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Bruno Munari and the invention of modern graphic design in Italy, – This research examines Bruno Munari's work as a graphic designer from the late. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. PDF | On Jul 17, , Marnie Campagnaro and others published Chapter 8. Bruno Munari's visual mapping of the city of Milan: Landscapes.


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Bruno Munari Das Coisas Nascem Coisas pdf. Luiza Vidal. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking. Home · Bruno Munari - Design e Comunicação Visual. Bruno Munari - Design e Comunicação Visual. January 21, | Author: Isabele Cristine | Category: N/A . Bruno Munari - Fantasia. September 2, | Author: chica_dasilva92 | Category : N/A. DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link.

For roadsigns we use only red. Figure 2. In an upright tower the groove would be somewhere between the middle of each step and the inner edge. Available on the market are containers with dozens of pills. Then perhaps these children happen to see an exhibition of modern sculpture. If you go to an art exhibition today you may see very simple objects that are so huge that they fill the whole room.

Designerly way of thinking aims at originality and uniqueness.

Design as Art (Bruno Munari)

Today the need for innovation has become more evident than ever. The main purpose of the paper is to explore and to identify the relationship between creativity, innovation and design related to design education. Bruno Munari Milano, as a designer and a design educator, is one of the prominent names reflecting innovation and creativity in the history of Italian Design.

His innovative contribution to Italian Design is reinforced by his experimental design educator background in research for creativity. Design thinking; design education; Bruno Munari; innovation; basic design; experiential learning.

Introduction Design as a term captures various fields such as; graphic, communication, fashion, engineering, architecture and product design. For each of the fields, the term performs a different content. Within the framework of this paper, the word, design refers mainly to the discipline of industrial product design.

Design is defined as the conscious decision making process by which information an idea is transformed into an outcome, be it tangible product or intangible service Von Stamm, Innovation however is mainly related to technology, innovative thinking keeps a closer link to the design discipline.

With the recognition of the increasing importance of innovation mainly for economic success, more attention is drawn towards the research to innovate. Today the core of the process of designing results as a core strategic tool for management and innovation. Being a part of a whole creative process, designers are considered to be tolerant of ambiguity, ask questions, see possibilities, be divergent thinkers, risk takers and perceive the world differently Von Stamm, Since innovation is associated with accepting high levels of ambiguity and uncertainty, original thinking, passion to drive the idea through to conclusion, willingness to take risk and the ability to inspire others, the overlapping characteristics of both of the fields warrant the bare link.

Since when the input of design in business as an economic value has gained attention, the two fields both in professional and educational ground have come closer to establish new models for innovation. With reference to a recent research made on the teaching of innovation within the Product Design and Development education programmes in the US Fixson, , we see that majority of the design education programmes aim at educating inventors rather than conventional professional experts using educational methods less traditional, more explorative in nature and collaborative in style.

Innovation is not a one time action or activity; it is a mindset therefore the educational system that leads to nurture innovative mindset needs to be explored.

From this contemporary context, the situation offers a new vision towards design education. As innovative approach gains importance, we see the main problem arising as; can innovation be taught? The evidence of the bare relationship between creativity, design and innovation needs to be underlined. Design education creates a mindset, a way of seeing and thinking. It is a process with a series of experiential exercises. The aim of the paper is to set out and to explore the inter-relations between innovation-creativity-design and design education.

To be able to draw attention to this process, the purpose is to analyze the experiential creation methods of Bruno Munari as a reference case study. In the first part of the paper will focus on the structure of design education with its interrelations in art. The learning model and the methods will be briefly set out. Then the second part of the paper will capture the analysis of the case of Bruno Munari; his methods towards art and design education, his works as examples of innovation, and his contribution in research of sustaining the relationship of creative education through experiential and experimental approaches.

Art and design education: Creative production; be it an art piece or a product, is a research process seeking a diverse way of seeing, interpreting or communicating. Creative mind does not always have an innate characteristic. Everyone can have the capacity to think creatively. But the artistic background due to art education focuses on creativity that makes the field a unique creative resource.

As the learning experience gets more concrete towards the base of the cone, the learning outcomes such as; analyzing, designing, creating, evaluating demonstrate more permanent characteristics.

The learner participates actively and the outcome is a concrete process: As the sources of creative activity are thinking, looking, doing Read, ; the link between experiential learning and creativity becomes more evident. Design elements used within the basic design syllabus are: Of all educational approaches, experiential learning methods offer the greatest hope for learning which is genuinely, personally meaningful.

And of all curriculum areas, it is surely art and design in which such methods sit most closely with its own goals and values Salmon, Design education: Munari Within the system of education we can draw that; designing is an action that is driven by the combination of aesthetic instincts and scientific instincts. Design education has adopted itself to the changing function of design throughout history due to the changing consumption, production and competitiveness patterns.

At the beginning of the century and especially during the post war period, design gained importance as an aesthetic element on objects. As the function shifted from pleasure to differentiation, the concern and the content of the design problem has been diversified. Product design and development is an inherently creative act: Research on product innovation indicates that high-performing firms make extensive use of experimentation.

Munari pdf bruno

The structure of design education is project based. After problem definition, experiential hand-on work is performed as a tacit learning process in a cooperation of the students and the instructor.

Bauhaus, being the first official design school, set the characteristics of the design education over the last century. The base of creative production is stressed with production. As the founder of the first design school, Walter Gropius states: It is the prime source of all creative work. Product design is related to constructive education as crafts; it is related to thought Read, Bruno Munari: Munari 2.

Munari was born in and died in in Milan, Italy. He has been very productive till his late ages. It is quiet complicated to sum-up his life-time production as artist, painter, sculptor, designer, illustrator, graphic designer, photographer, movie maker, writer, poet and educator.

At a very early age, he began his artistic work in the cultural area of Futurism under the influence of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, the father of the Italian avant-garde movement.

Soon he moves away from the influence of Futurism to explore new fields within an extremely personal and singular research on the border of art, design and visual communication. After World War II, he began to get involved in the field of industrial products, lay-outs and prototypes for many important companies and started to investigate the field of education concerning children.

He published his first books for children. His collaboration as an art director with important companies like Olivetti, helped him to gain prominence in Italy and internationally. In the following years, he continued his researches and he started teaching a course in visual communication at Harvard University in His contribution to Italian Design can be observed well in the field of industrial design, during the period from to During these years, Munari designed various furniture and furnishing accessories like tables, chairs, bookcases, lamps, ashtrays, trolleys.

In the last years of his career, he was mostly involved in visual communication and artistic education, organizing and taking an active role in lectures, courses, seminars and workshops for children, teachers and adults as well. He collaborated with schools, institutions and museums all over the world, such as Venezuela, Israel, Spain, US, France, and especially Japan. Throughout his career, he received many international awards.

Design e Comunicação Visual - Bruno Munari.pdf

Some of the most important can be listed as: Compasso d'Oro, an important Italian design award which he received three times, the Honorable Mention from the New York Academy of Sciences, an award from the Japan Design Foundation for the intensely human value of his creations, and the Andersen Award for being the best author of children's books. Munari as an artist, designer and educator His approach towards art and design is characterized by a great sense of humor, which can be traced since the beginning of his activities.

Munari used a pedagogic method that inquires the development of creative processes in children, through learning, playing and having fun. After World War II, he launched the experiential, interactive books called the I Prelibri or the Books before Books, which were made to deconstruct the concept of a book. They were pre-reading experiences for children who haven't been taught to read yet, giving them the possibility to explore a book sometimes with only colored or blank pages, or with different materials and shapes.

Exploring these special books, page by page, the child could enjoy a book interacting through the five senses. He designed approximately forty illustrated books that are still in edition and translated in several languages. His artistic production aimed a criticism.

He charged the designer with a mission to re-establish the contact between art and the public, in his words; between living people and art as living Munari, Bruno Munari as a designer was able to move the design practice into the field of art or, better, to move the industrial process towards art, where he was able to give a more artistic touch to his design products.

The creation of the lamp was a study of a spontaneous form which was achieved by an artificial material used for stockings. He described the formal components of the lamp as; the elasticity of the material used, the tension provided by metal rings of various sizes and the weight Munari, Figure 1. So we used to have sewing-machines built by engineers and then decorated by an artist in gold and mother-of-pearl.

The designer is therefore the artist of today.

Industrial design is concerned with functional objects. He does not smother his object with his own personal taste but tries to be objective. And finally because he responds to the human needs of his time. The definition of art that has caused so much confusion in recent times. It is therefore a question of coherence. It is planning done without preconceived notions of style. Research design is concerned with experiments of both plastic and visual structures in two or more dimensions.

What we call design. What then is this thing called Design if it is neither style nor applied art? It is planning: This atmosphere is created by all the objects produced by industry.

The distinction between pure art. Graphic design works in the world of the Press. An object should now be judged by whether it has a form consistent with its use. Around the person of the Artistic Genius there circulated other and lesser geniuses who absorbed the Pure Forms and the Style of the Master and attempted to give these some currency by applying them to objects of everyday use. At all events.

They design a Surrealist television set. It therefore comes about that in France they make lamps inspired by abstract forms without bearing in mind that a lamp must give light. Pure and Applied Once upon a time there was pure art and applied art I prefer to use these terms. It tries out the possibilities of combining two or more dimensions. This led to the making of objects in this style or that style. So all this talk about sober harmony.

Just as there are dead languages. An exact project produces a beautiful object. A thing is not beautiful because it is beautiful. It is most unlikely that the public would understand. But seeing the things behind the names will help us to understand the structure of the world we live in. When they saw it they ran to watch the blacksmith hammering the glowing iron on his anvil. It is a well-known fact that to get a message across we can use not only words. Good language will help us to communicate with one another about the realities of our environment.

Just as there are words which belong to other ages. You will see that every age has had its ideal Venus or Apollo. To children in it meant a lot: Beauty as conceived of in the fine arts.

If you want to know something else about beauty.

Imagine the pungent stench of the hot iron. They used to put pink and yellow side by side. Then they would make unexpected leaps from one shade to another. The colours used for furnishings did not differ much from those for clothes or carriages. Looking into the past we find certain periods dominated by certain colours and forms: At some times in the past a certain series of colours. But today different colours have different uses.

And so on down to our own times. For roadsigns we use only red. In printing we use the dull four-colour system which reduces all colours to a norm. We can point out similar changes in the colours used for visual communication. We can imagine it for fun. At that time they used some really refined combinations of colour.

In advertising we use bright brash colours or very refined ones according to our purpose. We are surrounded by countless visual stimuli. A double-bend sign in the style of Louis XIV. And we have forms that are beautiful and exact because they are true forms: In the past. We have machines that enable us to see music and sounds in the form of luminous waves.

As the speed and volume of traffic increases. All over the world psychologists. They had heraldic arms instead. We have a host of machines exploring for us what we cannot see with the naked eye. Almost without realizing it we arrange these images in order.

It is no longer possible to confine oneself to local tastes. Reading them is a matter of conditioning. These are forms we see every day. Now we can even see the invisible. But at first glance you were certain of one thing only. Another point is the speed at which signs can be read. Then you become aware of the material it is made of.

Visual language changes according to the needs of the day. This apparently insignificant fact is the subject of careful study today. A Rose is a Rose is a And then you go up to it and see. We have already made a catalogue of stimuli in our own minds. The growing use of symbols such as roadsigns and trademarks on a worldwide scale demands absolute clarity of expression.

If a visual message is going to get across to people of different languages and backgrounds it is essential that the message does not lend itself to wrong interpretations. Then there are the lights which already form an accepted part of the nightscape. There have always been dangerous double bends. To accept. We already know that roadsigns occur at a certain height above the ground and have exactly those shapes and colours and no others. We have X-ray photos. All over the world this kind of lettering conveys an immediate message: In the face of this one simply cannot go on using the same red as a background for quite different products.

It goes without saying that if I have to publicize a cultural campaign on behalf of works of art I must not use vulgar colours. I must immediately convey the idea that here we are dealing with something lofty and not to be compared in any way with commonplace things.

I know this is an exaggeration. Even before we read what it says. It is true that a badly designed poster will have some effect if the walls are smothered with it. So we all have inside us naturally with some variation from person to person groups of images. Between these letters and the right kind for the job there is a vast range of letters to choose from.

On the contrary. A lot of people think that the public does not understand such matters. It goes without saying that an essay on Giotto as an architect ought not to have a title in such lettering.

There is a whole mechanism already at work on its own. There are masculine forms and colours and feminine forms and colours. Unhappily there is a lot of confusion and waste in these messages that surround us. There is one American catalogue that gives a choice of one thousand two hundred colours. The eye of the beholder is hopelessly muddled. Putting things in pigeon-holes like this helps us to make snap readings of signs. Often a firm unwilling to call in a graphic designer will use lettering suited to cheese to present a book of famous artists.

They often weary us with their petulance. What most interests a stylist is line. While the stylist is at work he feels all the great artists of the past breathing over his shoulder.

The great thing is to get it down before inspiration cools. It is within the scope of all those who have artistic stirrings. There are things on sale that demand a tremendous effort to guess at their proper use. The Stylists One of the commonest aspects of design. With the confusion of form that persists today a brush can look like a cat.

Styling is a kind of industrial designing. They then make a plaster model. The same can be said of form. This second sketch is always done with a great flaunting of perspective and with dazzling highlights: The stylist works for the quick turnover. It does no more than give a veneer of fashion. One sees something similar in those drawings of seaside and suburban villas in which the clouds behind and the tree before the house make ever such a nice picture.

Then it is worked out in more detail and on a bigger scale. A little science fiction does no harm and a sense of elegance is basic. The stylist strikes while the iron is hot. If curves were In yesterday. What does fashion actually do? It sells you a suit made of a material that could last five years. In any case. Mystery Art The children come out of school happy and laughing. But meanwhile an idea has been implanted in their minds that will be difficult to change for the rest of their lives.

It could be an iron. Is this a flatiron or a speedboat? Someone turned up this sketch by the famous American stylist Bernard Tettamanzi it was he who created that fabulous car for Peter Zunzer.

Leaving the vital parts inside the car alone. Therefore different things will have different forms. They go home on foot or by bike or in the vast black limousine chauffeured by a peaked cap and a pair of white gloves. While a job is in hand. In the United States stylists are responsible for giving a new look to a car or other object that has flooded the market and is no longer selling.

As soon as one thing is sold they must invent another to supersede it. Out with delicate colours. After a season of violet. A designer with a personal style.

A fashionable colour reaches saturation point and everyone longs only to see its opposite.

There is no way of knowing the life-size of the object sketched out in such a masterly fashion with the point of a Flomaster. So everyone who sets great store by his dignity rushes out to buy the new model for fear of being thought old hat. Opinions vary. Among other things. The same principle can be used to sell anything. The stylist therefore works by contrasts. This is a work of art. A transparent plastic box full of second-hand dentures. A tinned blackbird signed by the artist.

But this picture is done in Impressionist-Cubist style. A painting in three dimensions.

Pdf bruno munari

Or take another kind of protest picture. Is this not perhaps the mirror of our society. A picture made by pouring on paint at random. For example. But what about the art critics whose job it is to explain these things and make them clear? What have they got to say about it? They say that here we have a lyric poem in pure frontal visuality that avoids three-dimensional language in order to reinstate man in the field of semantic-entropic discourse so as to achieve a new dimension that is.

And yet the three-dimensional picture is behind glass in a gilt frame and the two-dimensional statue is on a pedestal. And in fact you only have to go to a proper museum to see what visual art really is. That painting is done with oil on canvas. A toothpaste tube twelve yards long.

A blown-up detail of a strip-cartoon. Ten one pound tins of the same. How are they to come to terms with these contradictions?

But this is nothing compared with what they might meet with later on. How is it that our times are producing such works of art? A realistic monochrome picture of a lavatory seat. That the most beautiful art is that of the distant past. A postcard of Portsmouth twelve feet by six. Then perhaps these children happen to see an exhibition of modern sculpture. It will bear witness to how indulgent we solid men are towards the wicked artist. It is not true to say that all posters today are the same.

That is why young people are all in love with the Beatles and live in houses with good solid nineteenth-century pictures. Why have we become like gods as technologists and like devils as moral beings.

How is one to distinguish at a glance between a motor-tyre poster with female figure and one for a fizzy drink with ditto? There once was a company that always put lots of women in its advertisements. We must introduce the notion of character. Now we have countless cameras clicking away and taking exactly the same sort of photo for every product.

There are differences. And vice versa. And as this Rule is a General Rule. It therefore seems plain to me that we must add a footnote to the General Rules for making a good poster. He has a style of his own.

These Rules are arrived at by Research and Questionnaires which are then boiled down into Statistics. But the style should rather be that of the thing being advertised. It has to be this way because the Public wishes it so. They depend on the taste of the artist. Only a knowledge of their experiments can provide the distinctive quality posters need if they are to be something more than general information aimed at everyone and no one.

Looking at the techniques of the past we notice that a human face made in mosaic has a different structure from one painted on a wall. They are not classical artists or romantic artists. The problem is therefore how to give individual character to images. How can we do this? We have. We may also look for all possible linear connections between the features. I mean living culture. There are products which already have strongly distinct characters of their own.

The features — eyes. In the same way if one is thinking of making a face out of glass. Look at a book of contemporary photographs and you will see for yourself. His experiments in the visual lead him to try out all possible combinations and methods in order to arrive at the precise image he needs for the job in hand. And by culture I do not mean what is taught in schools and can readily be found in books.

There are thousands of ways of photographing or drawing the human face. Or if we imagine seeing this face through a pane of glass with lettering on it. There must be coherence between the product and the forms and colours used.

A poster recommending concentrated soups is designed to reach a different public from one announcing the call-up of conscripts into the armed forces. But posters and advertising in general are nearly always totally divorced from culture.

Visual characterization makes for directness and immediacy.. Communication must be instant and it must be exact. Variations on the Theme of the Human Face In how many ways and with what techniques can one produce variations on the human face seen from the front?

The graphic designer works without set limits and without rejecting any possible technique. These we seize at a glance. They have what might be called sonic form. The lines straight or curved. A graphic symbol for a cosmetic cannot be the same as one for coal. Some words. For the sake of this exercise we must keep to full-face. But this can only happen if we preserve the general shape of the word.

Such an exercise as this helps a graphic designer to find the image best adapted to a given theme. That is. We are of course referring to printed. This is especially the case with words we are used to reading — or forced to read — every day: The Shape of Words Not only does each letter of a word have a shape of its own. The graphic designer usually makes hundreds of small drawings and then picks one of them.

Knowledge of the shape of words and the possibilities these offer for communication can be very useful to the graphic designer when he comes to make warning signs that have to be taken in quickly.

One can go even further. This gives a clearer idea of the shape of the word. An experiment anyone can make is to cut out the letters of a newspaper title.

The graphic designer can also operate in this field. Klee once wrote a poem and filled the spaces between the letters with various colours. The reading time of posters is often varied by the use of. Quick legibility is the quality required most of all for roadsigns. In this way our reading has been slowed down and the message retarded in the interests of a quite bogus aesthetic standard.

Poems and Telegrams It is certainly quite wrong to read a poem in a hurry. The Futurists composed their tavole parolibere according to this principle. And I will go further and say that each text. When we are sitting in an armchair reading a good book we need to slow down our reading speed. For rapid reading the type must be simple and clear. The result was that the words revealed themselves to the consciousness in slow motion.

A poem only communicates if read slowly: Though some contemporary poems do in fact have as few words as the average telegram. Though it is commonly done. They are poems struck off at random.

Bruno Munari - Diseño y Comunicacion Visual | Kibo de fuego - lesforgesdessalles.info

Not everyone sees pictures in the fire. The stains on old walls simply look like stains to him. Leonardo da Vinci saw trees. The shape of a cloud. Two in One Two images in one. But at the same time it is very tiring to the eye.

If you do not know what a Bunstable is you will never see one anywhere. The same thing happens with the grain of wood or marble. It depends on what they are looking at. This is done so as not to split the words and create time-gaps in the middle of them.

On old walls. It depends on the person looking. Not a word of explanation is needed. Shakespeare saw whales and camels in the clouds. Some posters and advertisements are read at two or three different speeds. In some publications that have artistic pretensions the printed text is lined up on the left while the right-hand margin is left ragged. The detailed outlines of the individual parts are so arranged as to make up a picture of a car.

Simple Simon looks at the clouds and just sees clouds. To a certain extent. In such a case the second image works on the subconscious and may well have a more lasting effect. We have a historical example in the paintings of Arcimboldi. To neglect the rules is dangerous.

In this case no one may do as he wants to. Roadsigns are the best known. Our movements on the roads are rigorously controlled: Simultaneous superimposed images may for example be useful in a poster showing a hand composed of cigarettes holding a cigarette.

Even tramps use a sign language to tell each other if they can go to a certain place. Each sign and each symbol has an exact meaning that is recognized the world over: And one can formulate fairly exact rules for it.

Today there are trademarks. In the old days there were the symbols of heraldry. We are already conditioned to doing what these signs tell us to do. A Language of Signs and Symbols? Many of our activities today are conditioned by signs and symbols. These double images may either be obvious or concealed.

But joking apart. One can present an image with the merest suggestion of another image in it. Each of us is part of the larger organism of human society. A big triangle with three small ones alongside means that one should spin a really tear-jerking yarn I imagine that the big triangle is the wife and the little ones her starving children. It might be put into words in this way: I am in a narrow place between rain and snow. In these ancient scripts the signs have one value as image or idea when they are alone.

This principle. Tell a tear-jerking tale. Everyone naturally knows road signs because you have to learn them if you want to drive a car.

In a certain sense the plan of an electric circuit composed of symbols and connections is nothing less than a synthetic discourse of component parts.

But when the signs used in other fields. If we suppose all these signs and symbols to be already known to the reader. The narrative should be clear enough. We can express the weather with meteorological signs. We shall try to use the symbols as the words are used in a poem: Maybe it is not possible to tell them all apart. Will something like this be the international language of the near future?

In limited ways perhaps it might.

They exist in the catalogue of an American company which produces plastics. Think of it. Or rather. Attempt at a poem: Rain on the firing switch end of precedence In meteorology and electronics it is already used.

Rood Red. Twelve thousand colours. But it has not yet been used to tell a story. In this case it is the roughness or smoothness of the surface which determines the variation. By the time we have finished we will be extremely tired and our strip of paper will be several miles long.

On the same strip. Add one drop of black to the red and paint another disc. But try asking the waiter for yellow wine and all you will get is a pitying.

Red silk is different from chalk of the same colour. But in the first place we must distinguish black and white from the colours proper. I am sure that you are prepared to take my word for it and not insist on making the experiment for yourselves to test me out.

If we take. We can then repeat the operation starting with another red. Jones is therefore attempting the impossible in trying to match the velvet of her sofa with her sitting-room walls. Brown is in fact the colour with the most variations because it can be nearly red. Take this red. It is true that the list we gave at the beginning was very basic.

There is another American catalogue with a modest 1. Every colour changes according to the material in which it is fixed. Then we start with a red with two drops of yellow added…. But even if we named all the colours we can think of we would still not reach This catalogue might be very useful for someone planning a large uniform edition of books.

Unfortunately people talk of colours too loosely. Each colour is reproduced and numbered. A smooth surface reflects the light and the colour is more intense. You will now realize that twelve thousand colours exist. Then let us take it towards a dark corner of the room. What colour is white wine?

We could for example list all the various reds. So we may in theory set about obtaining a great number of colours in the following way: How does one arrive at such a vast number of colours?

There are various methods. But the story of colours does not end there. Then another drop. The same thing goes for all the other posters nearby. It usually happens that when someone cannot keep his end up in an argument he begins to shout. It is a way of getting information across to the average passer-by. You will find that some are yellow. A poster for soap. It must jump out at you. We already know that a certain detergent washes white.

Any knowledge of the world we live in is useful. And the worst thing of all is that there are thousands of them all bellowing at you in satanic discord. They probably meant that a poster must stand out a mile from the other posters displayed around it in the street. In this way he does not add anything new to his argument. Do you know what colour a sheet of white paper is?

Would it be a good thing if people were taught to know their colours? I certainly think so. Not having studied the exact techniques of visual communication. Many posters want to make themselves heard at all costs. A triangle offers three escape routes. Even today you will find this basic design used for countless posters. This is the Japanese flag. Now his office is furnished with exquisite taste. The eye is in fact accustomed to making its escape at the points or corners of things.

A photo of a globe. The poster is accepted and printed. On the other hand one sometimes sees posters so jaded they seem to have been deliberately camouflaged. There is nothing in the least gaudy about it. The colours are muted. Basic pattern of a poster in the form of the Japanese flag.

Why is such a simple design so effective? Because the white background isolates the disc from everything around it. There is one basic kind of poster that graphic designers often use. The picture hanging on the wall beside it looks like a washed out photograph. The space around the disc isolates the image from any other near-by forms. A circle has no corners. It probably happens like this. This sketch is full size.

It has to tear itself away. The eye is attracted by the dark disc and has no way of escaping. How is this basic pattern used in a poster? The disc may represent or become a tomato. In these surroundings the poster. Posters are usually designed as single entities. Poster without End Is it possible to make a poster of unlimited dimensions. Besides this. These lead it out and away from the poster. Every figurative element of the poster that is cut by the right-or left-hand edge will inevitably combine in some unforeseen way with the poster next door.

On the other hand it is a mistake to divide the surface of a poster into different blocks of colour or print. Here the left hand side must know what the right hand is doing. A poster three foot by five. If as in a recent example two faces in profile are looking into the poster from right and left.

If some form is cut in half by the right-hand margin. This never happens to posters with a central image. Now it often happens that a poster is simply not designed to be displayed side by side with its twin. But there is a way of getting round this problem. The eye wanders over the surface and is continually forced to follow the dividing lines between the light and dark sections. Such a poster fades too easily into its surroundings. Basic pattern of a poster cut up into separate sections.

The edges of a poster are therefore worthy of special consideration. In any case one can never ignore them when one designs a poster. This poster gets across its message even if you just catch a glimpse of it. It is hard to say for sure whether it is one poster or many.

The eye is attracted by this interplay of various combinations. The red background holds the whole thing together. An Italian example of this — but of a product sufficiently well known to English readers — is the Campari advertisement displayed in underground stations.

In this particular case the series can only run horizontally. They may serve as neutral areas to isolate one poster from the others around it. The motif which links one poster with its neighbour can also be quite distinct from the thing advertised. It is therefore in certain cases possible to design posters on the same lines as wallpaper. The graphic form is contained within two squares.

Such a mark must be legible even if reduced to the smallest proportions. Christian and Greek writing. Various working stages are visible in this sketch. It will then be the child who makes contact with you. Children generally regard such persons with the utmost severity. To enter the world of a child or a cat the least you must do is sit down on the ground without interrupting the child in whatever he is doing.

Children do not understand what on earth they want. Every day you see some old woman approach a child with terrible grimaces and babble idiocies in a language full of booes and cooes and peekiweekies. He is trying to understand the world he is living in. Then he will go on to read and understand things of ever increasing complexity. The great thing is to make a good impression. Twenty-four hours make one whole day and one whole night. He will pretend to understand. In twelve hours the sun rises and sets.

Put your hand on it and feel it. We must look at the calendar: A good book for children aged three to nine should have a very simple story and coloured illustrations showing whole figures drawn with clarity and precision. But what does the publisher think about all this? He thinks that it is not children who buy books.

After this the clock is no good to us anymore. They are bought by grown-ups who give them as presents not so much to amuse the child as to cut a sometimes coldly calculated dash with the parents. Your heart goes tick tock. Very amusing and instructive stories. Other things that a child will not understand are: Listen to it. Children are extraordinarily observant. A book must therefore be expensive. After sixty minutes an hour will have passed. Lots of grownups never noticed this curious fact.

It is obvious that there are certain events that a child knows nothing of because he has never experienced them. In a book of mine in which I tried out the possibilities of using different kinds of paper. A two-year-old is already interested in the pictures in a story book. Count the beats: When you have counted sixty beats a minute will have passed.

In one hour a plant grows a hundredth of an inch. Then there are those tales of terror in which enormous pairs of scissors snip off the fingers of a child who refuses to cut his nails. In some kinds of advertisement or in setting up stands at exhibitions. In a year we have spring. A whole year of seconds and minutes has passed.

Now twelve months have passed. After January come February.

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Will it still be recognized as such? In what ways can it be varied without essential change? At the bottom left is a photo of four books stood on edge and opened in such a way as to form the trademark. These sketches were made to see how far it can be changed and still remain recognizable. Four weeks make one month: This idea was actually used in an advertisement. After a hundred years. Time never stops: Apart from things which have contact with our bodies chairs.

A radio set ten years ago was an affair as big as a sofa. The archives in which documents are stored used to occupy vast. Exercises in altering and deforming a well-known brand name until it reaches the limits of legibility. In a thousandth of a second it can store complex information running into several figures. The use of this system cuts down the space needed in archives by ninety per cent. Those great houses with their sky-high ceilings and broad dark corridors.

The floor will be carpeted. A lot of single pieces of furniture will be replaced by built-in cupboards. One of the smallest electronic computer cells is one made in Germany.

The film is specially made so as to last for many years without deterioration. Does anyone nowa-days have the walls of his house frescoed? Just about no one. Today the whole lot are down on a microfilm that will fit into an ordinary desk drawer.

Everything changes for reasons of economy: Today we have techniques whereby artists can make works to be projected. An orchestra in the drawing-room belongs to the age of frescoes. I should think. In the house of the future. It is square in shape and each side is two millimeters long. Automatic microfilm can be made as fast as a thousand frames a minute. The living-room of our new house will perhaps have one wall made completely of glass.

It contains 15 silicon transistors and 13 resistors with their relative connections. But in the new house there is no longer any room for this kind of art. But how in the future is a collector going to find room for all his works of art? Will he keep them in a special storeroom? And when we come right down to it. And for the same reason attempts are being made to build houses that are smaller than in the past.

Each photograph can then be enlarged again on to paper in a few seconds and at very little expense. In the old-fashioned house there were countless walls hung with pictures.

The private house of the future some are already lived in will be as compact and comfortable as possible. Can we not find other creative means? What happened in music when people realized that the times had changed and that no one any longer summoned orchestras to their houses to play them concerts? A picture is already but a portable version of a frescoed wall. This is not so much on account of any technical difficulty. If the street is asphalt. A small tree rather higher than the bamboo wall throws a decorative pattern of leaves on the plastered wall.

The street side of the forecourt sometimes has a low wooden gate. One day a man with nothing but a hammer in his hand presented himself to one of the great personages of the day and said: The entrance of this very ancient type of house is most discreet.

There is a space. In modern Japan there are thousands of buildings and great office blocks made of cement. The entrance hall is paved with rough grey stone. And I do not mean colour photographs. During a recent trip to Tokyo and Kyoto I stayed for three days in a traditional house and was able to poke around and notice every detail. It may be six foot square. One opens the door and there one is. On a wooden step one finds a pair of slippers. Our equivalent would be the gutter that you see sticking out of the side of certain peasant houses.

It was Michelangelo. Art is not technique.