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GO TO Usage: Scrolling allows you to move the screen "window" in as many as three dimensions across the information: Selective resetting of the MDT's must be done another way. We are looking for an experienced Mainframe Documents. This identifies the tape in the tape library. Linkage Section.
It can be mentioned as number of logical records OR number of characters, that is multiple of logical record length. I-O time is reduced as n numbers of records are read into main memory buffer during an I-O.
Inter record gap is removed and the gap exist only between blocks. So memory wastage due to IRG is avoided. If there is an OCCURS depending on clause or there are multiple 01 levels and every 01 level is of different size, then the file would be of variable length.
Multiple 01 level in File section is an example for implicit redefinition. If you don't close the files, the completion of the program closes all the files used in the program. If more than one file is stored in a reel of tape, it is called as multi-file volume. When one file is stored in more than one reel of tape, it is called as multi-volume label.
One reel is known as one volume. When the end of one volume is reached, automatically the next volume opens. So there is no special control is needed for multi volume files.
After opening a TAPE file, the file is positioned at its beginning. Provided hardware supports this feature When you close the file, the tape is normally rewound. This will be useful when you want skip all the records in the first reel after n number of records processing. At any point of time, you can have only one file is active in the program. If INTO clause is coded, then the file is directly read into working storage section record.
It is preferred as it avoids another move of file-section-record to working-storage-record followed by simple READ. Before accessing the file randomly, the key field should have a value before READ. Write statement is used to write a new record in the file. To update a record in a file, the file should be opened in I-O mode.
START is used with dynamic access mode of indexed files. START itself does not retrieve any record. To delete a record, the file should be opened in I-O mode. There are chances for failure of any file I-O processing. The failure of an I-O operation can be accepted or cannot be tolerated.
The severity of failure has to be defined in the program design stage. Let us assume that we don't have any error handling in our program. In this case, for example, if you don't have a specific record in the file, the random read of that record would immediately terminate the program with error 'record not found'. Based on the importance of the record and business rule, we can continue our program with next record or terminate the program properly.
But there is no way to handle all such errors in this way. The second method is, assigning file-status to the file in the SELECT clause and checks the file status after each and every I-O and ensures that the value of status code is one of the allowable values.
If it is not an allowable return code, then abnormally end the program with error statements that would be easier to debug. But we have to do this checking after each and every I-O operation. COBOL provides an option to group all the possible errors of specific operation s in a place and that will be automatically invoked during the respective operation s of any file.
This avoids redundant code. Check the file-status code for validity. The validity of error should be checked in this paragraph and allow or restrict the process down, based on severity of error code. If file name file-1 is coded in the USE statement, then all the input-output operation of that specific file will be checked. This will be very useful when the program must work with a limited memory space. So more than one file can be in open state. We should be careful while filling in the record area of the output file.
This may destroy the record read most recently. The sort work files are automatically allocated when file is opened and de-allocated when file is closed. As the sort file is automatically opened and closed during a SORT and two sort files cannot be opened at a time, this clause may not be useful. The rescue file details should be mentioned outside the program and it varies from installation to installation.
When a CALL statement naming the alternate entry point is executed in a calling program, control is transferred to the next executable statement following the entry statement. If you have been given two files of similar type, say master and transaction file and you are requested to update the master file with transaction file information for existing records and prepare a report of new transactions and deleted transactions, then you should go for what is called Matching logic.
This is also known as co-sequential processing. Sort both the files on key and compare the keys. If the keys are matching then update the file. If you find any record that is found in transaction but not in master file, then that is new addition and the reverse is deletion. If the master key is greater than transaction key, then that corresponds to the first case and reverse is the second case. An attempt was made to write beyond the externally defined boundaries of a relative or indexed file.
Do not use 66 level. Planning of data definition should make this redundant 2. Do not use 77 level. Collect all these together and group under a 01 level. Use 88 level appropriately.
For conditional names. All level numbers increment by an odd number in order to allow for the insertion of extra levels during modifications; this reduces the need for wholesale renumbering of the levels with all the problems that this entails. This enables the location 6. This is because with an internal sort, control is passed back to the program after each 7.
If SORT routines are used then the maximum key length is bytes with no maximum number of keys. To increase the efficiency of the sort, keep the key fields at the start of the record and as contiguous as possible. GOTO should never be used; a structured program should not need to use this command.
If however because of coding or processing constraints, then the only possible use is to transfer 8. The other option is to restructure the logic of the program so that the if statement is either eliminated or simplified. JCL is not used to write computer programs. It provides the means of communicating between an application program and the operating system and computer hardware.
JCL can be difficult because of the way it is used. A normal programming language, however difficult, soon becomes familiar through constant usage.
This contrasts with JCL in which language features are used so infrequently that many never become familiar. JCL is not necessarily difficult because most users only use a small set of similar JCL that never changes from job to job. Interactive Processing means that you give the computer a command and the computer responds to your command request. It is more like a conversation. Batch Processing means that you give the computer a whole group of commands, usually in the form of some sort of program you have written, and have the computer process this group of commands.
It is more like writing a letter. The name field must begin immediately after the second slash. Parameters are composites of prescribed words keywords and variables for which information must be substituted.
Comments can be extended through column 80, and can only be coded if there is an operand field. When the total length of the fields on a control statement exceeds 71 columns, continue the fields onto one or more following statements.
JCL should be commented as you would any programming language. Comments can also be coded on any JCL statement by leaving a blank field after the operand field. Each job must begin with a single JOB statement. Error Messages 3. JCL Statements 4.
Dataset Dispositions 5. Accounting information. Use the EXEC execute statement to identify the application program or cataloged or in-stream procedure that this job is to execute and to tell the system how to process the job. It is also known as an executable load module.
It must reside in a partitioned dataset. Because the same set of JCL statements are often used repeatedly with little or no change they can be stored in cataloged procedures. JCL provides programmers with the option of coding these statements only once, recording and cataloging the statements under an appropriate name in a procedure library, and then invoking these statements through an EXEC statement.
Such a previously established set of JCL statements is known as a "cataloged procedure. This saves the user from writing lengthy error-prone JCL statements. In short, this is JCL that does not have to be included in batch jobs. Additional statements may be added to the JCL comprising a cataloged procedure at the time of invocation. Also, operand values on existing JCL statements may be altered or parameters defined in the procedure may be substituted at invocation time.
Cataloged procedure statements must be overridden in the same order as they appear in the procedure. To add new DD statements let them follow any changed DD cards for that step. To modify an existing DD statement, only those operands to be changed need be coded on the modifying DD statement.
The remaining operands of the DD statement within the procedure will be unchanged. If more than one DD statement in a procedure is to be modified, the modifying DD statements must be placed in the same order as the original DD statements occur in the procedure. When looking at your output, the following symbols will determine what kind of statement is indicated when your job runs:. The DD statement may also give the system various information about the data set: Instream data is perhaps the most common form of input.
To include data in the input stream, code:. SYSIN line. Data sets can be temporary or nontemporary. A temporary data set is created and deleted within the job, whereas nontemporary data sets can be retained after the job completes. A data set name can contain up to 44 characters including periods.
Generally, this deals with how long you want to keep this data set around.
UCNS has set up the following management classes:. This refers to the volume serial number on an internal tape label. The filename can be from 1 to 17 characters in length. The DISP parameter describes the current status of the data set old, new, or to be modified and directs the system on the disposition of the dataset pass, keep, catalog, uncatalog, or delete either at the end of the step or if the step abnormally terminates.
DISP is always required unless the data set is created and deleted in the same step. This is the status of the data set at the beginning of the step. If the data set is new, the system creates a data set label; if it is old, the system locates it and reads its label. OLD designates an existing data set; it can be an input data set or an output data set to rewrite. MOD modifies a sequential data set - positions the pointer at the end of the data set in order to add new data to the data set.
Normal disposition, the second term in the DISP parameter, indicates the disposition of the data set when the data set is closed or when the job terminates normally. The abnormal dispositions, effective only if the step abnormally terminates, are the same as normal dispositions except that PASS is not allowed.
CATLG catalogs a nontemporary data set. All new data sets on disk volumes must be allocated space. Storage on disk volumes can be allocated in units of blocks, cylinders, tracks, kilobytes and bytes. The space may be requested as a primary and a secondary amount.
The primary amount is allocated when the data set is opened with a disposition of NEW. The secondary amount is allocated if the primary amount is exceeded.
The primary amount can be conservative, with the secondary amount providing a reserve. The secondary amount provides for data set growth over time. Any named collection of data is called a data set. A partitioned dataset consists of multiple files within one data structure. A sequential dataset consists of one file within a data structure. A partitioned dataset differs from a sequential dataset in that it has a directory of its members.
Whenever you refer to a member of a partitioned dataset, you include the member name in parentheses. On the TSO service, data sets are typically created and reside on disk volumes. A volume is a standard unit of storage. Each block of data on a DASD volume has a distinct location and a unique address, making it possible to find any record without extensive searching.
One DASD volume can be used for many different data sets, and space on it can be reallocated and reused.
With SMS, users can allocate data sets more easily. The data sets allocated through the Storage Management Subsystem are called system-managed. System-managed means that the system determines data placement and automatically manages data availability, performance, space, reclamation, and security.
One of the most beneficial goals of System-managed storage is to relieve users of performance, availability, space, and device management details. DFSMS stores data in a device-independent format so that it can easily move the data to any of the following devices:.
Data sets that have reached the end of their retention period expired will be deleted. At this time the data set will be moved to tape. Two copies of each will be kept. The change indicator will trigger the backup after the first backup is made. This SPACE example allows a total of 40 tracks for the dataset with 1 block of space reserved for the directory. This SPACE example allows a total of tracks for the dataset with 8 blocks reserved for the directory.
The format can be one or more of the following characters:. This dataset will have fixed length records with a length of There will be records of data per block. This dataset will have variable length records with a maximum of characters. The blocksize of the dataset will be This measurement is commonly referred to as BPI bits per inch. The LABEL parameter tells the type of label, the relative file number on the tape, and whether the data set is to be protected for input or output.
This dataset will only be retained for 7 days. If the user decides to keep the dataset for a longer period of time, the ALTER command can be issued. This dataset, based on the management class of standard, will be retained on the system as long as the user utilizes it. Here is a list of available output classes:. Graybar Overlay: Service Site Page Printers: Your output will be printed on greenbar paper.
Special Hold Classes: To request that the "gray bar" overlay not print on a landscape sysout class for all print files, code:. It specifies what time the job will be executed, how many lines in the job, and where the job is to be printed.
Since TSO is a time sharing operating system, it allows many people to use the computer at the same time in such a way that each is unaware that the computer is being used by others. Time sharing attempts to to maximize an individuals use of the computer, not the efficiency of the computer itself. In order to do this, job scheduling is used to assign jobs to a certain class in order to maximize the resources available to each user.
VRN will be assigned when the tape is checked in. This identifies the tape in the tape library. Cartridge Tapes must have C in the first two column positions on the vrn parameter. VSN the volume serial number on the the internal label of a standard labeled tape. This must be the actual internal label. For non-labeled tapes, this can be any arbitrary name.
KEY is a password that you will assign to the tape for security purposes. The operator will check the keyword in your JCL against the keyword on the tape before mounting the tape.
The following example illustrates the operator card with the referencing DD statement. The tape is going to be read on a BPI tape drive. This job will not begin executing until after 6: The output will go directly to the printer with the sysout class of S.
The primary purpose of the Helpdesk is to aid faculty, staff, and students with the use of our computer systems through general consulting and information requests. Assistance is provided through telephone contacts, walkins, and electronic mail. This manual is available for reference at the Client Services Help Desk. A JOB is a unit of work the computer is to perform. JOB statement: EXEC statement: The exec statement names the program or the procedure that is to be executed.
DD statement: The DD statements describe the data used by the program. A job may consist of job steps. Job executes procedures, procedures have various steps to execute various programs, which use parameters and parameter files. Procedures will be held in datasets with proclib or proc extension e.
REL REL 1. There are two kinds of parameters in the operand field: The operating system recognizes positional parameters by their position in the operand field. Keyword parameters can be coded in any order. Positional parameters must be coded in a specific order before any keyword parameter. Consider the job statement: The COND parameter. The COND parameter offers a method of testing the return codes issued by the previous steps to determine whether a step will be executed.
Value is a no. The COND parameter causes the value entered to be tested against the return codes from the previous steps, using the operator provided. If the test condition is true, the step is skipped. If the test condition is false, the step is executed. Symbolic parameters offer a convenient way of changing a procedure to fit your requirement. Consider the example procedure-proglod, sysctl, sym, etc.
Symbolic parameter names may consist of from one to seven alphanumeric or national characters preceded by an ampersand. Exec statement keyword parameters may not be used as names of symbolic parameters. For e. This restriction does not extend to DD statement keyword parameters. A generation data group is a collection, or group, of cataloged data sets having the same name and related to one another chronologically.
Each of these datasets is called a generation data set or, simply, a generation. Each generation data set is distinguished by others by the generation number. Generation group index contains information on how many generations are to be retained and what to do when the index gets full.
The command format: The no. TO date Dataset retention period. FOR days Dataset retention period. The generation number may be relative or absolute. DD 0. DD The absolute no. DD 0 might appear to the system, for e. Then the data set with a relative no. Another name for a library is a partitioned data set PDS. Strictly speaking it is not a utility program because it does nothing.
It clears register 15 and BR branch It is used to create or delete a library based on the DD statement parameters. Sorting means putting records in a data set into a specified order.
Merging is closely related to sorting; it means combining records from two or more sorted. The sort program requires three pieces of information: A typical control statement would look like: Position is the starting byte of the control field in the record. Length is the length in bytes of the control field. Format is the format of the data in the control field. Sequence is either A for ascending or D for descending. By selecting records for the sort, you can decrease the amount of time the sort requires.
Only one include or omit statement is permitted in a sort. If test coded with include is true for a particular record, that record is included in the sort; whereas if test coded with omit is true, that record is omitted from the sort. Numeric constants are coded as simple values, such as 15 or A typical include statement would look like: These statements are used to reformat the records.
This results in faster sorting. The first sub parameter,nX,is optional; it specifies the no. The third sub parameter, align, is optional; the possible values being H, F, and D specify. When you merge, you start with two or more sorted data sets and create a new data set that is in the same sorted order. While merging you must specify more than one input data set.
The sort control statements are normally coded in a parameter file. There are three types of VSAM data sets: Allocating space on DASD 2.
Supply description of the data set 3. Load the data set 5. Print the data set. Check reason code for exact cause. Examples are S trying to read beyond End of File, trying to write to an input file or a file length error. Eg Invalid DCB. Operation Exception. Check for subscript errors, missing DD card, file S0C1 not opened.
Trying to access storage not S0C4 available to the program. Program Check Exception - Data. Check for spaces in a packed decimal S0C7 or numeric field. Check to see if record layouts or file layouts have been changed. Job has been cancelled. The value of x will vary depending on the way the job was cancelled.
S means job was cancelled by a user or Sx22 operator without a dump. If a TSO session times out you will probably get an S abend code. Unable Link or Load. The job was unable to find the specified load S module. Job was anable to allocate an area of memory of the correct size.
S You are trying to access a dataset which you are not authorized to use. Unable to allocate enough storage for a dataset. Typical reasons are; trying to write to a file opened as input; Rewrite without a previous read. See the message IGZI for.
Check there is a DD statement for the file. For Shared Resources, buffer pool is full. Key Ranges were specified for the data set when it was defined but no 24 range was specified that includes the record to be inserted. Insufficient Virtual Storage to complete the request. You attempted to use a type of processing Output or Control-Interval 44 Processing that was not specified when the data set was opened. Changing the Prime Key or Key of Reference when making an 96 60 update.
Request was submitted by the wrong task. No record for the data set to be opened was found in the available 94 catalog s or an unidentified error occurred while VSAM was searching the catalog. Security Verification failed; the password specified in the Access- 98 Method Control Block for a specified level of access does not match the password in the catalog for that level of access. The data set is not available for the type of processing you specify, A8 or an attempt was made to open a Reusable data set with the Reset option while another user had the data set.
A VSAM catalog specified in JCL either does not exist or is not B4 open, and no record for the data set to be opened was found in any other catalog. Reset was specified for a nonreusable data set and the data set is not E8 empty.
What is the parameter to be passed in the job card for the unlimited time, irrespective of the job class? A S0C7 - Data exception error - you will get it whenever you are trying to move the low values or spaces into the numeric field, or compare the numeric fields with low values, or try.
To avoid this you have to always initialize the numeric fields otherwise they will contain the low values. COND means condition parameter. It is compared with system return code of previous step. Jell which changes during run time i. This is what i think, please clarify It is 32, Based on that we can calculate efficient number of Records in a Block. It is used as an alternative for steplib.
When we specify the dataset name in include, it will search in all the datasets specified in the include dataset. This error is faced when we execute the cobol program. GDG - group of dataset that are logically or chronologically related, referred by name and a relative generation number - an integer which identifies the generation of a dataset and is coded in parentheses after dataset name.
Can be sequential, direct, partitioned. VSAM - no. Must always be cataloged. Advantage - all datasets have the same name and system keeps track of adding new and retaining previous generations and deleting oldest successive generation.
Empty - when limit is reached all members are removed from the index, otherwise-only oldest. GDG number is updated at the end of the job. If number is not specified all generations will be processed from the beginning. This is managed by JES. This can be managed Using. Statement in JCL[when used it wouldn't perform any task].
Datasets must be of the same type disk or tape. On the DD statement, what is the main difference between creating a new sequential flat file and a partitioned dataset?
The p designates how many directory blocks to allocate. Pl some on try this out. In the case of Static call, the called program is a stand along program, it is an executable program. During run time we can call it in our called program. As about Dynamic call, the called program is not an executable program it can executed thru the called program. Mainly used to test catalog procedures.
Cataloged procedure is cataloged on the procedure library and is called by specifying the procedure name on the EXEC statement.
What do you feel makes a good program? A program that follows a top down approach. It is also one that other programmers or users can follow logically and is easy to read and understand. A set of precoded JCL that can be modified through the use of parameters or override cards.
Procedures can be catalogued or instream. When updating a dataset, you would normally use OLD. JOB - indicates start of jobstream to the operating system and through parms coded on it, certain details about the job time, region, message level, job accounting data.
EXEC - indicates the start of execution of a particular job step, be that step a program or a proc.
DD - is a data definition, which is used to describe the attributes of a data set name, unit, type, space, disposition. What is it used for? What is order of searching of the libraries in a JCL? Specifies that the private library or libraries specified should be searched before the default system libraries in order to locate a program to be executed.
The system libraries are specified in the linklist. Secondary allocation is done when more space is required than what has already been allocated. That this is a new dataset and needs to be allocated, to CATLG the Data set if the step is successful and to delete the data set if the step abends. Railway Reservation system. Other jobs in the same region must transaction id triggers the transaction wait. Processing Single task single thread. Priority in job Multi task multi thread.
Priority Mode scheduling processing. Each transaction. User must wait Message terminals updated files, Output for batch jobs to produce reports day, system Instant feed back week, month Resource Usage Less More Example of Monthly sales report Airline reservation system application. Ensures the device and format independence to the application programs 2.
A layout change in the formatted screen can be done independent of the application program coding as long as field name and length remain the same 3.
Halfward binary L Contain the length of data entered by the terminal operator F One byte flag field I Contains the data entered by the operator A One byte field that contains Attribute byte O Contains data to be sent to terminal.
Contains the data to be sent to the terminal. Cursor will be placed in the field. Linkage Section. Certain control functions may be included in that command. It will NOT alter any attribute settings. Selective resetting of the MDT's must be done another way. PF12 may be the exit function PF3 may be an update function etc. Thus testing for the type of AID will alter the logic flow. This information is especially useful with screens containing an action bar. If the cursor is in a field for which there is no symbolic label i.
Thus the number can be used for arithmetic operations. This is not the way to terminate a CICS program. CICS has a command for that purpose. An exchange between a terminal and a data base representing an application process.
For example, an inquiry or a deposit and balance update. Prepared statements compiled or assembled into an executable module of machine instructions. DB2 precompiler precedes another process, binding, not mentioned here. They are commented out and replaced with statements in the appropriate language. The load module is placed in the CICS online program library. The compiler listing is or limited use if the translator listing would not process all commands.
Where you don't really want them. For eg. It has to be specified in length option. Pseudo conversational technique is uses the multiple transaction identifiers pct entries and multiple program pct entries. It performs the terminal conversation in the following way:.
A conversational program is logically and physically divided into separte programs after sending a message and before receving the message.
For each separate program, a unique cics trasction identifier is assigned. In this case, itself. Where one exists in the Linkage section. So, programmer need not define the physical organization and other attributes of the files. Statement are coded in SQL language in the application program to Communicate data requests to the database. It is optional. If duplicate record is found for the specified key.
If the record is not found for the key specified. When file specified is not open. Application program 1 TDQ Appl.
Will be stored in main if auxiliary storage not supported. If the syntax is satisfied, it will execute the command. No execution. Its function is similar to the return code in the batch program. If an exceptional condition occurs during execution of a CICS application program and if the program does not check the exceptional condition, CICS may continue executing the program or terminate abnormally the execution of the program, depending on the exceptional condition and the command involved.
Some of the more common CICS abends are briefly described below. These are only brief descriptions and do not cover all possible reasons.
This is the most common abend in CICS. Check for spaces in a packed decimal numeric field and changes to the file and record layouts. The last character indicates the exact error. In case of call, whenever you do changes to the called program you need to compile the calling program also. In case of link, it is not needed. What is Communication Area? Communication Area is used to pass data between the programmer between the task. Which of the following statements correctly describe the syntax of CICS command language?
A security violation has occurred. The operator is not defined with the proper authority in the SNT Sign-on Table to use a particular file. A program interrupt 0C0 or 0C1 or 0C2 or Which of the following commands, when issued by 2 different programs running at the same time, will prevent simultaneous use of resource 'SINGLE'?
How can you accomplish braykpoint in intertest? U-for uncondishional braykpoint, C-for conditional brakepoint,and A-for automatic brakepoint. There are six ways in initiating a transaction. Making use of PLT program list table 6. By associating four character transid in PCT program control table. The error code aeiv? It occurs when program interuption takes place. TSQ is temporary in nature i. Hope this will suffice. It won't allow any one else to use the same trans-id. Give reasons?
What does EIB mean? What command do you issue to delete a record in a transient data queue? Yes it is correct but there is a restriction. U can deletethe records sequentially.. For example if one want to delete 10 th record directly it is not possible with this..
How do you access the records randomly in TSQ? By specifying the ITEM option. The XCTL command passes control to another program, but the resources requested by the first program may still be allocated. The disadvantage of LINK is that it requires that both the calling program and the called program remain in main memory even though both are no longer needed.
PCT contains a list of valid transaction ID. Each transaction ID is paired with the name of the program ,CICS will load and execute when the transaction is invoked. On the other hand, PPT indicates each program's location which pertains to a storage address if the program has already been loaded or a disk location if the program hasn't been loaded.
PPT will also be used to determine whether it will load a new copy of the program when the transaction is invoked. What are the 3 common ways to create maps? What is Quasi-reentrancy? There are times when many users are concurrently using the same program, this is what we call MultiThreading.
And this technique is known as quasi-reentrancy. The physical mapset is a load module used to map the data to the screen at execution time. The symbolic map is the actual copybook member used in the program to reference the input and output fields on the screen. What CICS facilities can you use to save data between the transactions? For example prog. Prog A. In XCTL the control is directly transfer to prog.
It is placed in the linkage section automatically by CICS translator program. It must be the first entry in linkage section. CICS places values prior to giving control to the program and we can find almost any information about our transaction.
If the generic key is specified in the STARTBR command positioning in the file will be before the first record satisfying the generic key. What is the difference between pseudo-conversational and conversational? Pseudo-conversational will start a new task for each input. Conversational will have an active task during the duration of the data entry. An area used to transfer data between diffrent programs or between subsequent executions of the same program. Needs to be defined in the Linkage Section.
An integrated and shared repository for stored data or collection of stored operational data used by application systems of some particular enterprise. Does not distinguish between parent and child. Any record type can be associated with any number of arbitrary record types Enhanced to overcome limitations of other models but in reality there is minimal difference due to frequent enhancement.
Data attributes and methods that operate on those attributes are encapsulated instructions called objects. Is a state where every foreign key in the first table must either match a primary key value in the second table or must be wholly null.
Represented as entities relationship between entities and attributes of both relationships and entities. Depending on application, storing more than one tables might enable faster retrieval for joins using these tables. Usually only one table is preferred. This is because a single page can contain rows from all tables defined in the database.
If a table is dropped, the space for that table can be reclaimed within minimum reorganization. Views can be very practical ways of simplifying queries by reducing the number of different tables. Synonym is like a nick name to a table name and when no longer needed it can be dropped. Synonym access is specific to the user who has created it. A powerful database management language that performs the function of data manipulation, data definition and data control. As an application programmer, you will use SQL to extract data from one or more tables and pass these data to another program for additional processing.
If you want your data in descending order, use the DESC keyword. Using both operator together, searched expression linked by AND are paired up first. Parentheses can be used to force expression to be paired together.
Lets you retrieve data from each row whose columns has a value equal to one of the several listed values. AVG 1. This intermediate result is kept in a temporary table. You must specify the table name and the names and attributes of each column. CHAR — Allows any values to be entered in the column. All entries are the same length. All entries are the varying length. The number can have a total of 15 digits. It works on top-bottom-top fashion. These are referenced in the SQL statement.
Builds the result table. Returns data from the results table one row at a time and assign the value to the specified host variables. Releases all resources used by the cursor. The options are Tablespace, Table, Page or Any.
How would you find out the total number of rows in a table?
How do you select a row using indexes? What are aggregate functions? How do you find the maximum value in a column? What are the wildcard characters? When do you use a LIKE statement? How can you get a list of employees who are not assigned to any project? What is the result of this query if no rows are selected: If the table structure is changed a field is added , the program will have to be modified.
The chance of an index only scan is lost. What are correlated sub queries? Correlated sub queries must be evaluated for each qualified row of the outer query that is referred to. What is a cursor? Apart from cursor, what other ways are available to you to retrieve a row from a table in embedded SQL? Other wise simply the cursor is placed on the first row.
Can you have more than one cursor open at any one time in a program? But, it has not effect in psuedo-conversational CICS programs. What is the physical storage length of each of the following DB2 data types: PIC X 26 Three types of joins: Equi-join 2. Non-equijoin 3. Can I alter a table e. Lakshmi, Hyderabad , nlsunitha yahoo. I re ally app re ciate the excellent job you have been doing for the mainframe community.
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