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Alan Calvert is the unsung generally don't realize that they have set hero of the modernization of American modernization in motion. Calvert began the Milo certainly didn't. When he began Milo Bar-bell Company in in Philadel- Few photographs have sur- Bar-bell he was simply pursuing his phia and introduced Strength magazine vived of Alan Calvert, founder vision of the American dream through his twelve years later, an act that helped of the Milo Bar-bell Company newfound passion for muscular bodies weightlifting evolve as a sport, and and Strength magazine.
This was taken near the end of his and strength. When Calvert began inspired his readers to think rationally life; he died in at age He just wanted to at a local Philadelphia gymnasium, such as Bill increase the number of barbell sets he sold by increasing McLean's establishment at Arch and Ninth Streets, his customer base and giving his customers direction and where professional boxers, wrestlers, gymnasts and motivation for their training.
Calvert realized that Milo acrobats worked out. But, the results of that training— Bar-bell and its publications were but a small part of an his own body—left him vaguely dissatisfied. He wasn't emerging sporting goods industry which included Spald- really muscular. He wasn't truly strong.
Calvert had an ing in baseball, Pope in bicycles, and Remington in epiphany, however, when he saw Eugen Sandow at the hunting equipment, but he could not have anticipated the Trocadero Theatre in while visiting the World's 9 impact his economic enterprises would have on Ameri- Columbian Exposition. The eighteen-year-old Calvert ca. Unlike the bodies of As an impressionable boy Calvert witnessed the lightweight trainers, Sandow's muscles were round, full, extremes of male physical development.
At the circus and symmetrical. His broad shoulders, thick legs, and and in variety theatres he saw large, defined abdominals reminded muscular strongmen who exerted Calvert of statuary he'd seen in vast amounts of strength against Philadelphia museums and at the Chicago World's Fair, and made This pamphlet entitled Vol.
Francis Lewis—able azine, the new owners primarily Calvert's first publication. He returned to see Sandow's phia was filled with neurasthenic office workers who exhibition several more times during his stay, and he performed physically non-challenging trades and suf- paid to see the strongman again when Sandow played in fered the diseases of the "modern man.
Sandow became his intuitively knew at an early age which physique he want- obsession. Calvert began collecting cabinet cards and ed for himself. He wanted to look, and be, strong. Inspired by Sandow, as so many others were, Calvert He pressed, curled, and extended the light dumbells that found a new focus for his training. Calvert knew what were advocated by these early training guides and as he was possible, even if his family thought he was wasting 11 grew older he probably trained with like-minded friends his time.
Although Calvert had created the ide- that lifting heavy barbells had to be part of the secret to al product and was beginning to understand the best the strongman's heavily-muscled physique. However, ways to use it, his own physique apparently never devel- when the young Philadelphian tried to find information oped into anything resembling his idol's perfection. While touring strongmen understood the need to nine inches tall and with enough flesh to look good in his lift heavy weights, they did not advertise the practice, or clothes.
Calvert was further man. Strength historian, David barbell like the ones Sandow used Webster, and magazine author, Ray in his demonstrations. Further- Van Cleef, credit him with a sixty- more, despite inquiries, he could- five pound right-handed press when n't find any for sale in the United weighing about pounds, a very States unless he wanted to special Colorful drawings of women ath- In May of , Strength combined with the Otto Arco appeared on the cover letes appeared frequently on magazine formerly known as Correct Eating.
Strength in January of There were several manufacturers selling creditable lift. Coulter claimed that Calvert later could dumbells of various weights—generally topping out at press seventy-five pounds in strict one-arm military style forty or fifty pounds—but not a single equipment cata- at a moment's notice at a bodyweight of log advertised barbells.
Calvert was also a "very capable man at dip- Calvert began tinkering, coming up with several ping on the parallel bars" in his younger and lighter home-made designs, and applied for his first patent in days.
In any case, Calvert's contribution to handled barbells commercially available to the Ameri- the Iron Game was not to be made through his body.
What was even more important than the Once he'd gotten his barbell business well- length of the bar was that the barbells were adjustable; established, Calvert turned his attention toward publish- 14 his first model could be loaded from 20 to pounds. People needed to know how to use barbells and The fact that the weight could be varied was not only how to build real strength. In fact, the closest example of "real weightlifting information" found in the first six years or so of Physical Culture's publication involved an article by George Elliott Flint titled, "The Strength and Symmetry of Man Compared with Ani- mals" in which Flint explained that heavy weights were needed in upper body training to match the symmetry of the lower body since the legs got more exercise during everyday activities.
The only other weightlifting infor- mation was in an article on dumbell training, which described numerous light weight one to five pound exercises and a single "heavy-weight" eight to thirty 19 pound lift. There were other publications, of course. The National Police Gazette was a popular source for sport- ing news at the time. Although it did not print "how-to" articles, it took great pride in posting—and at times, hosting—challenges between touring strongmen.
Out- ing magazine devoted considerable space to outdoor exercise—camping, cycling, equestrian events, fishing, hunting, yachting—and ran only an occasional article on physical culture or collegiate sports like football and track and field.
If you were looking for barbell training information, Outing was not the right publication either. To fill the void, Calvert decided to create a new kind of magazine, and in the beginning he kept it pretty simple. Strength began as a sixteen-page including the Calvert had to educate his consumers on how to train and even on such basic matters as what a barbell was. Family obliga- year on the back cover. However, when Calvert's father-in- issue when new owners and editors dropped the law died unexpectedly in , leaving his wife a con- quotations from the title, began to publish the magazine siderable inheritance, he decided to devote some of his on much cheaper, uncoated paper, and expanded its the- time and energy to the production of a regular periodi- matic content.
However, Bernarr Macfadden's magazine wasn't basic template—lots of pictures, a few informative arti- just about exercise. It also covered many other aspects cles, many testimonial letters, and no advertisements. The remaining space admiring the pictures of the most perfectly developed was used to discuss such topics as: He emphasized photography—as he believed it losophy, and presented informative pieces on general would inspire his readers—running an average of 1. In order to attract readers—and knowing from His use of high quality, coated paper allowed the photo- personal experience that viewing a well-developed body graphs to be clear and sharp.
In comparison, Macfad- offered almost unlimited inspiration—Calvert used dra- den's publication, Physical Culture, used only 0. The tures per page and many of these photos featured things cover of the first issue, for instance, featured a Roman such as food, fashion designs, large group pictures, or 27 column superimposed on a photograph of Charles other sports. The physique images often appeared MacMahon, a Calvert student who would be made grainy and slightly unfocused in Macfadden's publica- famous through his appearances in Strength.
MacMahon tion due to the lower quality, uncoated paper. Wearing only a posing jock and Roman sandals, his readers learned the most.
His ultimate goal, he told MacMahon displays advanced development in his leg Ottley Coulter, was to create a national contingent of and back muscles. The use of Greek and Roman motifs, amateur strongmen who could compete favorably a common practice for strongmen and physique artists, against the European lifting clubs.
To do this, he played on the popularity of Greek Revivalism during this explained, every lifter must be smart in the ways of lift- era. Calvert advised his readers to take note of Anton Matysek, probably the most famous of Calvert's every muscular connection and shadow so that they pupils, who posed as "The Resting Gladiator" on one might educate themselves about anatomy and the 26 issue and as "Achilles" on another.
In an article on arm used by magazines in the first two decades of the twen- training, for example, Calvert made the connection to tieth century, Calvert didn't rely strictly on copying Charles Durner's photos: Other covers depict circus-type strong- man stunts in which Charles MacMahon performed on a I am glad to be able to show my read- Roman Column, Charles Durner broke a piece of rope, ers pictures of my pupil, Mr.
Durn- Matysek lifted a heavy dumbell, and Robert Snyder lift- er However, even in Development. Durner's right arm Opening the first issue revealed that half of the is wonderfully proportioned.
The great magazine's sixteen pages was devoted to testimonial let- size of the biceps is balanced by the ters and photographs of Milo Bar-bell students. It is very risky to make sweeping statements. I consider Snyder to be a first- Proud of their training accomplishments, many class lifter for his weight, but I would not venture to state readers made the trip to their local photographer to get that he was the best of his weight or the next best.
If a promising student made the trip to see Calvert comments, Calvert cautioned him, "[Paul] Von Boeck- in person, a trip to Scott of Philadelphia, Calvert's man's praise is certainly great, but you must remember favorite photographer, was planned and paid for. His that when he says the 'finest ever produced' what he pupils all hoped to have their pictures published and to really means is the finest he has ever seen.
It is very have Calvert say a few words about their progress, and reckless to say that such and such a person is the finest, he was only too glad to comply. Calvert supplied feed- or the best, or the strongest, in the world. The world is a back on the photographs by critiquing the weaknesses big place.
Calvert studied the methods of I am describing the case of Mr. I Theodore Siebert of think that any young man would be per- Germany, and he sub- fectly willing to practice for a year to scribed to some Euro- obtain a build like Paschall's His pean lifting periodi- present measurements are not extraordi- cals. Coulter would nary, but even now he has the appear- later describe Calvert ance of the finished athlete. The pic- as "the Desbonnet of tures In fact, Debonnet, the famous very few fully developed adult athletes French trainer and his- have a build which would compare with torian, who for several Mr.
In studying Mr. While the The compliment was muscular development is pronounced, indeed an honor as the muscles are of a shape that makes Calvert considered for speed as well as for strength. He believed in giving his honest opinion, ly the very best author- for that was how American lifters would learn and excel.
This photo, showing his weight lifter and a Milo pupil. Although Coulter and weightlifting authori- admirable physique at age 17, Calvert had been corresponding for several years at the ties in all of Europe, appeared in Strength in Strength while he was editor.
He averaged four articles per issue, and after the first couple of years he generally included an editorial-like "Announcement" or "Notice. If you told Coulter, was to "get a good sized subscription list," are weak in the back, then you cannot be which would allow him to bring in other authors.
So, 35 thoroughly vigorous and healthy no articles such as "Perfect Proportions—How Much matter how big your arms and legs are. Should You Measure? General strength, loins and the thighs.
While he felt best tional, such as the trapeze artist who develops only the results could be had by those between fifteen and forty- upper body muscles. The man who had general strength five years old, he had trained boys as young as nine and had "well-knit" and "connected" development—each men as old as sixty-five. All he required were students muscle of the body worked well with those nearby and with the "desire to be healthy and strong—and who are all seemed to be developed to the same extent.
I believe that once every forty-eight hours for twenty-five to forty symmetry means strength and that a man cannot be real- minutes a session, "Short periods of vigorous exercise ly strong unless he is harmoniously developed from head with moderately heavy weights develop a man's muscles to heel. A man course his students should be able: These mus- hands.
After the fatigue. These required both strength order to become a Milo student. Of course it didn't help and technique, so Calvert stressed that "the pupil has to that other physical training entrepreneurs tried to cash in report to me and show me that he has acquired a certain on Calvert's success by advertising that their light degree of strength and development before he is direct- weight course prepared a person for Calvert's course.
A common theme was for him to belittle pro- Calvert felt that the other trainers validated his training grams which advocated only light exercise: I attend to that part of the business myself. Any man I tell you, it is pretty discouraging who is strong enough to exercise with a pair of 5-lb. Why is it? Because back Waist: No Thigh: He often referred to ures given by Calvert as ideal. It is therefore quite easy it in demeaning terms: Calvert's ideal was Sandow.
Nearly all early training courses advo- cated light weights. He thought of William Blaikie as "practically the originator" of the light weight training system, arguing that all the similar training programs of the day were simply copies. Lewis's "New Gymnastics" move- ment in the mid-to-late nineteenth century recommended fairly rigorous exercises for men and women, but the exercises only required light-weight implements or just the use of the body's weight.
Lewis compared the heavy weightlifter to a massive but slow draft horse and the New Gym- nastics practitioner to a lighter, more agile carriage horse, arguing that "lift- ing great weights affects him as draw- ing heavy loads affects the horse.
Surely it is only this mania for mon- strous arms and shoulders that could have misled the intelligent gymnast on this point. Calvert allowed that Calvert poses with a variety of globe-ended weights in this rare photo from the Sandow, as many other weight-trained collection of Joe Weider.
Calvert rarely used his own image in his publications. Nearly all athletes the more important and results-producing activity of in the early twentieth century were discouraged by training with moderately heavy weights. Milo pupils, such as Rufus Swainhart, submitted letters with comments from their coaches such as, "My sympathy is with the young man who takes up weight lifting.
By the time he is 22 or 24 years old he will be in such a 'muscle-bound' condition that he can not help himself. I know what I am doing. I am going to keep right on training under Alan Calvert's instructions. They understood Calvert's teachings and did their best to perform "mis- 57 sionary work" on weight training's behalf.
Calvert referred to his program as progressive weight lifting, progressive weight work, progressive exercise, or graded heavy work. He counseled his students on the importance of starting light and then gradually adding weight as their strength increased so injuries were prevented. Although Calvert wrote extensively on the subject, Ott- ley Coulter believed the extent of Calvert's knowledge of progressive training was "much more thorough than his course or writings even indicate.
When a man participated in training with at least moderate weights, he did not need any other form of Robert Snyder was featured frequently in Strength maga- exercise to stay healthy, for lifting was, according to zine as Calvert believed Snyder's combination of strength Calvert, "concentrated exercise.
Windship, that physical strength was evidence of good for fear the large muscles they produced would make health. Calvert focused his system on two physical them slow and less flexible.
Calvert received so many objectives—building great strength and possessing an letters requesting the answer to whether weight training impressive physique. He described boxing champions scriptions.
For example, he argued that flexibility could James J. Jeffries and Stanley Ketchel as being very be built by using resistance training in which the muscles strong from other activities , but also very quick and are taken through the full range of motion. And, even powerful, not slow and plodding.
Although Unger's name was never mentioned in become "new men" or have greater "manliness. He stayed away from the eugenic argu- would do.
A follow-up notice confirmed that Unger 68 ments so popular in the early twentieth century, and it is never responded to the challenge. If, for gested that Coulter should address the following points: Lifting should be placed on the same named Robert Hoffman wouldn't have started his own strict basis as any other amateur sport; lifting career—a career that eventually included the 2.
Show how lifting is controlled by impact of Strength's pictures and personal stories served strict laws in England, France, Ger- as a "reaffirmation of male identity at a time when it many, and Austria; also how the rules in seemed to be losing authority and coherence. By stress- all the European countries except Eng- ing the potential for strength, control, heroism, and viril- land are practically the same, so that ity in the male physique, he [Sandow] reassured a broad international contests can be held, and 65 public of the continuation of these qualities.
Speak of the desirability of such rules The one Strength article not Calvert's own, writ- in this country; ten by Ottley Coulter and titled, "Honesty in Weight 5. Speak of your own personal experi- Lifting and the Necessity of Making Lifters Prove Their ence with me; and I don't think I am Claims," may have been a product of the correspondence saying too much if I say that you can between the two men about the need to verify the actual truthfully state that I am heart and soul lifts made by strongmen.
Ottley Coulter's letters from in favor of the strictest honesty regard- Calvert reveal an on-going conversation about Max ing lifting, and that you know that I Unger—or Lionel Strongfort as he was known profes- would not purposely exaggerate the sionally—for neither Calvert nor Coulter believed feats of any of my pupils, nor depreciate 66 Unger's strongman claims. In , Strongfort, one of the work of any stranger who lifted hon- Calvert's entrepreneurial competitors, apparently began estly. You might state that you have had an attack on Calvert.
The exact nature of Strongfort's opportunities to observe; that you know attack is unknown, other than the fact that Calvert did of cases where I have arranged for not give him credit for a particular pressing record. Although the name has changed sev- no excuse made for failure. Olympic Committee. Every young man thinks he is going to be among those selected, and they are not making any Ottley wrote the article using Calvert's guidelines, investments in exercising apparatus and I do not know almost verbatim.
For example, the last paragraph of the whether one can blame them. His last I think we all see the need of a lifters' issue was a double issue which appeared in January organization in this country, and I have He included a small article titled "Hints on Pos- wished for some time to see Mr. Calvert ing," but the majority of the issue was devoted to Milo take the initiative in the movement, as I students, including several that managed to train while have known him personally for some on military duty.
In his "Notice to Readers" he does not time, and know him to stand for the hint that it will be his last issue and he actually declares strictest honesty in lifting. I know he that a return of the "editorial articles on anatomy and would not purposely exaggerate the special training" will occur with the March issue. I escalated, however, Calvert had trouble getting iron and have lifted before him personally, and paper to support his businesses.
In mid, as paper have seen some of his star pupils costs rose, he began charging five cents for the magazine attempt a lift and fail, and no claim was which had heretofore been sent for free to his sub- made for a record and no excuse offered scribers. In March , when his next issue should for failure.
He has a greater knowledge have appeared, Calvert wrote to Coulter that he was of lifting than any man in this country "gradually losing interest" in the magazine and "in the that I have ever associated with, and I subject of lifting in general.
No one could now call me am acquainted with the best. He has an enthusiast on the subject. I feel sure he from this business at the first possible moment. I have is heart and soul in favor of the sport, utterly lost interest in weightlifting and everything con- and will do all in his power to promote nected with it, and I never expect to resume this busi- honesty in lifting.
What is known is that in July of , Calvert. He funds so Calvert sold the barbell company and Strength described many of the common lifts and began one of the magazine for an undisclosed amount in early January first calls, if not the first, for a national organization to to Richard L.
Hunter and Daniel G. Redmond, the standardize competition within the United States. The son of the man who owned The Fairmount Foundry—the early s saw the fruition of his foresight when same foundry which supplied Milo Bar-Bell with its George Jowett, Ottley Coulter, and David Willoughby plates and bars.
While he never again sold equipment, Calvert continued to be associated with Strength until The new owners, with encouragement from the old Milo students, resumed the manufacture of barbells in March and began publishing Strength again in November with J. Egan as editor. They decided to broaden the scope of the magazine and asked several "Milo Finished Products," including Ottley Coulter, to 80 submit articles for publication. Articles about diet, speed and vitality, and the psychology of lifting appear alongside two articles by Calvert—one on arm training and another on his old standby, "All-Round Strength.
The big difference, of course, was that now most articles were written by someone other than Calvert. Dramatic changes in the physical appearance of Strength occurred with the May issue, however. Cheaper, uncoated paper took the place of the high qual- ity paper and the number of photographs declined by 81 fifty percent or more. For the next two years Calvert appears to have simply contributed sporadic articles on strength and training, and at first they were placed Ottley Coulter befriended Calvert and was asked by him to prominently near the magazine's front.
Following the write one of the most important articles in the history of December issue, however, he assumed a more weightlifting. It argued January, February and March of Shortly afterward, for the keeping of records and the formation of an official he was listed as one of three editors for the magazine, weightlifting association. The result was the creation of beginning in July of that year.
It is worth mentioning the American Continental Weightlifting Association and that by this time Calvert had become a convert to Edwin the birth of the modern era of weightlifting in the United Checkley's training program, a system of exercise that States. He expanded both the number of pages and the for Checkley's Natural Method of Physical Training, coverage of general physical culture topics, but the new which he sold privately.
The October editorial had declared that they rational writings on weightlifting, and when Strength would make: It will always be primarily a published. When Carl Easton Williams, a former editor man's magazine, and we are going to try for Physical Culture, joined the staff in October , to make it of real interest to every red- Williams broadened the magazine's editorial focus even blooded man in the country.
In August, the Marshall-Stillman Company have articles from time to time dealing advertised a series of "how-to" books about boxing, with wrestling, boxing and other forms wrestling, and self defense in August. Earl Liederman of sport appealing to red-blooded men. Several issues later, Bernarr Macfadden placed an ad for However, the November issue contained his book, Vitality Supreme, and wrestling experts— only two, out of seven, articles that directly related to Farmer Burns and Frank Gotch, the current world heavy- weight lifting, "Chest Development" and "Concerning weight wrestling champion—advertised their Farmer 88 Lifting Records" and one more that indirectly spoke to Burns Wrestling School.
Physique and the field of mail-order training with the help of adver- strength photographs, always seen on the covers under tisements in periodicals such as Strength.
Calvert's guidance, disappeared under the new owner- As for Calvert, his popularity remained undi- ship.
For ten consecutive issues, however, May to minished with readers and in March of , Strength April , a classical template involving strongmen and began a question and answer forum called "The Mat. Beginning in , in line with the general move views or where you can sit in the reserved seats and toward traditional sports during the Golden Era of the watch your fellow readers 'go to the mat' in defense of 89 s, Strength's covers began to portray photographs of their convictions.
A woman issue when he declared that he was resigning from "The first appeared on the cover of Strength in December Mat" and turning it over to George F. Jowett because Over the next year, five covers illustrated women there were too many letters on too many subjects and he skiing, golfing, diving, playing tennis, and dancing. In had "a rooted objection to any one else writing letters 90 and every cover featured a woman's figure.
Association, the first national weightlifting organization Another major change in Strength after the sale in the United States, in Pittsburgh, with the help of Ott- to Hunter and Redmond was the introduction of adver- ley Coulter and David P. Calvert helped tising. Calvert had managed to produce the magazine hire Jowett in an effort to restore some of the weightlift- without ads because it was the mouthpiece for Milo Bar- ing appeal of the magazine, and almost immediately Bell Company.
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Whey Protein: On workout days. It binds to them and increases the amount of fat leaving them while decreasing the amount stored in them. It works synergistically with the caffeine in the beans to burn the fat that caffeine releases from fat cells.
Stack Info: Take them together two or three times per day between meals. It also helps to enhance fat loss by stimulating receptors on fat cells to release more fat and by blunting appetite so that you eat fewer calories than you burn each day. Crafting your own by combining these four ingredients or buying a fat burner that uses most of these will have you covered — allowing you to uncover your new abs.
EGCG increases levels of norepinephrine. In addition. Statements based on data findings for individual ingredients WorldMags. Your results may be better or worse depending upon the amount of effort you put into it. Information in this ad should not be used as an indication or prediction of your individual results. USPlabs is not affiliated with. You should consult your healthcare practitioner before beginning any such plan.
All examples are for illustration purposes only. Take them together 30 to 60 minutes before workouts for an endurance boost or any time during the day for a long-lasting energy boost.