Bumi Manusia (BM, ) karya Pramoedya Ananta Toer dan De Stille Kracht ( DSK, ) karya Louis Couperus menghadirkan kehidupan pejabat/pegawai. original text of a novel, Bumi Manusia and its English translation text This The object of this research is a historical novel written by Pramoedya Ananta Toer. Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd . by Pramoedya Ananta Toer Using a Pragmatic Approach one example is the novel Bumi Manusia by Pramoedya Ananta Toer which was first published in but implicitly from.
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Bumi manusia by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, , Hasta Mitra edition, in Indonesian - Cet. ke Bumi Manusia book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Roman Tetralogi Buru mengambil latar belakang dan cikal bakal natio. Thus, this project on “Book Review of Bumi Manusia authored by Pramoedya Ananta Toer especially one of his greatest books, Bumi Manusia which has.
Muda, cantik, berbudi halus. Pantaslah jika buku ini mendapat 12 perhargaan internasional. Can the post-colonial nation — given the necessity of adopt- ing the animalistic, selfish will to live — ever actually successfully evolve into a society of modern human beings? Sebagai keturunan priyayi Jawa, aku beruntung bisa mengenyam pendidikan ala Eropa. The author clearly shows how colonialism wrecked the self-esteem and mentality of the natives. New York: Showing
As the prisoners puzzle over how to make the land yield food without the help of any modern tools, Pramoedya feels foolish for even imagining a civilized Indo- nesia: De plicht van een mens is mens te zijn — the task of the human is to become human. The brutal living conditions on Buru make civilized, humane living almost impossible to sustain, serving as a small-scale metaphor for conditions in Indonesia as a whole, which make the attainment of true humanity punishable by imprisonment and death.
Such were the conditions that gave birth to the Buru Quartet, composed orally as a tale for the other prisoners before Pramoedya was finally permitted access to writing materials. For in a similar way, the characters of the Buru Quartet who do successfully attain modern humanity find themselves powerless and weak in an environment that rewards animal behaviour and dooms the unnatural hu- man to extinction.
However, it is this new understanding of the deep-seated ani- malism in human nature that compels the Buru Quartet to modify existing Javanese and Marxist ideals concerning humanity in order to advocate an even more alus form of Javanese humanity and an even more resilient form of socialist humanity.
The power of the wilderness in the Buru Quartet There is a sense throughout the entirety of the Quartet that the characters inhabit a world fundamentally antagonistic to human endeavours to civilize themselves and their surroundings.
Undomesticated nature, such as that which Pramoedya faced in Buru, is associated with the brutal, the animalistic and the primitive. Minke emerges from his imprisonment many years later, penniless and friendless. His wife missing, his assets repossessed by the government, and forgotten by the very nationalist movement he founded, Minke eventually sickens and dies — murdered, it is implied, by his lifelong enemy, Robert Suurhof b, p In the world of the Quartet, animalistic nature proves unconquerable and untameable.
The achievement of humanity becomes incommensurable with continued survival. By taking any personal benefit away from the Javanese alus ideal and the Marxist socialist ideal, the novels challenge their readers to achieve humanity for its own sake rather than for any external reward. According to traditional Javanese thought, however, the denial of the self is rewarded with greater strength and ability. In the myths, asceticism enables the hero to vanquish his enemies.
Such awareness and attuning have their indirect benefits: Yet, as one follows the actions and fates of the characters who do manage to achieve modern humanity, one cannot help but notice that there is something very Javanese about the definition of humanity they ascribe to and the ascetic means by which they go about doing it. Mei also begins depriving herself of sufficient sleep and food, growing even paler and thinner.
Finally, she contracts hepatitis, which goes undiagnosed until it is too late save her.
It seems that self-destructive asceticism is also required of Minke as he gives up his selfish impulses in order to unite the people of the Indies and fight against the capitalist and colonial powers that be. As previously mentioned, even eating and sex — which one might perceive as simply necessary for survival — bear traces of base animalism and must be con- trolled by the modern human being.
This Earth of Mankind lays the foundation for such associations in the rest of the Quartet. Sexual inter- course is similarly tainted with animalism.
Notably, she also stops coming home entirely, the implication being that she has given up sexual relations with Minke in order to devote herself more wholeheartedly to the Chinese people. Kartini has no desire to get married, preferring to retain her freedom of movement in society as a single woman. For both these characters, abstinence from food and sex seems to come as a matter of course; but for Minke, suppressing such kasar animalism seems to be far more difficult.
At one point in Footsteps, Minke must politely suppress his overwhelming hunger and patiently wait for a new acquaintance to arrive before he can start his meal: Over the course of the tetralogy, he marries three times, pursuing each of his wives in turn because of his attraction to her beauty: Minke never engages in blatantly immoral sexual activity — he never visits prostitutes, and only after the unfortunate deaths of his first and second wives respectively, does he let his desire roam free to settle on another.
But it is clear throughout the novels that his sexuality is only barely kept within acceptable boundaries: Within the Javanese universal order, the reward for sexual self-control — whether complete abstinence for certain periods of time, or simply keeping sex within the bounds of marriage — is reproductive power.
If kept within the proper channels, however, sexual reproduction enables one to transfer power to legitimate successors: Here, the Quartet continues to divorce the concept of alus humanity from its associations with power, and instead, links the reproductive act with the baseness of the natural instinct for self-preservation.
Kartini quite literally ceases to exist as a modern human being after her marriage, dying in the very act of childbirth. Mei too dies childless. Notably, neither ever expresses any wish to have children. For both female characters, being a modern human being means relinquishing motherhood, and by the same token, Minke too must forego fatherhood and overcome his own desires for self- perpetuation through sexual reproduction.
At least, I would never bear a creature whom I could call my child during these years. What was the meaning…. A gaping wound without consolation. Bare, empty. A liter of sweat every day could never close the wound.
A catty of protein and a catty of minerals and sugar every day could never produce enough energy to fill up the hole. The desire to find comfort in fulfilling the basic necessities of life struggled to live on, rumbled to be ac- knowledged. Silence, you. Often, the night felt so quiet, and there appeared before me millions of flow- ers, withering, unfertilized. Instead of working for the sake of his own flesh and blood, Minke must carry on for others who bear no blood relation to him.
Tirto Adi Suryo, the historical figure on whom the character was based, did actu- ally have children. Diam kau. Diam] a, p In the Lane translation, the entire passage reads as follows: What was I working so hard for if there was to be no child to savor the fruits of my work? It was an emptiness for which there was no answer. A liter of my perspiration every day would not fill this emptiness. A pound of protein and another of minerals and sugar would not produce enough energy to bear this burden.
Rather, their infertility is a physical manifestation of their inability to reproduce their modern humanity in society at large, despite their best efforts: The implication is that true humanity simply runs counter to the practicali- ties of survival and sustainability in the uncivilized world, and that the true human being must be prepared for pointless hardship and death.
Taking the struggle out of class struggle Just as the Quartet does not so much oppose Javanese culture as call for its re- form, putting forth a standard of alus that exposes traditional standards of alus as still too kasar, the Quartet also makes critical modifications to classical Marxist philosophy in order to set forth a new standard for socialist conduct: Death as a necessary part of class struggle and for the sake of the revolutionary cause is a relatively standard feature of Marxist rhetoric.
In contrast, the deaths of Khouw, Kartini, Mei and Minke are related sparsely and briefly, and certainly not with any melodrama. Khouw, Kartini and Minke die off-page: That person is Jacques Pangemanann, a Pribumi policeman in the employ of the Dutch government, and the narrator of Glass House.
On one hand, Pangemanann brings about a colonial sell-out; he is a traitor to his own people. He dutifully carries out his assigned task of stifling nationalist opposition to the government, including spying on and ar- resting Minke.
The title refers to the elaborate metaphor used by Pangemanann for his surveil- lance of the Pribumi nationalists: I had put into a glasshouse, and placed on my desk.
Everything could be clearly seen. That was my job: That was the Governor-General desired. The Indies could never change — it had to be preserved. Pangemanann grows increasingly disillusioned with the Pribumi nationalists who follow Minke and with their inability to meas- ure up to the standard set by him. Even the outspoken socialists among them fail to meet the mark b, p Pangemanann is certainly no supporter of co- lonialism, despising it as a form of barbaric animalism; yet he fears that granting political independence to the people of the Indies will result only in the replace- ment of one set of animals with another: Self-rule was surely a beautiful dream for all Pribumi, for it would let them fulfill their dreams of unleashing all their animal appetites, which till now had been pent up by the fear of the Government.
The Quartet implies that true revolution — the replacement of barbaric jungle with a society of civilized human beings — will only occur when class struggle is no longer a brutal Darwinian struggle for existence; when animalism will not be countered with animalism, but instead with actions befitting modern human beings, whatever adverse consequences may result.
Just as the Indies nationalist 15 Even those who bear more resemblance to Minke — the communist-nationalists Marco Kartodikromo and Semaoen — fall short of the example set by Minke. Marco returns from exile only to lapse into silence, failing to make good on his vow to re-establish the reputation of his former teacher Minke; moreover, he retreats from the public arena, penning anonymous articles that exhort oth- ers to take action.
Semaoen is passionate and outspoken, but is described as somewhat vain and out of touch with the common people: Semaoen failed to understand his own people. Pramoedya and others jailed for their political beliefs were living proof that the demise of the colonial era apparently did not bring about conditions any more favourable to fostering the development of truly modern human beings.
At its core, the Republic of Indonesia was the wilderness of Buru. In the past or the present, under imperial rule or under self-rule, it would seem that one must re- main inhuman in order to survive. We can read the Buru Quartet as espousing a Darwinian-socialist version of the doctrine of original sin: In the tetralogy, Indonesian nationalism is tainted with animalism even in its earliest stages, more than 40 years before the corruption of the Indonesian state with the onset of the capitalis- tic Suharto regime.
Organize and become a raksasa, Mei advises Kartini, one frail human to another before their tragic deaths.
Unfortunately, that is exactly what the nationalist movement ends up doing. The disturbing question raised by the Buru Quartet is this: Can the post-colonial nation — given the necessity of adopt- ing the animalistic, selfish will to live — ever actually successfully evolve into a society of modern human beings? As suggested by the qualities of self-destructiveness, self-neglect and infertil- ity, which Pramoedya deliberately bestows upon his truly human heroes and heroines, modern humanity can only be truly attained by those who act not out of a will to live but out of a willingness to perish, each alone — the likes of Kartini with her crippling, self-subsuming love for her father and for others; Mei with her self-imposed sleeplessness, starvation and ill health; Minke with his grandiose and overambitious nationalist dreams — then what emerges is a socialist reality on earth achieved not through the dialectic of class struggle — the eventual victory of the proletariat — but rather through individuals deliberately dying, relinquishing entirely the will to live, or even further, in order to evolve out of barbarism and into full humanity.
Who could be sentimental? The tyrannical ambitions of the traditional Javanese aristocrats, of the Dutch colonial authorities and of the sugar-industry magnates obviously stem from the instinctual desire to survive and to flourish.
By fleeing rather than trying to effect change in the Indies as Minke does, as Khouw and Kartini and Mei do, these characters evade their responsibil- ity to their fellow inhabitants of the Indies who remain trapped in the barbaric conditions of this bumi manusia —this earth of mankind.
If the only thing preventing the full attainment of modern humanity is the over- riding desire to live, whether on earth or in heaven, then the only way for the socialist individual actually to achieve modern humanity is to come to terms with death as an unavoidable fact of existence — to resign oneself to the same unavoid- able fate of the millions of insignificant ants, insects and humans who have gone before. The truly evolved community — fully modern and fully human — is not conceived of as a community of individuals struggling to live.
Instead, the social- ist community must achieve a far more difficult ideal and become a community of individual organisms determined to face the negative consequences that result from remaining faithful to the principles of humanity in the present, without re- gard for prolonging the future existence of themselves or their cause. Rather, life will spring up again out of the corpses of those who have laid down their lives for the sake of their ideals and nothing else.
The Quartet refuses to deny the powerlessness of powerlessness, to make self- denial and self-sacrifice a roundabout way of procuring power for oneself; and through its refusal, it calls its Indonesian readers to face the grim reality of the beasts that lurk within them and the uncivilized wilderness which they inhabit, and which they have inhabited as a people for centuries upon centuries, from feudal days to the Suharto era; and, many would say, even from the post-Suharto era of the present.
History repeats itself, the Quartet tells us: With regard to the possibility that humanity will eventually triumph in trans- forming the Indonesian nation, the Quartet makes no promises; its author was thoroughly sick of them.
But in interpreting the defeat and martyrdom of truly human individuals not as practical and nation-changing triumphs, but as triumphs in their own right — independent and individual instances of successful human evolution — the Quartet shows that while modern human beings may lack the power to transform the wilderness around them, they are able to keep the wilder- ness at bay in and around their own selves.
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Want to Read. Are you sure you want to remove Bumi manusia from your list? Bumi manusia sebuah roman Cet. Written in Indonesian. Edition Notes Oorspr.
The Physical Object Pagination p.