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Chemistry investigatory projects for class 12 cbse pdf

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RAHUL KUSHWAHA KV NO.2, NSB, VISAKHAPATNAM CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT. Chemistry Investigatory Project of class 12th CBSE. 1. Name Nagesh Agrawal Class XII Section B Roll Number Title Content of Cold. i have listed all the topics for investigatory project in chemistry for class — Just download the pdf or the file in the link under the video and edit it and print out. We here at EDUSKOOL help class 12th students excel in their exams with our.


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Explore Chemistry Investigatory Projects Experiments Class 12 CBSE, Chemistry Projects, Organic Science Fair Projects, Expo Models. CLASS XII Entrepreneurship Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, . Vineet Joshi EI Chairman, CBSE P E Acknowledgement EE ADVISORY. Investigatory Project - Chemistry Class XII. Uploaded by vjkumar Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate .

Thus, mutual faith and confidence in one another is the main strength of partnership. Cancel Save. The creditors can claim their dues from any one of the partner or from all of them, meaning partners are liable: The list of opportunities ready for the taking in the food and other service areas is rather long. Once you got your foot in the door, nobody could fire you and whether you worked or not the government paid you and even when you retired the government paid you and even when you retired the government took care of you.

VishalMeena24 katekoxx. Who wants to chat with me? Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Shazia Ali 2. Shazia Ali. She gave me moral support and guided me in different matters regarding the topic. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this project and correcting my doubts.

I thank her for her overall support. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding me from time to time in making this project.

Despite their busy schedules, they gave me different ideas in making this project unique. News flashed that they contain harmful pesticide, which arouse many interest in knowing its contents because I have been drinking them for years. I wanted to confirm that whether the charge impose on these brands are true or not. Another fact which inspired me to do this project is that I am in touch with qualitative analysis whose knowledge with other factors helped me to do so. The era of cold drinks began in but the indianization of industry marked its beginning with launching of limca and goldspot by parley group of companies.

Since, the beginning of cold drinks was highly profitable and luring, many multinational companies launched their brands in India like pepsi and coke. Now days, it is observed in general that majority of people viewed Sprite, Miranda, and Limca to give feeling of lightness, while Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate pulse and brain.

Comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market. AIM 8. Cold drinks of different brands are composed of alcohol, carbohydrates, carbon dioxide, phosphate ions etc. These soft drinks give feeling of warmth, lightness and have a tangy taste which is liked by everyone.

Carbon dioxide is responsible for the formation of froth on shaking the bottle. The carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste. Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body. General formula of carbohydrates is Cm H2O n On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as: Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 It occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits.

It is also present in human blood to the extent of about 0. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. It is widely distributed in nature in juices, seeds and also in flowers of many plants. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Nov 24, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow.

We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Browse by Genre Available eBooks Show More. No Downloads. Quick decision—making is necessary 6. Size of the venture is small.

As a youngster, Onassis had immigrated to Argentina from Greece. He learned Spanish at night and sold tobacco by day. At merely 15, he landed a big tobacco order and reinvested in his petty business. As he accumulated more money, his small business was eventually built into his great financial empire.

However, in order to start a sole proprietorship an entrepreneur requires certain industry specific licenses. A few general factors are: Business name: Sole proprietors are under no obligations to select a trade name for their business. How so ever they are free to do so if they desire to. Service tax registration: Form ST 1 is to be filled for registration if the taxable services are more than 10 lakh for a financial year.

PAN Card no. Payment of taxes: Due to the fact that legally, a sole tradership and a sole trader are a single entity, the sole trader bears the taxes of the business. People waiting in the scorching heat just to buy a pair of shoes?

Pdf chemistry 12 class projects investigatory for cbse

From Rags to Riches One dreary November morning in , Satya left his home in Jamshedpur and came to Calcutta with little more than the clothes on his back. He wore a pair of corduroy pants, a shirt and a pair of sturdy shoes made by his father. Before he left home, his mother had pressed in his hands a few hundred-rupee notes, which he brought with him. Today, Satya Brata Dey is a millionaire, a crorepati.

And what gives him the greatest satisfaction is that, he provides jobs for people in Wes t Bengal-a state where there are very few industries and over five million unemployed. She believed in herself and encouraged Satya to do the same. Remember that.

Always win. He won. And he won against great odds. His shoes were so sturdy that they could last twenty years. It was this apprenticeship under a master shoemaker like his father that taught Satya very early in life, a priceless craft. He would have laughed if someone had told him back then, that someday, he would create jobs for hundreds of people with this priceless craft that he learned from his father.

When he remembers his father bending over his worktable making shoes day after day, tears glisten in his eyes. Tears of love and pride. Today, Satya would give anything to be able to hold those callused, wrinkled hands in his own and invite him to come and see the little boy. Whereas Satya manages a business worth crores, what he is most proud of is that even today he can make shoes with his own hands.

From his beloved father, Satya learned another important lesson that would come in very handy for him later in life — the dignity of labour. Because of his background, Satya has great respect for the working man. In his business, he treats his employees and workmen like family members and they in turn give him their undying loyalty.

That is one of the secrets of his success. Start your own business? Starting a business was looked down upon. Businessmen were seen as people who amassed wealth at the cost of others. They took too much risk. What if the business failed? What would you do then? On the other hand, a secure government job was quite another thing. Once you got your foot in the door, nobody could fire you and whether you worked or not the government paid you and even when you retired the government paid you and even when you retired the government took care of you.

It gave you a pension. You were always a well-looked after guest. You had a job. That was truly low down in the prestige ladder of the community.

(PDF) Chemistry investigatory project | Ashok Kumar - lesforgesdessalles.info

He should learn skills that would get him a job instead of doing this. Thank goodness he had learned the trade and art of making good shoes. There were no jobs available and last thing he wanted to do was join the ranks of the unemployed. But Satya had never considered looking for a job.

Satya dreamed big but reality hit hard Ever since Satya was four or five he knew he wanted to have his own business. At the corner of a deserted street, he spotted a rundown showroom that was for rent. He used the money his mother gave him to pay the rent and moved in. The paint on the walls was peeling. It was dingy, dirty and dimly lit. The windows were filthy and you could hardly see through them.

The floor had several layers of dust caked with moisture. But for Satya, it was his dream showroom. It was his place. Every night Satya washed his pants and shirt and hung them to dry. Often his corduroy pants were still wet in the morning. He wore the wet pants anyway and hoped that his body heat would dry them during the course of the day.

He swept and mopped until the floor shone. He was determined not to borrow money from anybody. He sold the chappals at Rs.

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After a few months Satya made a profit of Rs. In those days New Market used to close by 6 pm. After 6 or 7 pm the whole area used to be dark and deserted. But Satya opened his shop before anyone else and kept it open long after others had closed theirs. He did this even if there were no customers. What if there was one customer who needed shoes late in the day when the other shops were closed? He kept his margins low so that he could attract a large number of customers. Even though his shoes were meant to attract the low-income customers, many ministers and businesspeople also bought his shoes.

Soon satisfied customers brought their friends and family and his business started to grow by leaps and bounds. He had a winning combination for success-the quality was good and the price was right. A shrewd businessman that Satya is, he kept other manufacturers products as well, so the customers could compare and see that sreeleathers shoes were cheaper and better.

Customer service is of prime importance Customer service is always very important at Sree leathers stores. Satya offers his customers tea, coffee or coke at his stores so that they would sit, spend some time and buy more than they had originally come to buy.

Satya told me the story of a woman who was standing outside his store one day waiting for a sari shop across the street to open. His salesman invited her in and asked her to sit and wait in the store. She came in and sat down in the comfortably air-conditioned store. The salesman offered her coffee. She had some.

She started to look at the different shoes displayed in the store. Without anyone trying to sell her anything, she ended up buying 12 pairs of shoes. We make our customers feel good. One day a man was in a hurry to catch a train to Raipur. He came to the store bought his shoes and rushed to the train station. But soon he came back and bought four more pairs. Cut out the middleman Since Satya manufactures his own shoes there are no middlemen to pay.

He can afford to sell his shoes at a lower price than Bata and other large companies who have huge overheads. If he has to import something from abroad such as material for soles, which he gets from the UK, he imports it directly from the manufacturer there. Thus once again he avoids paying the middlemen.

He keeps his employees happy and motivated Satya firmly believes that motivating the staff and keeping them happy is critical for the success of any business. A disgruntled or unhappy employee will not provide good customer service. And customer service is what keeps people coming back and that is what makes the business successful.

I treat them like family. I keep them in good humour. I spend time talking with them and help solve their problems. They feel like they are the owners. He loses his temper if his vendors and suppliers are not paid on time. The small bureaucrats and government employees harass for no reason whatsoever, he says. To illustrate his point he told me the following story. Satya was getting a new showroom constructed. He had taken permission from the Calcutta Municipal Corporation and everything was legal and above board.

The construction started and then one day out of the blue, some policemen arrived and ordered the work to be stopped. They demanded a huge bribe. But when Satya came to know of it he was furious and refused to pay a single paisa. He contacted some higher authorities in the police department and the government and the policemen left. The work continued. Then one day a couple of the Calcutta municipal corporation employees arrived. They started finding faults with the construction.

Now they wanted a bribe. Once again he had to approach the higher authorities to solve the problem. These kinds of harassment and hassles cause unnecessary delays and make doing business stressful. Growing, growing ,franchising Sree leathers has about 15 outlets in Eastern India. He has only one showroom of his own; the rest are all franchises. There is such a great demand for his franchises that people come with recommendations from the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister.

Some people come with briefcases full of money requesting a franchise. But Satya Brata is very choosy about giving franchises because the quality and his hard won reputation are very important to him. But in these countries they are sold as non-brand name shoes. Satya has reached a point in life when expansion has taken on a new meaning and purpose. He makes enough money and expansion would only mean more stress for him. But creating jobs is important to him. He feels that it would be selfish of him not to expand.

He wants to create as many jobs as he can. He believes that creating jobs is the best service he can do for the society. He employs about people in his factory and outlets and in addition, if each of his fifteen franchises employs about ten people, then Satya has created employment for at least people.

Sree leathers is worth several crores today. The young man who came to Calcutta with only the clothes on his back and a fistful of money has come a long way. His secret? Hard work, dignity of labour and big dreams.

Partnership form of organisation has developed due to the inherent limitations of sole proprietorship i. Business acumen and wealth seldom meet in one person. This, desirable combination probably led to the emergence of Partnership form of business.

A partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on, as co-owners, a business and to share its profits and losses. Thus, two or more persons may form a partnership by making a written or oral agreement to carry a business jointly and share its proceeds. To Quote Authors Shubin "The relationship between persons who agree to carry on a business in common with a view to private gain is partnership. Haney "Partnership is a relationship between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all, or any of them acting for all.

The essential features of partnership are as follows: Partnership is the outcome of a contract. The relation of partnership arises from contract and not from status. Though oral agreement is even acceptable but in practice written agreement is much more advisable as disputes can be resolved better with it. The objective of the business is to make profits and distribute the same amongst partners. Any association initiated to do charity work is not partnership. Mostly, the liability of the partners of a firm is unlimited.

Cbse chemistry class projects pdf investigatory for 12

Their personal properties can be disposed off to pay the debts of the firm if required. The creditors can claim their dues from any one of the partner or from all of them, meaning partners are liable: There is an implied authority that any partner can act on behalf of the firm.

The firm stands bound by the acts of partners. The business of partnership can be carried on by all the partners or any one of them acting for all.

Thus, every partner is principal as well as agent of other partners and of the firm. Thus, i Each partner is liable for acts performed by other partners, ii Each partner can bind other partners and the firm by his acts done in the ordinary course of business. Every partner is supposed to act honestly and give proper accounts to other partners.

Thus, mutual faith and confidence in one another is the main strength of partnership. No partner can sell or transfer his share to anybody else without the consent of the other partners. By giving a notice for dissolution of the firm, a partner can show intention to discontinue as partner.

A partnership continues up to the time that all partners desire to continue it. Legally, a firm dissolves on the retirement, death, bankruptcy lunacy, or disability of a partner if not otherwise provided for in the partnership deed. Take a Partner when you trust your Partner Steve Perlman, the inventor of Web TV, built his first home computer when he was only fifteen years old. In , he created a working prototype of the Web TV box. Perlmann, being something of a mad scientist, buried himself in development and let his partners worry about the money.

Luckily, that's when Microsoft's came calling. Suitability The use of better sophisticated production techniques has necessitated more investments. Complex nature of businesses needs expert managerial hands. Thus, partnership form of a business is an ideal choice for starting a new venture, if the entrepreneur's— 1 capital and managerial requirements are higher as compared to that of sole proprietorship, 2 enterprise falls in the category of either being a small or a medium scale enterprise, 3 direct contact with the customers is essential.

Consequences for non—registration of a partnership firm: Partnership firms in India are governed by the Indian Partnership Act, While it is not compulsory to register your partnership firm as there are no penalties for non- registration, it is advisable since the following rights are denied to an unregistered firm: Drafting of partnership deed: Partnership is an agreement between persons to carry on a business, entered into either orally or in writing.

It is always desirable to have a written agreement so as to avoid misunderstandings and unnecessary litigations in future. When the agreement is in written form, it is called a 'Partnership Deed'.

It must be duly signed by the partners, stamped and registered. Any alteration in one partnership deed can be made with the mutual consent of all the partners. Although it is left to the choice of the partners of the firm to decide themselves as to what should be mentioned in their partnership deed, yet a partnership deed generally contains the following: Name of the firm. Nature of the business.

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Name of partners. Place of the business. Amount of capital to be contributed by each partner. Profit sharing ratio between the partners. Loans and advances from the partners and the rate of interest thereon.

Drawings allowed to the partners and the rate of interest thereon. Amount of salary and commission, if any, payable to the partners. Duties, powers and obligations of partners.

Maintenance of accounts and arrangement for their audit. Mode of valuation of goodwill in the event of admission, retirement and death of a partner. Settlement of accounts in the case of dissolution of the firm. Arbitration of case of disputes among the partners. Arrangements in case a partner becomes insolvent. Registration procedure A partnership firm can be registered whether at the time of its formation or even subsequently. Ensure that the following documents and prescribed fees are enclosed with the registration application.

Joint stock company organisation was started first in Italy in the thirteenth century. The first Companies Act was passed in India in and the principle limited liability was introduced only in To comply with these growing needs, the demand was on rise for: In common prevalence, a company means a voluntary association of a person formed for some common object with capital divisible into units of equal value called 'shares' and with limited liability.

Company is a creation of law that is the birth of this artificial human being is by law and it can be put to death by law only. Definitions Well Known "A joint stock company is a voluntary association of individuals for profit, having a capital divided into transferable shares, the ownership of which is the condition of membership.

Haney "A company is an association of many persons who contribute money or money's worth to a common stock and employ it is some trade or business, and, who share the profit and loss arising there from.

Characteristics of a Company A company is distinctive from other forms of organisation because of the following features: At least two persons, voluntarily, must join hands to form a private company, while a minimum of seven persons are required for a public company. Though, it has no body and no conscience, it still exists as a person, having a distinct personality of its own.

This implies that a company cannot be held liable for the actions of its members and vice-versa. Company has a distinct entity separate from its members. Hence, it uses a common seal on which its name is engraved. Putting the common seal on papers, is equivalent to that of signatures of a human being, making them binding on the company.

Subject to certain conditions, the shares are freely transferable. The private companies do impose some restrictions on the transfer of shares. As the shareholders could be scattered across country here, they give the right to the directors to manage the company's affairs. Minimum required members: Minimum requirement: No limit 9 Limitation of action The scope of this artificial person is determined by: It's born out of law and can be liquidated only by law. Choice to be made: An entrepreneur, under the 'Company' form of organisation has a further choice to incorporate an enterprise either as either a: B Public company Under Section 3 i ii of the Companies Act, a public company is a company which is not a private company.

By implication, a public company: Why private company is more desirable Inspite of certain restrictions imposed on a private company, it enjoys certain privileges under the Companies Act.

A substantial number of entrepreneurs prefer to form a private company because of the following important privileges: The company form of organisation has shown phenomenal increase in almost all countries of the world in the twentieth century. Durant, the founder of General Motors, started a variety of entrepreneurial ventures, primarily in the fields of insurance, real estate and construction.

None of them really took off. Once he hitched a ride to work with a friend, nothing that his friend's new 'buggy' rode smoother than any he had been in. New design in the buggy's springs was the reason for this.. To commence a "Company" in India The idea of forming a company is conceived either by a person or by a group of persons known as promoters. Our entrepreneurs are basically the promoters as they are the ones who: Legal formalities expected to be complied by the entrepreneur: A heavy responsibility rests on the entrepreneur in translating his idea into a working reality.

The sphere of activities done during this stage is very wide encompassing: It is mandatory to quote PAN in all documents pertaining to financial transactions. Who must have PAN? Accounts may be opened in the names of two or more persons and may be made payable to. Register your company Pvt.

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Name of the business entity 2. Apply for approval of the name of the company 7.

Formulate Memorandum of Association 8. Formulate Articles of Association 9. Verify, stamp and sign Articles of Association Register for service tax Service tax is, as the name suggests, a tax on Services.

It is a tax levied on the transaction of certain services specified by the Central Government under the Finance Act, It is an indirect tax akin to Excise Duty or Sales Tax , which means that normally, the service provider pays the tax and recovers the amount from the recipient of taxable service.

TIN consists of 11 digit numerals throughout the country. Its first two characters represent the State Code and the set-up of the next nine characters can vary in different States. Sales tax Sales tax is levied on the sale of a commodity, which is produced or imported and sold for the first time.

If the product is sold subsequently without being processed further, it is exempted from sales tax. Sales tax is paid by every dealer on the sale of any goods made by him in the course of inter-state trade or commerce, despite the fact that no liability to tax is raised on the sale of goods under the tax laws of the appropriate state. Excise duty If applicable What is excise duty? Is it collected by the State Government or the Central Government? How is it different from sales tax?

Excise duty is a tax on manufacture or production of goods. Excise duty on alcohol, alcoholic preparations, and narcotic substances is collected by the State Government and is called "State Excise" duty. The Excise duty on rest of goods is called "Central Excise" duty and is collected in terms of Section 3 of the Central Excise Act, Sales Tax is different from the Excise duty as former is a tax on the act of sale while the latter is a tax on the act of manufacture or production of goods.

What categories of persons are required to obtain registration with the Central Excise department? Subject to specified conditions, generally the following categories of persons are required to get themselves registered with the central excise department: What is the procedure for obtaining registration? Apply to the nearest central excise division office in form A. After post verification, a regular registration certificate in form RC is normally issued immediately, as far as possible.

Customs duty Customs Duty is a type of indirect tax levied on goods imported either in or to India, not both, as well as on goods exported from India. Taxable event is imported into or exported from India.

Import of goods means bringing goods to India from a place outside India. India includes the territorial waters of India which extend up to 12 nautical miles into the sea to the coast of India. Export of goods means taking goods out of India to a place outside India.

File entrepreneurship memorandum at DIC optional Although not mandatory, you may file part I of entrepreneurs memorandum to the district industries centre. Apply for TAN TAN or tax deduction and collection account number is a 10 digit alpha numeric number required to be obtained by all persons who are responsible for deducting or collecting tax.

Who must apply for TAN? All those persons who are required to deduct tax at source or collect tax at source on behalf of Income Tax Department are required to apply for and obtain TAN. Permissions required at the construction stage These are some permissions which are required to be obtained from the government: Steps involved in starting business in Mumbai Registration requirements: Procedure Time to Cost to complete complete 1.

Obtain digital signature certificate 3 days INR 1, online from private agency authorized by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs National 3. Make a seal Private 1 day INR cost depends on the number of seals required and the time period for delivery 7. Take in the India Biz-Tech Buzz Though the most commonly opted out forms of business had already been discussed, yet there are two more forms prevalent in India, to start venture.

They are: Joint Hindu family or Hindu Undivided Family Business is a unique form of business organisation prevailing only in India. It is governed by Hindu law and represents a form which is owned, managed and controlled by the male members of a joint Hindu family. Meaning of HUFs: The HUFs have been defined under the Hindu law "as a family, which consists of male lineally descended from a common ancestor and included their wives and unmarried daughters.

Creating HUFs are the best possible way to save taxes. Schools of law under HUF: Two schools of law are there in order to create a HUF: As per this school of law, the son acquires the right in the family property only after the death of his father. There are two conditions for existence of HUFs.

It arises by status or operation of Hindu Law. A male member becomes a member merely by his birth. By adoption, an outsider can be admitted to its membership but not otherwise. The senior most male member of the family known as 'Karta' manages the affairs, having unlimited powers.

The other male members called 'Coparceners' have no right to deal with outsiders or inspect accounts. The liability of Karta is unlimited and that of coparceners is limited to the extent of their share in property which is jointly held by the family.

The self-acquired property of any member cannot be taken in order to satisfy business liabilities. A male from the time of his birth becomes the member in this form of enterprise. The HUF continues to operate forever as death of members does not effect it. As upper links are removed by death, the lower ones are added by birth. So there is no limit to its membership.

But if all members want to mutually dissolve the firm, they can do so. Only the Karta has implied authority to bind the HUF by acts done in the ordinary course of the business of the firm.

That's why he alone has unlimited liability. For an HUF to be created the major requirements is the capital and persons. Capital can be in the form of ancestral property, assets gifted by relatives and friends, or received by the HUF through a will. The minimum no. The HUF to be created should have proper name. Entrepreneur should select a proper name for the HUF, ensuring it does not violate the laws or have any negative impact. Formation of HUF should be embodied in a deed which provides that a proper legal deed or agreement is required before creating a HUF, disclosing the name of Karta, coparceners, address and source of funds in the corpus.

It is also advisable to get some stationery printed for official communication. The HUF is now ready to function. The Karta will have to invest in tax saving instruments and file tax returns on behalf of the HUF.

Only the money related to the business of HUF shall be invested in such Bank accounts. Some Interesting Information 1. The daughter after her marriage ceases to be a member of her father's HUF. After marriage she becomes the member of her husband's HUF. Adopted child can become the member but he cannot become the coparcener. The HUF continues to exist in the hands of the female members after the death of the male member. A widow cannot be the Karta of the HUF as she is not the coparcener.

Co-operative Organisations A co-operative is a different form of business enterprise as here, the main motive is not earning profit but mutual help. It works with the principle of each for all and all for each. Calvert The Indian Co-operative Societies Act, defines co-operative in section 4 as, "Society which has its objectives as the promotion of economic interests of its members in accordance with co-operative principle.

Voluntary organisation: Co-operative organisation is a voluntary association of persons desirous of pursuing a common objective. They can come and leave the organisation at their own will without any coercion or intimidation. Democratic management: The management of a co-operative organisation is vested in the hands of the managing committee elected by the members on the basis of 'one member-one vote'.

Democracy is, thus, the keynote of the management of a co- operative society. Service motive: Rendering services to its members rather than to earn profit as the primary objective is the feature that distinguishes a cooperative organisation from the other forms of business. The primary objective of a co-operative society is to render services to its members rather than to earn profits.

Capital and return thereon: The capital is procured from its members in the form of share capital.