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Elasticity of demand pdf

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General Economics: Law of Demand and. Elasticity of Demand. 2. Demand. Willing to. Purchase at. Various Prices during Period of. Time. Able to Purchase. What is elasticity? What kinds of issues can elasticity help us understand? • What is the price elasticity of demand? How is it related to the demand curve?. demand and the income elasticity of demand. ◇Define, calculate, and explain the price elasticity of supply. ◇Factors that influence the price elasticity of.


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If the formula creates a number greater than 1, the demand is elastic. In other words, quantity changes faster than price. If the number is less than 1, de- mand is. Price elasticity of demand. A measure of the extent to which the quantity demanded of a good changes when the price of the good changes. To determine the. Demand is ELASTIC. – when the price elasticity (ignoring the negative sign) is greater than – i.e. when the % change in quantity demanded exceeds the.

If demand suddenly falls—supply remaining fixed—prices will fall, and, if demand suddenly rises, prices will rise as output cannot be increased. Suppose price declines rises. Let the price of gold per gm decline from Rs. Table 1. After reading this article you will learn about: The demand curve then looks like a rectangular hyperbola since the area of all the rectangles formed by the demand curve is always the same.

Demand was inelastic between points A and B and elastic between points G and H. This shows us that price elasticity of demand changes at different points along a straight-line demand curve.

By what percentage does apartment supply increase? What is the price sensitivity? Again, as with the elasticity of demand, the elasticity of supply is not followed by any units.

Elasticity is a ratio of one percentage change to another percentage change—nothing more—and is read as an absolute value. The greater than one elasticity of supply means that the percentage change in quantity supplied will be greater than a one percent price change. It is a common mistake to confuse the slope of either the supply or demand curve with its elasticity. The price elasticity, however, changes along the curve. Elasticity between points A and B was 0. Elasticity is the percentage change, which is a different calculation from the slope and has a different meaning.

When we are at the upper end of a demand curve, where price is high and the quantity demanded is low, a small change in the quantity demanded, even in, say, one unit, is pretty big in percentage terms. A change in price of, say, a dollar, is going to be much less important in percentage terms than it would have been at the bottom of the demand curve. Likewise, at the bottom of the demand curve, that one unit change when the quantity demanded is high will be small as a percentage.

So, at one end of the demand curve, where we have a large percentage change in quantity demanded over a small percentage change in price, the elasticity value would be high, or demand would be relatively elastic.

Even with the same change in the price and the same change in the quantity demanded, at the other end of the demand curve the quantity is much higher, and the price is much lower, so the percentage change in quantity demanded is smaller and the percentage change in price is much higher.

Price elasticity measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded or supplied of a good to a change in its price. It is computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded or supplied divided by the percentage change in price. Elasticity can be described as elastic or very responsive , unit elastic, or inelastic not very responsive. Elastic demand or supply curves indicate that quantity demanded or supplied respond to price changes in a greater than proportional manner.

An inelastic demand or supply curve is one where a given percentage change in price will cause a smaller percentage change in quantity demanded or supplied. A unitary elasticity means that a given percentage change in price leads to an equal percentage change in quantity demanded or supplied. The demand curve is inelastic in this area; that is, its elasticity value is less than one. The demand curve is elastic in this interval. The supply curve is elastic in this area; that is, its elasticity value is greater than one.

The supply curve is inelastic in this region of the supply curve. Introduction to Elasticity Next: Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter 5. Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to:.

Calculate the price elasticity of demand Calculate the price elasticity of supply. Finding the Price Elasticity of Demand Calculate the price elasticity of demand using the data in Figure 1 for an increase in price from G to H.

Step 1. We know that: Is the elasticity the slope? Self-Check Questions From the data shown in Table 2 about demand for smart phones, calculate the price elasticity of demand from: Classify the elasticity at each point as elastic, inelastic, or unit elastic.

From the data shown in Table 3 about supply of alarm clocks, calculate the price elasticity of supply from: Review Questions What is the formula for calculating elasticity? What is the price elasticity of demand? Can you explain it in your own words? What is the price elasticity of supply?

Price Elasticity of Demand and Price Elasticity of Supply – Principles of Economics

Critical Thinking Questions Transatlantic air travel in business class has an estimated elasticity of demand of 0. Hence, demand is inelastic. Irrespective of variations in demand and price, if the total outlay does not change, then demand is unit elastic i.

The demand curve then looks like a rectangular hyperbola since the area of all the rectangles formed by the demand curve is always the same. In this case, at a particular price, any amount is demanded.

More revenue is earned at OA 1 than at OA, although price is kept fixed. The vertical straight line demand curve says that, whatever the price, quantity demanded remains the same.

The relationship between elasticity and total outlay can also be explained in terms of Fig. Here ABCD is the total outlay curve. As total outlay remains invariant when price changes in the region BC, demand is unitary elastic.

When the change in price is infinitesimally small, Marshallian method may not provide accurate estimate of elasticity of demand. In that case, a geometrical method may be employed. This method aims at measuring elasticity of demand at a particular point on a demand curve. So long, we tried to calculate the elasticity over certain area or segment of a demand curve and the terms elastic, inelastic and unit elastic had been applied to the whole demand curve.

However, such is not true. It may happen that the demand for a product can be elastic in one price range and inelastic in another. In fact, the degree of elasticity varies from one price range to another.

So, it is better to calculate elasticity at a particular point on a demand curve to have an accurate estimate. This is explained in terms of Fig. Demand curve is DD 1. Points E and H are very close to each other.

Pdf elasticity of demand

On the basis of this method of measurement, one can estimate elasticity of demand on a linear demand curve, shown in Fig. Here, DD 1 is a linear demand curve. Elasticity of demand varies from point to point on a demand curve. As the distance between PD 1 and PD is the same, it is unit elastic i. As we move downwards along the curve DD 1 from the mid-point, say point P 2 , elasticity declines.

5.1 Price Elasticity of Demand and Price Elasticity of Supply

At P 2 it is, inelastic i. Further, as we move upwards from the mid-point, elasticity increases. At P 1 , it is elastic i. Thus, at lower prices it is inelastic, and at higher prices it is elastic. For very small movements in price and quantity, point elasticity method is an appropriate one. In other words, point elasticity method measures price elasticity of demand at a particular point on the demand curve. However, if price change is somewhat of a larger magnitude then geometrical method may give misleading estimate.

To avoid this problem, elasticity is measured over an arc of the demand curve. In other words, when we intend to estimate price elasticity of demand over some portion i.

Pdf demand elasticity of

Sometimes we know two prices and two quantities. Under the circumstance, the point elasticity method may not provide good estimate. What is required in this case is the average elasticity of two prices and two quantities. Here changes in both price and quantity are much larger.

Using old price P 1 and old quantity Q 1 , one finds the value of elasticity of demand as: When new price P 2 and new quantity Q 2 are taken into account, the coefficient becomes. Thus, estimation of elasticity in accordance with the formula for point elasticity method gives vastly different results. In other words, since elasticity of demand varies depending on the base, one should consider average price and average quantity demanded to calculate elasticity of demand.

That is to say, we want to measure average elasticity over an arc of the demand curve i. In terms of Fig. In other words, we want to measure elasticity between points A and B. The above formula measures arc elasticity over the straight line AB. Greater the convexity of the demand curve between A and B, one obtains almost perfect estimate of elasticity.

Or greater the concavity of the demand curve between points A and B, the poorer the approximation of measurement of arc elasticity.

Pdf elasticity of demand

As we go on making the price change smaller and smaller, the arc of the demand curve may vanish or converge to a point. So, as a special case of arc elasticity, the concept of point elasticity becomes relevant. In the first place, it depends on the nature of the commodity. Commodities which are supposed to be essential or critical to our daily lives must have an inelastic demand, since price change of these items does not bring about a greater change in quantity demanded.

But, luxury goods have an elastic demand. Demand for these good can be quickly reduced when their prices rise. When their prices fall, consumers demand these goods in larger quantities. However, whether a particular commodity is a necessary or a luxury depends on income, tastes and preferences of the consumer.

A particular good may be necessary to someone having an inelastic demand. Same commodity may be elastic to another consumer. For instance, owning a TV may be a luxury item to a low income person. But the same may be bought as an essential item by a rich person. Secondly, commodities having large number of substitutes must have an elastic demand.

A change in the price of, say, Horlicks—the prices of other substitutes remaining constant—will lead a consumer to substitute one beverage for another. If the price of Horlicks goes down, buyers will demand more of it and less of its substitutes.

Conversely, demand is fairly inelastic in the case of those commodities which do not have a large number of substitutes. Thirdly, there are some commodities which can be used for a variety of purposes. For example, electricity. If price per unit of electricity consumed falls, people will reduce their consumption of its substitutes e. Coefficient of price elasticity of demand in this case must be greater than one. On the other hand, when a commodity is used only for one or two purposes, a price change will have less effect on its quantity demanded and, therefore, demand will be inelastic.

Fourthly, there are some commodities consumed out of habits and conventions— they have an elastic demand.

Study Notes on Elasticity of Demand: Concept, Types and Importance

Even in the face of rising prices of those commodities or falling income, people will consume those such as, cigarette. For this reason, price elasticity as well as income elasticity of demand for this type of commodity is inelastic. When gold is used in this way, its demand becomes inelastic. Fifthly, shorter the time, lower will be the elasticity of demand.

This is because in the short run satisfactory substitutes of a product may not be available. Thus, demand for a product in the short run usually becomes inelastic.

Such a commodity will be elastic in the long run when close substitutes may be produced. Thus, the response of quantity demanded to a change in price will tend to be greater smaller , the longer shorter the time-span considered.

In the long run, there is enough time for adjustments to be made following a change in price. Sixthly, people often pay little attention to the price of a product if it constitutes a relatively small part in their budget. For example, if the fire of railway ticket of a tourist who travels by rail once in a year is increased form Rs.

This means he is unresponsive to such price hike and his demand is inelastic. If the price of these goods rises, people will spend less on these goods. On the other hand, following a fall in the price of durable commodities e. In the case of non-durable commodities, demand is elastic. Use of the concept of elasticity of demand is required in the price determination of a commodity under different market conditions.

Under perfect competition, in the short run in which supply is absolutely inelastic price depends upon the elasticity of demand.

If demand suddenly falls—supply remaining fixed—prices will fall, and, if demand suddenly rises, prices will rise as output cannot be increased.

Again, the stability of prices also depends on the elasticity of demand and elasticity of supply. If either the demand or the supply is elastic, fluctuations in prices will be within narrow limits. Further, if the demand for an agricultural commodity is inelastic, increased production may spell disaster to the economic condition of farmers.