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The Science of Interstellar Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent Pdfdrive:hope Give books away. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Eric Michael Summerer is an excellent choice for the narration of Highlight, take notes, and search in the book; Page numbers are just like the physical edition; Length: pages; Word Wise: Enabled; Due to its. The Science of Interstellar eBook: Kip Thorne, Christopher Nolan: Visit Kindle eTextbook store to find higher education books for engineering, medical.
In science fiction. Nothing will violate firmly established laws of physics. Can you identify some of the pairs? Science is awesome, so is Mr. For Cooper.
Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Vargasdeto Follow. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Black holes Chapter 5. Stellar Death: White Dwarfs. Neutron stars have masses about one to three times that of the Sun. A black hole with about the same mass as a typical neutron star or white dwarf say 1.
A white dwarf left. See Figure 2. They contain no matter whatsoever. For the white dwarf I show only a tiny segment of its surface. They must have formed in some other way. The magnetic field is the collection of all the magnetic force lines. Since stars are generally no heavier than about Suns. The iron filings make the pattern shown in Figure 2. They orient themselves along magnetic force lines that otherwise are invisible. Do you remember taking a sheet of paper.
The giant black holes in the cores of galaxies. This can be used for magnetic levitation. As a student in science class. You see nothing between the magnets. Magnetic force lines from a bar magnet. These force lines grab a compass needle.
Magnetic force lines depart from the south magnetic pole. The Earth also has two magnetic poles. Figure 2. There the protons collide with oxygen and nitrogen molecules.
That fluorescent light is the Aurora. These jets consist of all types of radiation: Neutron stars have very strong magnetic fields. Every time a jet sweeps over the Earth. As the star spins. The strength of the gravitational pull is proportional to the density of the force lines the number of lines passing through a fixed area.
As they reach inward. The universe contains other kinds of fields collections of force lines in addition to magnetic fields. One example is electric fields collections of electric force lines that. Another example is gravitational fields collections of gravitational force lines that. I give some details at the end of Chapter By the Americas were coming into focus. In Chapter 2 we briefly met an example of a Newtonian law.
With concepts such as force. By Eurasia was coming into focus and there were glimmers of South America. By Australia was coming into focus. Similarly Figure 3. By Einstein and others had found strong evidence that the Newtonian laws fail in therealm of the very fast objects that move at nearly the speed of light. To remedy these failures Einstein gave us his revolutionary relativistic laws of physics Figure 3. Using the concepts of warped time and warped space which I describe in the next chapter.
To deal with this Niels Bohr. Using the concepts that everything fluctuates randomly at least a little bit which I describe in Chapter By it became evident that the relativistic laws and the quantum laws are fundamentally incompatible. World maps from to The physical laws that govern the universe. Werner Heisenberg. They predict different things.
By it was crystal clear that the Newtonian laws also fail in the realm of the very small molecules. Another example of a truth is the black hole Gargantua and the bending of light rays by which it distorts images of stars Figure 3. We do not yet know the laws of quantum gravity. These pulsar observations are beautifully and accurately explained by the quantum and relativistic laws.
This leaves much elbow room for exciting science fiction. Educated Guesses. In precisely this sense. To be true. Despite those insights. Gargantua bends the light rays coming from each star. The biology. By contrast. Let me explain. Figure Astronomers have seen gravitational lensing by other objects for example.
Throughout recorded history. This is what it really would look like. This is enough for me. Burning blighted corn. So is harnessing the anomalies to lift colonies off Earth Chapter That it might someday occur is a speculation that most biologists regard as very unlikely.
Scientists do not yet know how to deduce. The biology that underlies these blights is based on chemistry. Entertainment Inc. Although experimental physicists when measuring gravity have searched hard for anomalies—behaviors that cannot be explained by the Newtonian or. The blights encountered by humans thus far have not jumped from infecting one type of plant to another with such speed as to endanger human life.
That such a blight is possible is an educated guess. In reality. But they are a speculation based on science that I and some of my physicist friends are happy to entertain—at least late at night over beer. The anomalies and their harnessing are a rather extreme speculation.
So they fall within the guidelines I advocated for Interstellar: Our universe. We are far from sure that the bulk really exists. And it is only an educated guess that. And we have no idea whether the bulk. I explain the status of that science—truth. Throughout this book. For details see Chapter Chapters 14 and 5. They are so huge that they warp space and time enormously and randomly. For Cooper. Can you identify in your own life speculations that became educated guesses and then truth?
Have you ever seen your established truths upended. For nineteenth-century physicists. Of course. But when they happen.
He once described to me lying in a warm bath for hours on end. But around it was revolutionarily upended by a tiny observed anomaly in the orbit of Mercury around the Sun Chapter Revolutions that upend established scientific truth are exceedingly rare. Time flows more slowly in the basement than in the penthouse by trillionths of a second each day. Cooper despairs of ever seeing his daughter Murph again. Everything likes to live where it will age the most slowly.
Finally in he had a brilliant inspiration. At the surface of a black hole.
Their experiment was exquisitely accurate: Vessot found that time on the ground flows more slowly than at a height of On the surface of a neutron star. The greater the slowing of time. This slowing of time near a black hole plays a major role in Interstellar. The accuracy improved in On Earth. Will Basic Books.
Knowing the. Typically only four to twelve satellites can be seen at once from any location on Earth. Putting General Relativity to the Test. Each radio signal from a viewable satellite tells the smart phone where the satellite is located and the time the signal was transmitted. Atomic clocks measure slowing of time on Earth. Einstein was a genius. Time at a Perhaps the greatest scientist ever. They measure time with their own clocks.
This scheme would fail if the signal transmission times were the true times measured on the satellite. Among other examples are the laser. It required a half century for technology to improve enough for a test with high precision. This is one of many examples where his insights about the laws of physics could not be tested in his own day.
The global positioning system. The Warping of Space: Finally in November But despite the most intense mental struggle of his life. At first. As the Earth and Mars moved around the Sun in their orbits.
From to late he struggled. In —77 they transmitted radio signals to two spacecraft in orbit around Mars. The spacecraft. The extra travel time is shown. Travel time for radio signals from Earth to Viking to Earth. If space were flat. It did not. When the radio waves passed near the Sun. It bends downward inside and near the Sun.
Figure 4. Around a black hole. More precisely. Around a neutron star. Inside what does it bend? It bends inside a higher-dimensional hyperspace. This motivates the way we physicists think about our full universe. Reasenberg and Shapiro inferred the shape of the space warp. In Figure 4. How many dimensions does the bulk have?
I discuss this carefully in Chapter From the extra time delay and how it changed as the spacecraft moved relative to Earth. Our universe has three space dimensions east-west.
The shape that the team measured. This greater length would be impossible if space were flat. So throughout this book I draw pictures of our brane and bulk with one dimension removed. Let's make that more precise. In Interstellar. As usual. And it distorts the sky around the wormhole and around the black hole Gargantua. Black holes and wormholes extending out of our brane into and through the bulk. Very likely yes.
Three are the space dimensions of our own universe or brane east-west. One space dimension is removed. Does the bulk really exist? Is there truly a fifth dimension. For example. It is a fanciful drawing by my artist friend Lia Halloran. The warping of space warping of our brane plays a huge role in Interstellar. The fourth is time. The warping of space and time drives them together. As each path tries to remain straight. But in this case. The picture of the hole is extracted from Lia.
Four paths for planetary motion in the vicinity of a black hole. The two purple paths headed into the black hole begin parallel to each other. The green paths. The green paths begin. Several years ago. The purple paths begin.
We found. It describes the details of the warping of space and time. It stretches her. I draw a woman lying on a red tendex line. Tendex lines around a black hole. In Isaac Newton discovered them in his own theory of gravity and used them to explain ocean tides. Stars and planets and moons also produce them. From another viewpoint it is the tendex lines that do the stretching and squeezing.
Newton reasoned. And indeed they do. This stretching and squeezing is just a different way of thinking about the influence of the warping of space and time. From one viewpoint. Black holes are not the only objects that produce stretching and squeezing forces. This is qualitatively the same as around a black hole Figure 4. What the Earth does feel is the red-arrowed lunar pulls in the left half of Figure 4.
Because of their role in ocean tides. It is remarkable that a warping so tiny can produce forces big enough to cause the ocean tides! To extremely high accuracy. As the Earth turns on its axis. They must be the same. Relativistic viewpoint on tides: We now have three points of view on tidal forces: Scientists and engineers spend most of their lives trying to solve puzzles. Or it may be figuring out how black holes behave.
Whatever the puzzle may be. Peering at the puzzle first from one viewpoint and then from another can often trigger new ideas. This is what Professor Brand does. The puzzle may be how to design a spacecraft. Einstein realized that if he were to fall. Having three different viewpoints on the same phenomenon can be extremely valuable.
To determine its shape. A heavy rock bends the rubber downward. But the circumference. The rubber sheet is your entire universe. Ant on a Trampoline: Now some explanation. If your universe were flat.
Black holes are made from warped space and warped time.. Your universe. Nothing else—no matter whatsoever. As seen from the bulk.
Figure 5. This is a two- dimensional surface. Take an equatorial slice through the black hole. An ant on a warped trampoline. In chapters Not so. The warped space inside and around a black hole. In fact. For the trampoline. If this seems a. Event Horizon and Warped Time When you first hear mention of a black hole. This warping-begets-warping scenario does not happen in our solar system hardly at all.
And for a black hole. Warping begets warping in a nonlinear. Just as it requires a lot of energy to bend a stiff bow in preparation for shooting an arrow. Throughout our solar system the space warps are so weak that their energy is minuscule. Because one space dimension is removed from this diagram. See Chapter 28 for how this plays out in Interstellar. And any signals I try to transmit in any manner whatsoever get pulled down with me.
My signals and I are trapped inside the black hole. I am a two-dimensional Kip. Nobody above the horizon can ever see the signals I send after I cross the horizon. If I hover above the black hole. At the horizon itself. Near the horizon there is no way whatsoever to protect oneself against this whirling drag. That downward flow. Like the air in a tornado.
Everything is drawn inexorably toward the future. I must experience an infinitely strong gravitational pull. Space Whirl Black holes can spin.
A spinning hole drags space around it into a vortex-type. What happens inside the event horizon? Time is so extremely warped there that it flows in a direction you would have thought was spatial: The warped shape of the surface in Figure 5.
Space around a spinnning black hole is dragged into whirling motion. Precise depiction of the warped space and time around a rapidly spinning black hole: And at the black circle. This is the event horizon. At the transition from blue to green. For the singularity. It is a circle. The colors depict the slowing of time as measured by someone who hovers at a fixed height above the horizon. The white arrows depict the rate at which space whirls around the black hole.
The whirl is fast at the horizon. From its details. If we were to restore the third space dimension. At the transition from yellow to red. The warping in Figure 5. The black-hole funnels and whirlpools so often shown in movies. We humans are confined to our brane. In Chapter 8 I talk more about this and other aspects of what a black hole really looks like. The space whirl gives them a boost. The black hole casts a black shadow on the field of stars behind it.
Karl Schwarzschild. None whatsoever. Black holes surely do exist. Computer simulations reveal the full details. So if black holes exist at all in our universe. Kerr a New Zealand mathematician did the same for a spinning black hole: The most beautiful example is a massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The resulting black hole is made entirely from warped space and time. In No matter is left behind.
Its gravitational pull. Roy Kerr. Over the decades since Along each orbit. Astronomers have seen compelling evidence for many black holes in our universe. Schwarzschild deduced the details of the warped spacetime around a nonspinning black hole. Many of these are as heavy as Gargantua million Suns. Black-hole scientists. Left to right: Karl Schwarzschild — Fig 5. It is to the lower right of the constellation Sagittarius.
Robert Oppenheimer — The heaviest yet measured is 17 billion times more massive than the Sun. Hawking —. Stephen W. Roy Kerr —. Observed orbits of stars around the massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.
We humans would survive for no more than a year or so! Astronomers estimate that the nearest black hole to Earth is roughly light- years away: A giant black hole resides there. From that census. So black holes are ubiquitous in our universe.
The Earth would be thrown close to the Sun where it boils. Now armed with a basic understanding of the universe. If there were. Inside our own galaxy. More on this in Chapter You cannot go backward in time at some fixed location. It is as though knowing my weight and how fast I can run.
So different from everyday experience. Let's see how this works. John Wheeler my mentor. At so close a distance. This is amazing. Working through the details. If Gargantua were less massive than that.
In all my science interpretations of what happens in Interstellar. I assume that. If it spins faster than that maximum. I went home. The crew of the Endurance could measure the spin rate directly by watching from far. And as he hovers. I assume this mass in Chapter After consulting with me. I was shocked. I discovered that. In places when astrophysics or planetary science were involved, Dr. Thorne provided the sometimes very unlikely but nevertheless possible scenarios that our difficulties might be resolved.
In places involving speculations in fundamental gravitational and quantum physics, Dr. Thorne provided motivations from the frontiers of theoretical physics. It was great fun to read these details. Finally, this book reveals the untold story in the movie: One of the most memorable scenes is of the massive black hole named Gargantua.
In this scene we view something that mankind will not see in reality in the foreseeable future. In Kit Thorne's book the reader learns that in making the movie Nolan stayed as close to known science and scientific speculation as possible. This science can be difficult, but Thorne writes well and provides a number of diagrams that illustrate the points he is making.
Thorne worked on the movie from it's early beginnings in , when Christopher Nolan's brother Jonathan worked on the early screen play. At one time Steven Spielberg was slated to direct the movie.
We can be glad that he dropped out, because he would not have made the breathtaking movie that Nolan did. Thorne covers the science from the beginning of the movie to the end, where Cooper falls through the black hole into the tesseract structure. As Thorne warns at the start of the book, some sections can be heavy going. If you don't know what an event horizon is, the book may be especially difficult. What makes black holes so difficult is that their physics is far outside any normal experience.
For example, at the end of the movie, Cooper, in one of the landing craft, falls into the black hole. In a massive black hole the tidal forces the difference in gravity between your toes and the top of your head are small so he can survive the trip across the event horizon.
Thorne mentions several times in the book that as an object approaches the event horizon, time, relative to the rest of the universe, slows toward infinity. To the outside observer, an object becomes trapped at the event horizon although it cannot be seen. What is hard to understand is that the object, in its own frame of reference, does cross the event horizon. Thorne does not succeed in fully explaining exactly what is happening in this strange region that is outside of our universe. For example, looking out of the hole, in the direction he is falling, does Cooper see all of time come to an end?
How fast is he traveling? If he orbits just below the event horizon, is he traveling near the speed of light? Why, exactly, is it so important that Cooper intersect the out falling singularity?
Simply stating that this is "historical light" is not an obvious explanation. I suspect that the problem is that many of the answers to these questions exist in mathematical equations, which are Thorne's old friends, since he has spent a lifetime with them.
These complexities make the book both fascinating and difficult at the same time. Einstein once said that ideas should be as simple as possible, but no simpler. Thorne is dealing with complex material and has done a good job of trying to live up to Einstein's dictum.
The best thing about this movie, as far as I'm concerned, is that it was designed from the beginning to treat some of the most interesting effects of general relativity in an accurate manner, and to make these counterintuitive effects central to a compelling human story.
That story may be unrealistic in many ways, as most interesting stories are, but everything that occurs in the movie is consistent with the laws of physics as far as we know them the material at the end delves into very speculative issues, but it does so in ways that are inspired by serious work in quantum gravity.
The fact that the main features of the movie are scientifically realistic could come as quite a surprise to many viewers, and this book gives them the opportunity to take the next steps toward understanding this surprising and incredibly beautiful science.
Kip Thorne's Science of Interstellar, answers just about all of the questions that one could possibly have after seeing the incredible movie. From the "simple" law of gravity, to the insanely complex ideas of space time warping, the tesseract, and gravitational anomalies, Kip takes his incredible knowledge of the universes and translates it into language that we can understand.
The Science of Interstellar is as fascinating as it is riveting. The only complaint that I have is that Thorne does not dedicate a specific chapter or section to explain the complex timeline which occurs throughout Interstellar. There is a chapter on the climax of the movie where I believed that section would be, however, there was nothing on the crazy timeline of events which would have been quite helpful in the understanding of this incredible movie.
Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. Very readable without mastering the intricate math that goes with this kind of science. A very good story, too, about how this all came to happen and how and where the film makers had to compromise the science for the sake of story telling and when they hewed to the science more closely.
And you learn quite a bit of science in the course of the book.