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Ultimate visual dictionary pdf

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Ultimate Visual lesforgesdessalles.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Ultimate Visual Dictionary is a comprehensive, annotated visual dictionary of more than commonly researched places and things, from the origins of the . Ultimate Visual Dictionary presents a huge range of information from a unique perspective, providing instant understanding of even the most complex of subjects.

Pericarp Pericarp and siliquas e. Within the belts and zones. Other Exopod Abdominal characteristics of cirripedes segment include an exoskeleton of 3rd leg overlapping calcareous plates. Between the rocky planets and giants is the asteroid belt. America Australia mass of Pangaea. The smallest Central region galaxies contain about

The money needed to carry out science comes from a variety of different sources.

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Much of the pure scientific research that goes on is government- funded and is based in universities. Some universities are partly funded by industries or wealthy individuals. Research laboratories in large companies tend to carry out applied science technology , because most large companies are in the business of applying scientific knowledge to the development of new commercial devices or processes.

Scientists in the same field of research clearly need to commimicate with one another to ensure that they do not duplicate on another's work and to ensure that others are aware of of potentially useful Findings. This binomial two-part classification is an internationally recognized system. Another well-known system is the SI Systeme Internationale , which enables all scientists to use clearly defined standard measurements, such as the meter, in their work.

Researchers also need to communicate with the agencies who give grants - if those in charge of funding do not recognize the importance or quality of a piece of scientific research, they may cancel funding for it. New discoveries in one field must often be communicated clearly to scientists in different but related fields. New discoveries in organic chemistry may benefit scientists working on research in other areas, for example.

The progress of science must also be communicated effectively to governments and to the public at large. Finally, accumulated scientific knowledge must be passed on from generation to generation, and so school and college education have a role to play in communicating scientific ideas. They are further encouraged by the possibility of recognition in the event of a great discovery or good scientific practice. Many different prizes are awarded each year by organizations across the world.

The most famous are the Nobel Prizes, first awarded in They are given out yearly in six areas of human achievement, three of which are sciences physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine.

In some cases, scientists who have made truly great contributions become household names, such as Albert Einstein - and Isaac Newton A virus is shown here entering a living cell top , reproducin middle , and leaving the cell with its replicas bottom. Scientific knowledge such as this can filter through to the public in schoo" science lessons or via the media.

Physics Discovering physics 14 Matter and energy 16 Measurement and experiment 18 Forces 1 20 Forces 2 22 Friction 24 Simple machines 26 Circular motion 28 Waves and oscillations 30 Heat and temperature 32 Solids 34 Liquids 36 Gases 38 Electricity and magnetism 40 Electric circuits 42 Electromagnetism 44 Generating electricity 46 Electromagnetic radiation 48 Color 50 Reflection and refraction 52 Wave behavior 54 Electrons 56 Nuclear physics 58 Particle physics 60 Modern physics To a physicist, the world consists of matter and energy.

Physicists spend much of their time formulating and testing theories, a process that calls for a great deal of experimentation. The study of physics encompasses the areas of force and motion, light, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of matter. In , Hans Christian Oersted showed that an electric current produces magnetism. Electromagnetism was studied by many experimenters, in particular Michael Faraday. The conversion was always consistent, and a similar result when producing heat from electric current led to the definition of energy.

It was soon realized that light, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, and motion all possessed energy, and that energy could be transferred from object to object, but neither created nor destroyed. This "unified" view of the world was further established in the s, when James Clerk Maxwell proved that light was related to electricity and magnetism. The idea led to the discovery of other forms of electromagnetic radiation: Also around this time came the first evidence of an inner structure to the atom.

The electron was discovered in , and in its mass was found to be less than that of an atom. New models of the atom arose, in line with quantum physics, which, along with relativity, would reshape forever the physicist's view of the world.

But Newtonian physics was only an approximation to any real explanation. Einstein's relativity showed that time and space could not be absolute. This demanded a completely new outlook on the laws of physics. Einstein was also involved in the development of quantum physics, which studies the world of very small particles and very small amounts of energy.

Quantum physics challenged the wave theory of light and led to the conclusion that light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation act as both particles and waves.

It enabled the structure and behavior of atoms, light, and electrons to be understood and also predicted their behavior with incredible accuracy. This led to the study of particle physics, using huge particle accelerators. In the middle of the 20th century, forces began to be understood in terms of the exchange of subatomic particles and were unified into just four fundamental interactions: The "holy grail" of physics is a grand unified theory GUT that would unify all the four forces as one "superforce" and describe and explain all the laws of nature.

Neutrons were given off but could be detected only when they "knocked" protons from a piece of paraffin wax. The protons were then detected with a Geiger counter. Rutherford Alberl Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity First particle accelerator built by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton First nuclear reactor built by Enrico Fermi Chaos theory developed by American mathematicians developed by William Kelvin —Existence of radio waves demonstrated by Heinrich Hertz —Electron discovered by Joseph Thomson -Alberl Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity -Electron shells around nucleus of 19J5 atom proposed by Niels Bohr -Ernest Rutherford converts nitrogen nuclei into oxygen nuclei -Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann 1 Existence of quarks proposed by Murray Gell-Mann —Superconductors, substances with extremely low resistances to electricity, are developed Matter is anything that occupies space.

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All matter consists of countless tiny particles, called atoms see pp. These particles are in constant motion, a fact that explains a phenomenon known as Brownian motion. The existence of these particles also explains evaporation and the formation of crystals see pp. Energy is not matter, but it affects the behavior of matter. The standard unit for measuring energy is the joule J. Each J form of energy can change into other forms For example, electrical energy used to make an electric motor turn becomes kinetic energy and heat energy see pp.

The total amount of energy never changes; it can only be transferred from one form to another, not created or destroyed. This is known as the Principle of the Conservation of Energy, and can be illustrated using a Sankey Diagram see opposite. This motion is caused by the air molecules around the smoke particles. This means that the atoms or molecules of which thej arc made break free from the bodj ot Hie liquid to become gas panicles.

The particles of the solid normally arrange in a regular structure, called a crystal. When no sunlight falls on it, it can supply no electricity. The string lifts a 0. The kinetic energy transfers to potential, or stored energy. If the string is broken, the energy will be released, and the mass will fall, gaining kinetic energy. This includes the electrical energy in its battery, the potential energy stored as it climbs a hill, and any heat generated in the brakes or the engine.

The arrows show energv transfer. Gasoline chemical energy I Headlight electrical to light energy I Kinetic energy greater at higher speed Braking heat energy 1 kg mass lifted to 0.

Experiments are designed to test theories and involve making measurements - of mass, length, time, or other quantities. In order to compare the results of various experiments, it is important that there are agreed standard units. The kilogram kg , the meter m , and the second s are the fundamental units of a system called SI units Systeme International. Physicists use a variety of instruments for making measurements.

Some, like the Vernier callipers, traveling microscopes, and thermometers, are common to many laboratories, while others will be made for a particular experiment.

The results of measurements are interpreted in many ways, but most often as graphs. Graphs provide a way of illustrating the relationship between two measurements involved in an experiment. For example, in an experiment to investigate falling objects, a graph can show the relationship between the duration and the height of the fall. Gravitational force gives the mass its weight. Weight Spring is a force, and is measured stretches - in newtons see pp.

Metal object Spring in meter produces force to balance weight , 0. This is read off a Vernier scale, which here allows reading to an accuracy of 0. Two readings are taken and the difference between the positions of the microscope on its sliding scale provides the measurement.

Ordinary teak. The mercury thermometer has a glass bulb containing mercury that expands as the temperature rises, while the digital thermometer contains an electronic probe and has a digital readout. The results of these measurements are entered into a table. There is an element of uncertainty or error in every result obtained, so each is plotted on the graph as a short range of values forming an error bar instead of a point.

Flares are sudden discharges of high-energy eclipse is visible of Moon radiation and atomic particles. It consists almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. Beyond the photosphere is the Penumbra outer. Prominences are huge loops or Umbra inner. Other types of outer. Region of Earth partial solar activity are flares.

It is about five billion years old and will continue to shine Sun as it does now for about another five billion years. The Sun is a yellow main sequence star see pp.

The energy and Earth Umbra inner. The Caloris Basin is the largest crater. Most of the surface has been heavily cratered by the impact of meteorites. It consists only of minute amounts of helium and hydrogen captured from the solar wind. At nightfall. The planet rotates ray of ejecta about its axis very slowly.

One rotation It is thought to have been formed when a mile. Mercury has extreme surface temperatures. North Pole Because Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. The high temperature. Such radar maps reveal a terrain with craters. There are two large highland regions called Aphrodite Terra and Ishtar Terra. The main component of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. The thick cloud layers contain droplets of sulfuric acid and are driven around the planet by winds at speeds of up to miles km per hour.

Venus is the hottest planet. North causing its rotational period to be the longest in the solar Pole system. Venus spins slowly backwards as it orbits the Sun. The heat from this inner core causes material in the molten outer core and mantle to South Pole circulate in convection currents.

It is the largest and densest rocky planet. The Earth has one natural satellite. At the heart of the planet the solid inner core has a temperature of about The disk material stuck together to form planets 4. There are four main layers: The Moon takes the same time to rotate on its axis as it takes to orbit the Orbital plane Earth The Moon is dry rotation and barren.

It is relatively large for a moon. The surface is dusty. It consists mainly takes 27 Earth days and 8 hours South Pole of solid rock. The canyons were formed by movements of the surface crust. There are also Bright water-ice fog several huge. These signs Orbital included apparent canal-like lines on the surface. The surface Valles Marineris also has many canyons and branching channels. Residual fine dust in the atmosphere gives the and 37 minutes Martian sky a pinkish hue. In the North Pole 19th century.

This coloring is caused by sulfurous material from active volcanoes that shoot plumes of lava hundreds of miles above the surface.

There are 63 known Jovian storm system moons. Jupiter has a thin. Outside the inner mantle is an outer mantle of liquid Orbital plane hydrogen and helium that merges into the gaseous atmosphere. Io is covered in bright red. Within the belts and zones. Europa is smooth and icy and is thought to have a subsurface water ocean.

It is the North Pole Perpendicular to orbital plane largest and the most massive planet. The four largest moons called the Galileans are Ganymede. Belts are dark.

In Saturn Pole is thought to consist of a small core of rock and ice Orbital plane surrounded by an inner mantle of metallic hydrogen liquid hydrogen that acts like a metal. Oval rotating some of which orbit inside the rings and are thought to exert a storm system gravitational influence on the shapes of the rings.

The D. Saturn has more than 60 known moons. Storms and eddies. It is a and 40 minutes gas giant almost as big as Jupiter. Astronomers believe that such co-orbital moons may have originated from a single satellite that broke up. Saturn has an extremely thin but wide system of rings that is about half a mile 1 km thick but extends outward to about Stratosphere ammonia crystals and water vapor Clouds form belts dark.

Its atmosphere contains traces of methane. It is thought to Orbital consist of a dense mixture of different types of plane South Pole ice and gas around a solid core.

Uranus is encircled by main rings that consist of rocks interspersed with dust lanes and two distant outer rings made of dust. Uranus rolls and 14 minutes on its side along its orbital path around the Sun. Uranus is North One rotation unique among the planets in that its axis of rotation lies close to its Pole takes 17 hours orbital plane.

As a result of its strongly tilted rotational axis. Uranus is the most rotation featureless planet to have been closely observed: There are 27 known Uranian moons. The 13 inner moons are small and dark.

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Neptune is the smallest of the Pole giant planets and is thought to consist of a small rocky core surrounded by a mixture of liquids and gases.

Neptune has six tenuous takes 16 hours and 7 minutes rings and 13 known moons. One rotation The Scooter was a large area of cirrus cloud. Pluto was the first object discovered beyond Neptune and was considered a planet until the dwarf planet category was introduced in It is made of rock and ice Small Dark Spot and is 1.

The Kuiper Belt objects are a mix of rock and ice. Unlike most moons in the solar system. They make a doughnut- shaped belt called the Kuiper Belt. Triton is the largest Neptunian moon and the coldest object in the solar system. The larger dwarf planets. It has three known moons. One rotation possibly. Most meteoroids Low-intensity burn up in the atmosphere.

Meteor showers occur when the Earth passes through the trail of dust particles left by a comet. As the comet approaches the Sun. Meteoroids range in size from tiny dust particles to objects tens of meters across. Most of them orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt. Meteoroids are small chunks of stone or stone and iron. Broad curved Dust particles methane. The Earth itself is continually changing. Earth types of algae Ichthyostega formed Vertebrates appeared Coral reefs appeared e..

Since then. Dense minerals sank to appeared e. Climate is also subject to change: Dinosaurs the first known life-forms—bacteria and blue-green algae—did became not appear until about Crusafontia the center while lighter ones formed a thin rocky crust.

Archaeopteryx Dinosaurs flourished Marine reptiles appeared e. The crust and the topmost layer of the mantle Potassium 2. Plates may also slide past each other—along the San Andreas fault. In mid-ocean. Crustal movement on continents may result in earthquakes. The lithosphere consists of semirigid plates Calcium 3. When plates move toward each other. In addition to faults and folds. A fault is a fracture in a rock along which plunge there is movement of one side relative to the other.

Folds occur in elastic rocks. Faults develop when rocks are subjected to compression or tension. They tend to occur in hard. The smallest faults occur in single mineral crystals and are microscopically small.

The two main types of fold are anticlines upfolds and angle from synclines downfolds. The movement can be vertical. Folds vary in size from a few millimeters long to horizontal folded mountain ranges hundreds of miles long. Asia There are three main types of mountains: This is how folded mountain ranges. The continental crust is buckled by the impact. Fold mountains are formed sediment and where plates push together and part of the oceanic crust cause the rock to buckle upward.

The lava and debris may have built up to form a buckling of dome around the vent of a volcano. The build up of oxygen began to form a shield of ozone South around the Earth. One large supercontinent. Agnostidae Group: Phacopidae Group: Olenellidae Group: Ptychopariidae Length: The first primitive life-forms emerged around 3. Ptyctodontidae Group: Pteraspidae Group: Coccosteidae Group: Bothriolepididae Length: Acanthodidae Group: Asterolepididae Group: Cheirolepidae Group: Cephalaspidae Length: Glaciers smothered much of the southern Antarctica Africa Antarctica hemisphere during the Permian period — million years ago.

As a result of these conditions. America Australia mass of Pangaea. Away from the poles. Marattiaceae Group: Medullosaceae Group: Lyginopteridales Group: Medullosaceae Height: The humid climate across northern and equatorial continents throughout Carboniferous times produced the first dense plant cover on Earth.

Toward the end of Carboniferous times. Lepidodendron sp. During the early part of this period. Lepidodendraceae Group: Cordaitacea Group: Glossopteridaceae Group: By the end of the Triassic period.

Dinosaurs first appeared about million years ago. During this period. This landmass experienced extremes of climate. Melanorosauridae Group: Sauropodomorpha Group: Herrerasauridae Group: Ornithischia Length: The only forms of plant life were nonflowering plants.

Cycas sp. Early herbivorous plant-eating Africa dinosaurs first appeared in Late Triassic times and included Plateosaurus Australia Antarctica and Technosaurus. The principal forms of animal life included diverse. Among the earliest dinosaurs South were the carnivorous flesh-eating herrerasaurids. Plateosauridae Group: Ornithischia Group: Coelophysidae Group: Herrerasauridae Length: Diplodocus and stegosaurs e.

The abundance of plant food coincided with the proliferation of herbivorous plant-eating dinosaurs. Plants such as ginkgos. Carnivorous flesheating dinosaurs. During Jurassic America Asia times. The Jurassic climate was warm and moist. Further Jurassic animals included shrewlike South mammals. Diplodocidae Group: Iguanodontia Group: Dryosauridae Length: Allosauroidea Group: Thyreophora Group: Stegosauridae Length: Dinosaurs evolved into a wide variety of species during Cretaceous times.

Saltasauridae Group: Ceratopsidae Group: Ornithopoda Length: At the end of the Cretaceous period. Flowering plants.

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The climate remained mild and moist but the seasons became more marked. Animal species became more varied. Gondwana and Asia Laurasia were breaking up into smaller landmasses that more closely resembled the modern continents.

Tyrannosauridae Group: Dromaeosauridae Group: Iguanodontia Length: Hyaenodontidae Group: Pliohyracidae Group: Phorusrhacidae Group: Giraffidae Length: Repeated cool periods throughout the Tertiary period established the Antarctic as an icy island continent.

By the beginning of the Tertiary period. One of these included the first hominid see pp. The Tethys Sea. Palmoxylon sp.

America Africa During the middle part of the Tertiary period. Mammutidae Group: Gomphotheriidae Length: Only the specialized ice age mammals such as Mammuthus and Coelodonta.

The cold environments in North America and Eurasia. The America Africa Australia end of the last ice age and the climatic changes that occurred India about Modern humans. Humans developed throughout the Pleistocene period 1.

During cold periods. Macropodidae Group: Diprotodontidae Group: Toxodontidae Group: Elephantidae Length: Homo sapiens. Deinotheriidae Group: Rhinocerotidae Group: Hominidae Length: A thousand million years later. Layered by algae retaining cuticle. Alternate developed during the Cambrian period — million layers of mud and years ago. Soft-bodied jellyfish. About million years ago. Glabella Eye Long. The first simple. Limestone although they probably still returned to the water to lay their soft eggs.

By the time the first reptiles and synapsids appeared late in the Carboniferous. Reptiles include the dinosaurs. Their limbs may have evolved from the muscular fins of lungfishlike creatures. While amphibians see pp. Evolving from amphibians. The development of the amniotic egg. In the case of most saurischians. Pubis Ilio-ischial joint egg-laying reptiles by an important feature: Dinosaurs are categorized into two groups A saurischian dinosaur according to the structure of their pelvis: They appeared some million years ago and were distinguished from other scaly.

A present-day reptile An experiment is an observation under carefully controlled conditions. So, for example, the hypothesis idea that all objects on the Earth fall at the same rate in the absence of air, can be tested by setting up suitable apparatus and observing the results. The proof of this hypothesis would support the current theory about how objects fall. A theory is a general explanation of a group of related phenomena.

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Examples are the theory of gravitation and the theory of evolution. The more evidence in favor of a particular Uieory, the more strongly it is held onto. Theories can be refined or completely replaced in the light of observations that do not support them. A law is a mathematical relationship that describes how something behaves.

The law of conservation of mass states that no mass is lost or gained during a chemical reaction. It is derived from painstaking measurements and other observations, and a theory may be formulated to explain the observed law. In the case of the conversion of mass, one plausible theory is that matter consists of particles that join in particular ways, and a chemical reaction is simply a change in the arrangement of the particles.

Discovering the laws of nature and formulating theories to account for them can explain, in ever greater detail, only how - but not why - things happen. However, the methodical efforts of the scientific community - together with the inspirational work of many individuals - have led to a deep understanding of the natural world. If this process is repeated for steeper or shallower slopes, a relationship between the force and the angle of the slope arises.

A law can be formulated from this, and a theory to explain the law may follow. The proportion of the population engaged in scientific or technological activity has increased dramatically since that time, too.

The number of regularly published scientific journals in the world stood at about 10 in By , there were about 10,, and there are now over 40, Science is carried out by professionals as well as amateurs, and by groups as well as individuals. They all communicate their ideas between themselves, to their funding agencies, and to the world in general.

For this reason, most professional scientists have a university degree and are members of professional societies.

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The first such societies were formed in Europe during the 17th century. Since that time, the number of people worldwide engaged in scientific activity has increased enormously. The amount and detail of scientific understanding have also increased, with the result that most scientists can be experts in only a very tiny part of their subject.

There are, however, many amateur scientists whose contribution in certain fields of science is highly valuable.

In astronomy, in particular, amateurs have been responsible for many important discoveries, such as finding new comets. Some laboratories - particularly those devoted to chemistry - are indeed something like this, but are today also equipped with high-tech devices, such as infrared spectrometers, which can accurately identify a substance by analysis of the infrared radiation it emits.

They are safe, clean, and efficient places. However, many laboratories are not like the popular image at all. A laboratory is defined as the place where a scientist carries out his or her experiments.

So, a geologist sometimes considers his or her laboratory to be, say, a rock face. A biologist or medical researcher may have a field laboratory, with equipment installed in a tent or temporary building Fixed laboratories are well-equipped rooms, usually in universities or industrial research buildings.

The development of the Hubble Space Telescope, for example, has cost billions of dollars, and has involved thousands of scientists from many countries. A space-probe mission to Mars, for example, costs many millions of dollar Automatyczne logowanie Zarejestruj. Zaloguj Anuluj.