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Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. Is this feature helpful? Jose L. English Choose a language for shopping. Do they have social media profiles? Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Results showed that the brain regions associated with motivation and reward were most active when participants were sharing information publicly — but also when they were talking about themselves , even if no one was listening.
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Download Social Psychology Aronson 8th pdf. Ebooks Social Psychology Aronson 8th pdf. Epub Social Psychology Pdf file is about social psychology a la carte edition by elliot aronson is available in several types of edition. This pdf document is presented in digital edition of Elliot Aronson. Researchers had 80 female college students work in pairs on a task and then allowed those students to "overhear" their partners talking about them.
In reality, experimenters had told the partners what to say. In one scenario, the comments were all positive; in a second scenario, the comments were all negative; in a third scenario, the comments went from positive to negative; and in a fourth scenario, the comments went from negative to positive.
As it turns out, students liked their partners best when the comments went from positive to negative, suggesting that people like to feel that they've won you over in some capacity.
Bottom line: Although it's counterintuitive, try complimenting your friends less often. Social psychologist Susan Fiske proposed the stereotype content model , which is a theory that people judge others based on their warmth and competence.
According to the model, if you can portray yourself as warm — i. If you seem competent — for example, if you have high economic or educational status — they're more inclined to respect you.
Harvard psychologist Amy Cuddy says that, especially in business settings, it's important to demonstrate warmth first and then competence. According to the pratfall effect , people will like you more after you make a mistake — but if they only believe you are usually a competent person. Revealing that you aren't perfect makes you more relatable and vulnerable toward the people around you.
Researcher Elliot Aronson first discovered this phenomenon when he studied how simple mistakes can affect perceived attraction. He asked male students from the University of Minnesota to listen to tape recordings of people taking a quiz. When people did well on the quiz but spilled coffee at the end of the interview, the students rated them higher on likability than when they did well on the quiz and didn't spill coffee or didn't do well on the quiz and spilled coffee. According to a classic study by Theodore Newcomb , people are more attracted to those who are similar to them.
This is known as the similarity-attraction effect. In his experiment, Newcomb measured his subjects' attitudes on controversial topics, such as sex and politics, and then put them in a University of Michigan-owned house to live together. By the end of their stay, the subjects liked their housemates more when they had similar attitudes about the topics that were measured.
If you're hoping to get friendly with someone, try to find a point of similarity between you two and highlight it. This is known as subliminal touching , which occurs when you touch a person so subtly that they barely notice. Common examples include tapping someone's back or touching their arm, which can make them feel more warmly toward you.
In "Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior," author Leonard Mlodinow mentions a study in France in which young men stood on street corners and talked to women who walked by. They had double the success rate in striking up a conversation when they lightly touched the woman's arms as they talked to them instead of doing nothing at all.
In a University of Mississippi and Rhodes College experiment that studied the effects of interpersonal touch on restaurant tipping, waitresses briefly touched customers on the hand or shoulder as they were returning their change. As it turns out, they earned significantly larger tips than waitresses who didn't touch their customers. In one study , nearly undergraduate women looked at photos of another woman in one of four poses: Results suggested that the woman in the photo was liked most when she was smiling, regardless of her body position.
Another study suggested that smiling when you first meet someone helps ensure they'll remember you later. People want to be perceived in a way that aligns with their own beliefs about themselves. This phenomenon is described by self-verification theory.
We all seek confirmations of our views, positive or negative. For a series of studies at Stanford University and the University of Arizona, participants with positive and negative perceptions of themselves were asked whether they wanted to interact with people who had positive or negative impressions of them.
The participants with positive self-views preferred people who thought highly of them, while those with negative self-views preferred critics.
This could be because people like to interact with those who provide feedback consistent with their known identity.
Other research suggests that, when people's beliefs about us line up with our own, our relationship with them flows more smoothly. That's likely because we feel understood, which is an important component of intimacy. Self-disclosure may be one of the best relationship-building techniques. In a study led by Arthur Aron at Stony Brook University, college students were paired off and told that they should spend 45 minutes getting to know each other better.
Experimenters provided some student pairs with a series of questions to ask, which got increasingly deep and personal. For example, one of the intermediate questions was "How do you feel about your relationship with your mother? For example, one question was "What is your favorite holiday? At the end of the experiment, the students who'd asked increasingly personal questions reported feeling much closer to each other than students who'd engaged in small talk.
You can try this technique on your own as you're getting to know someone. For example, you can build up from asking them about their last trip to the movies to learning about the people who mean the most to them in life. When you learn intimate information about another person, they are likely to feel closer to you and want to confide in you in the future. According to the Pygmalion effect , people treat others in ways that are consistent with their expectations of them and therefore cause the person to behave in a way that confirms those expectations.
In a Harvard Magazine article , Cuddy says, "If you think someone's a jerk, you'll behave toward them in a way that elicits jerky behaviors. On the other hand, if you expect someone to be friendly toward you, they are more likely to behave in a friendly manner toward you. Psychologists have known for a while about a phenomenon called " reciprocity of liking ": When we think someone likes us, we tend to like them as well.
In one study , for example, participants were told that certain members of a group discussion would probably like them.
These group members were chosen randomly by the experimenter. After the discussion, participants indicated that the people they liked best were the ones who supposedly liked them.
Research from Illinois State University and California State University at Los Angeles found that, regardless of whether people were thinking about their ideal friend or romantic partner, having a sense of humor was really important. Meanwhile, not having a sense of humor, especially at the office, could backfire. One study of Chinese workers between 26 and 35 found that people were less well-liked and less popular among their colleagues if they were "morally focused.
That means they placed a high value on displaying caring, fairness, and other moral traits. The researchers said that that was because morally focused individuals were perceived as less humorous by their colleagues.