the same causes to which their friends donate. Oil and Ethanol Country N's oil production is not sufficient to meet its domestic demand.
Combined with its oil production, Country N produces enough ethanol from agricultural by-products to meet its current demand for energy. Which of the following must be assumed in order to conclude that Country N will succeed in its plan to reduce its dependence on foreign oil? A Electric power is not a superior alternative to ethanol in supplementing automobile gasoline consumption.
B In Country N, domestic production of ethanol is increasing more quickly than domestic oil production. C Ethanol is suitable for the heating of homes and other applications aside from automobiles. D In Country N, gasoline consumption is not increasing at a substantially higher rate than domestic oil and ethanol production.
E Ethanol is as efficient as gasoline in terms of mileage per gallon when used as fuel for automobiles. Exchange Student Student Advisor: One of our exchange students faced multiple arguments with her parents over the course of the past year.
Not surprisingly, her grade point average GPA over the same period showed a steep decline. This is just one example of a general truth: The claim by the Student Advisor would be more properly drawn if which of the following were inserted into the argument as an additional premise?
B The decline in the GPA of the exchange student was not the reason for the student's arguments with her parents. C School GPA is an accurate measure of a student's intellectual ability.
E Fluctuations in academic performance are typical for many students. Food Allergies Food allergies account for more than thirty thousand emergency department visits each year. Often, victims of these episodes are completely unaware of their allergies until they experience a major reaction.
Studies show that ninety percent of food allergy reactions are caused by only eight distinct foods. Which of the following must be studied in order to evaluate the recommendation made in the argument? The two programs now have a roughly equal number of viewers. Clearly, the recent programming changes persuaded viewers to switch from World News to Nighttime News.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed? Viewers are more interested in sports and weather than in personal interest stories. The programming content of Nighttime News is more closely aligned with the interests of the overall audience than is the content of World News.
D There are other possible causes for an increase in the number of viewers of Nighttime News, including a recent ad campaign that aired on many local affiliates. Five-Step Process Manager: Under the new process, far fewer of the components will be found defective, and the sole purpose of steps two and three under the old process is to weed out defective components.
As a result, we should be able to eliminate two of the five steps in the existing manufacturing process. Which of the following would be most useful in evaluating the claim made in the argument?
Therefore, in order to decrease the annual number of mammogram tests administered across a population and to more accurately assess a woman's individual risk of breast cancer, all women should be tested for these genes.
A Some of the women who are tested for the two genes will subsequently undergo mammograms on a less frequent basis than they used to. B The majority of breast cancer patients have no family history of the disease. C Researchers may have identified a third breast cancer gene that is linked with hereditary breast cancer. D Women who have these genes have an 80 percent chance of getting breast cancer, while women who do not have these genes have only a 10 percent chance of getting breast cancer.
This is likely a premise. Are a lot o f people exposed now? What percentage o f those who develop asthma were exposed? I need to fin d an answer that supports the idea that they can halve the asthma rate— maybe that a very large percentage o f people who develop asthma were exposed to M T C or something like that. Let's see. This one looks rate pretty good. Plus it rate says nothing about whether M T C is the cause. Nothing about how or whether dander can also asthma.
Another fact. With the new tuition increases, Ev A B C D E This must be the conclusion these colleges will soon cater because the other two werefacts. This is an Evaluate question, so I need to fin d an answer that will help to determine whether or not the conclusion is likely to be valid. The conclusion is that only wealthy students are going to be able to go to these EPCs. What is the author as- suming? Absolutely none o f the low or middle income students can afford these schools.
A very rich person might tions. Forfla w questions, it's important to fin d the conclusion and brainstorm any assumptions, i f I can. I need to fin d an answer that hurts the argument or shows why the argument is not a good argument. In this case, the PCs are recommending that the charities target lower income families in order to maximize the number o f dollars they get in donations.
I've identified one potential assumption: I f that's not actually the case, then that's a flaw. That rich tions. It doesn't. What was the conclusion again? Tricky, but not correct. This indicates the flaw ed assumption made by the PCs.
Rather, the argument talks rich their friends donate. Oil and Ethanol: It barked on a program requiring N req cars eth I for. A nd what i f demand changes in future? Country N thinks it can asharply reduce" the amount o f foreign oil it needs i f it starts making people have cars that use ethanol.
Will the plan really work that way? They're assuming people really will start to use the ethanol. They're also assuming they'll continue to produce enough oil and ethanol in the future. I need to fin d an answer that must be true in order to allow the author to draw the above conclusion. That seems out o f scope. The aside from automobiles. N req cars eth 4 for.
So, yes, substantially higher rate N req cars eth I for. Let's try negating this one: Oh, they might have to get morefrom foreign sources— bingo! Exchange Student: They're asking me Advisor would be more properly to fin d the answer that can be "inserted drawn if which of the following into the argument as a premise.
Student Advisor: I need to fin d an answer that the author must believe to be true in order to draw this conclusion. The only thing I can think o f right now is very general: This answer hurts that claim. The SA's argument would fa ll apart. This one looks good. Either it's accurate or accurate measure of a inaccurate. Regardless, it used to be higher SA: GPA 44 have been arguing about something.
I f it academic performance GPA 44 doesn't support that idea, it can't possibly be may become irreversible. I f it students. Food Allergies: That assumes that we'll food allergy is present. In this case, the author recommends that we all try tiny bits o f these 8 foods to see whether we're allergic. The authors assuming that we can tell whether we're allergicfrom trying just a tiny bit— and also that we won't die by trying a small amount i f we are allergic.
In general, knowing the exact to see if FA percentage doesn't change anything. I f yes, a very small amount of j then the authors plan will work: News War: In News attracted fewer viewers the past, W N got more viewers. Nighttime News added personal past: So far, all past: The author is claim- ming changes persuaded viewers ; ing that the new programming past: The author is claiming specifically that people switchedfrom W N to N N — but there's no evidencefor that. The author is assuming that, i f N N 's numbers went up, then WN's numbers went down and that those people switched to N N and didn't start watching something else or turn o ff their TVs entirely!
The author's also assuming that the reason for the switch was NN's new programming and not something else. I need to fin d an answer that represents something the author must believe to be true. N N added all 3 o f these things. Does interested in sports and the author need to assume that two are more past: N o— it doesn't mat- sonal interest stories. N N 4- pers, sp, weath ter as long as the programming in general now: That past: In particular, it says that some W N past: That also looks really good.
Leave it they liked the World now: News programming. Wait a second. N N content is not more closely aligned rec: Maybe they're about the same? That doesn't really now: Negating this definitely hurts the argument. C it is! Five-Step Process: Deconstruct the argument, Manager: It could be the ing process should save us time conclusion— I'll have to keep M: I f the other things are all M: The manager is claiming that the new process will befaster than the old process.
I f dropping the second and third steps saves even more time than is lost during the first step, then the manager might be right I f they dont, I M: I f the new so elim 2 steps for NMP process does not introduce new imperfections that need to befixed, then that increases the likelihood that the new process will save time. I f defective M: New MP faster but SI manufacturing process ment's conclusion is solely about saving time.
The author claims that, i f women are all testedfor these genes, two things will happen: I need to fin d an answer that the author must believe to be true in drawing this conclusion. That might have something to do with the number o f Ms or with assessing risk. Actually, I think so.
It seems like the of the disease. Also, someone can have a gene and not develop BC, so maybe that's why there's no family history. Not with those specific numbers, women who do not have sess risk actually. To recap briefly: Strengthen the Conclusion and Weaken the Conclusion.
The Basics Both Strengthen and Weaken questions ask us to find a new piece of information that, if added to the existing argument, will make the conclusion either somewhat more likely to be true Strengthen or somewhat less likely to be true Weaken. The fact that this information is new, or goes beyond what we already know from the argument, is the major difference between Strengthen and Weaken questions and the three question types we examined in the last chapter.
In the case of a Strengthen, the new piece of info will serve as evidence that some assumption is actually valid. In the case of a Weaken, the new piece of info will knock down some assumption: How does that work? For example: The star quarterback on the defending champion team will miss the game due to an injury.
Similarly, a Weaken answer provides us with some new piece of information that does not have to be true but, i f true, does make the conclusion a bit less likely to be valid. The players on the defending champion team train more than the players on any other team. Finally, there are three possible ways that an answer choice could affect the conclusion on both Strengthen and Weaken questions: Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the mayor's claim? Shortly before the employees quit, QuestCorp lost its largest client Clearly, the employees were no longer confident in QuestCorp's long-term viability.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the claim that concerns about QuestCorp's viability caused the employees to quit? A Employees at QuestCorp's main competitor recently received a large and well-publicized raise. C Many prospective hires who have interviewed with QuestCorp ultimately accepted jobs with other companies. The question stem indicates that this is a strengthen question. Our core might look similar to this: Whichever path works best for you is fine.
The author claims that, because the company lost its largest client, some employees lost confidence in the company, so they quit. The author assumes that losing that client will be a significant blow to the company.
What i f the company has many clients and the largest client only represented a very small fraction o f the business? The author also assumes there aren't other reasons why employees would have quit. This is a strengthen question, so I have to fin d some evidence that actually does support the claim that people quit specifically because they lost confidence in the company after it lost its largest client. I f anything, this actually weakens the conclusion; I want a strengthen answer.
Prospective hires" are not employ- hires who have inter- , , ees. I was asked to strengthen the part about lost client, ppl quit viewed with QuestCorp employees losing confidence in QC.
Maybe QC rejected them! Answer choice A represents one common trap on Strengthen questions: That is, it weakens the conclusion rather than strengthening it. Answer choice C represents another common trap: Donut Chain, wishing to increase the profitability of its new store, will place a coupon in the local newspaper offering a free donut with a cup of coffee at its grand opening.
Donut Chain calculates that the cost of the advertisement and the free donuts will be more than recouped by the new business generated through the promotion. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the prediction that Donut Chain's promotion will increase the new store's profitability?
A Donut Chain has a loyal following in much of the country. B Donut Chain has found that the vast majority of new visitors to its stores become regular customers. C One donut at Donut Chain costs less than a cup of coffee. E Donut Chain's stores are generally very profitable.
Also, the profitability? The author is assuming that giving away a free donut once will lead to increased revenues over time what i f they never come back? State the Goal, I need to strengthen the claim that a particular plan is going to lead to increasedprofitability. The plan is to distribute coupons to give away free donuts. I need to fin d an answer that makes it a little more likely that this plan will lead to more profits. Does that mean it will n loyal following in much increase profitability though?
This doesn't address the conclusion. This choice looks tempting atfirst, but it doesn't address whether this plan will increase profitability. We saw an example of this with answer choice D in the last problem.
These can be especially tricky if we misread the conclusion or otherwise get turned around while evaluating the argument. Most of the wrong answers will have No Tie to the Conclusion— they will neither strengthen nor weaken the conclusion. Some of these will be more obviously wrong, but these answers can also be quite tricky. A No Tie trap might address something in a premise without actually affecting the conclusion, for example, as we saw with answer choice E in the last problem.