The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Kashmir; in Historical Perspective. Abstract. The most beautiful and fabulous valley of the world is called as Kashmir. Jannat Nazeer, a paradise on earth. In the. CULTURE AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF KASHMIR. By virtue of its central position in Asia, Kashmir commands a strategic importance touching on the.
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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The first three years of the thirties of twentieth century form a landmark in the history of modern Kashmir. It was during these years that a. socio-political history of Kashmir, including the revolt against the Dogra monarchs in , rulers and culture played a significant role in the history of Kashmir. Special Conflict Report. The Kashmiri Conflict: Historical and Prospective. Intervention Analyses. November , Waging Peace. Fighting Disease.
It is not that Puranic genealogies are "incomplete and occasionally inaccurate"  but rather they take the long view which is not a creation myth but has realistic as well as spiritual underpinnings-- metaphors need to be understood within those time space specificities. Over the decades the plebiscite advocated by India's great statesman Jawaharlal Nehru became a dirty word in New Delhi. The two sides once again agreed to resolve the issue peacefully, as domestic issues dominated. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Vale of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked. Panjal is simply a distorted form of the Sanskritic tribal term Panchala [ citation needed ]. Three Hindu priests writing religious texts.
Indian and Pakistani forces thus fought their first war over Kashmir in India referred the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January. In a resolution dated August 13, , the UN asked Pakistan to remove its troops, after which India was also to withdraw the bulk of its forces.
Once this happened, a "free and fair" plebiscite was to be held to allow the Kashmiri people to decide their future. India, having taken the issue to the UN, was confident of winning a plebiscite, since the most influential Kashmiri mass leader, Sheikh Abdullah, was firmly on its side. Pakistan ignored the UN mandate and continued fighting, holding on to the portion of Kashmir under its control. On January 1, , a ceasefire was agreed, with 65 per cent of the territory under Indian control and the remainder with Pakistan.
The ceasefire was intended to be temporary but the Line of Control remains the de facto border between the two countries. In , Kashmir was formally incorporated into the Indian Union. It was granted a special status under Article of India's constitution, which ensures, among other things, that non-Kashmiri Indians cannot buy property there.
Fighting broke out again in , but a ceasefire was established that September. They resolved to try to end the dispute, but the death of Mr Shastri and the rise of Gen Yahya Khan in Pakistan resulted in stalemate. In a third war, resulting in the formation of the independent nation of Bangladesh formerly known as East Pakistan. A war had broken out in East Pakistan in March , and soon India was faced with a million refugees.
India declared war on December 3, after Pakistani Air Force planes struck Indian airfields in the Western sector. Two weeks later, the Indian army marched into Dhaka and the Pakistanis surrendered. In the Western sector the Indians managed to blockade the port city of Karachi and were 50 km into Pakistani territory when a ceasefire was reached.
In Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, her Pakistani opposite number and father of Benazir Bhutto, a later Pakistani premier , signed the Simla Agreement, which reiterated the promises made in Tashkent. Both India and Pakistan had other important domestic problems which kept Kashmir on the back-burner. In Indira Gandhi declared a state of national emergency, but she was defeated in the general elections. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was overthrown and hanged in ; Pakistan reverted to military dictatorship under Gen Zia ul Haq.
The balance of influence had decisively tilted in Pakistan's favour by the late s, with people's sympathy no longer with the Indian union as it had been in and Mrs Gandhi's attempts to install puppet governments in state capitals, manipulating the democratic process in the state legislatures, deeply angered the Kashmiris. The status quo was largely maintained until when pro-independence and pro-Pakistan guerrillas struck in the Indian Kashmir valley.
They established a reign of terror and drove out almost all the Hindus from the valley before the Indian army moved in to flush them out. Meanwhile Indian and Pakistani troops regularly exchanged fire at the border. Whereas in India took the Kashmir issue to the UN and was all for a plebiscite, by the s it hid behind the Simla agreement and thwarted any attempts at UN or third-party mediation.
Over the decades the plebiscite advocated by India's great statesman Jawaharlal Nehru became a dirty word in New Delhi.
These developments have led many to believe that Delhi has squandered the Kashmiri people's trust and allegiance. India and Pakistan both tested nuclear devices in May , and then in April test-fired missiles in efforts to perfect delivery systems for their nuclear weapons.
Although Pakistan claims that its missiles are an indigenous effort, in July Indian customs agents seized components shipped from North Korea which they claim were destined for Pakistan's missile programme. When the Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, set out to Lahore by bus on February 20, , inaugurating the four times a week Delhi-Lahore-Delhi bus service , the world felt that such a genuine effort at friendly neighbourhood relations would lower the tension along the Line of Control in Kashmir.
But, all hopes of diplomacy disappeared once the cross-LOC firing in Kargil began during the mids. The death toll , including both soldiers and civilians, was more than 30, In the first week of August Indian and Pakistani troops exchanged artillery fire, described by locals as heavier than that of the and wars put together.
An estimated 50, rounds of ammunition were expended and a large number of soldiers and civilians killed. In the summer of hostility in Kargil went far beyond the now familiar annual exhange of artillery fire. When India began patrolling the Kargil heights that summer, it found to its horror that many key posts vacated in the winter were occupied by infiltrators.
During one of his hunting campaigns he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place. The king was impressed and decided to set up a town after his name, Jamboo. With the passage of time, the name was corrupted and became "Jammu". Nilmata Purana complied c.
However, being a Puranic source, it has been argued that it suffers from a degree of inconsistency and unreliability. Both the texts were written in Persian and used Rajatarangini and Persian histories as their sources. Earliest Neolithic sites in the flood plains of Kashmir valley are dated to c.
Most important of these sites are the settlements at Burzahom , which had two Neolithic and one Megalithic phases.
First phase c. In the second phase, which lasted till c. Hunting and fishing were the primary modes of subsistence though evidence of cultivation of wheat, barley, and lentils has also been found in both the phases.
After Porus lost the battle, Abhisares submitted to Alexander by sending him treasure and elephants. During this period, many stupas , some shrines dedicated to Shiva , and the city of Srinagari Srinagar were built. Kashmiri Buddhist missionaries helped spread Buddhism to Tibet and China and from the fifth century CE, pilgrims from these countries started visiting Kashmir.
He influenced the Chinese emperor Yao Xing and spearheaded translation of many Sanskrit works into Chinese at the Chang'an monastery. Hepthalites White Huns under Toramana crossed over the Hindukush mountains and conquered large parts of western India including Kashmir. He was opposed by Baladitya in Magadha and eventually defeated by Yasodharman in Malwa.
After the defeat, Mihirakula returned to Kashmir where he led a coup on the king. He then conquered of Gandhara where he committed many atrocities on Buddhists and destroyed their shrines. Influence of the Huns faded after Mihirakula's death. In the centuries that followed, Kashmir produced many poets, philosophers, and artists who contributed to Sanskrit literature and Hindu religion. Dualistic interpretation of Shaiva scripture was defeated by Abhinavagupta c.
In the eighth century, the Karkota Empire established themselves as rulers of Kashmir. Chandrapida of this dynasty was recognized by an imperial order of the Chinese emperor as the king of Kashmir.
His successor Lalitaditya Muktapida lead a successful military campaign against the Tibetans. He then defeated Yashovarman of Kanyakubja and subsequently conquered eastern kingdoms of Magadha, Kamarupa , Gauda , and Kalinga.
Lalitaditya extended his influence of Malwa and Gujarat and defeated Arabs at Sindh. His successor Shankaravarman — CE led a successful military campaign against Gurjaras in Punjab.
Under the Tantrins, civil administration collapsed and chaos reigned in Kashmir till they were defeated by Chakravarman. However, both his campaigns failed because he could not siege the fortress at Lohkot. Historian Mohibbul Hasan states that the oppressive taxation, corruption, internecine fights and rise of feudal lords Damaras during the unpopular rule of the Lohara dynasty — CE paved the way for foreign invasions of Kashmir. He was persuaded to accept Islam by his minister Shah Mir , probably for political reasons.
Islam had penetrated into countries outside Kashmir and in absence of the support from Hindus, who were in a majority,  Rinchana needed the support of the Kashmiri Muslims. In the 14th century, Islam gradually became the dominant religion in Kashmir. Sultan Sikandar imposed taxes on non—Muslims, forced conversions to Islam, and earned the title But—Shikan for destroying idols.
However, they were subjugated by his son Hasan Khan who took over as ruler in CE. Around the same period, the nobility of Chaks had become powerful enough to unseat the Shah Mir dynasty. Kashmir did not witness direct Mughal rule till the reign of Mughal badshah emperor Akbar the Great , who visited the valley himself in CE.
Akbar conquered Kashmir by deceit , and later added it in to his Afghan province Kabul Subah , but Shah Jahan carved it out as a separate subah imperial top-level province , with seat at Srinagar.
During successive Mughal emperors many celebrated gardens, mosques and palaces were constructed. Religious intolerance and discriminatory taxation reappeared when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb ascended to the throne in CE.
After his death, the influence of the Mughal Empire declined. In CE, a servant of a wealthy Kashmir merchant brought Mo-i Muqqadas the hair of the Prophet , a relic of Muhammad , to the valley.
The relic was housed in the Hazratbal Shrine on the banks of Dal Lake. After four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals , Kashmir fell to the conquering armies of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Punjab.
High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated. During this time Kashmiri shawls became known worldwide, attracting many buyers especially in the west. Earlier, in , after the death of Ranjit Deo, the Raja of Jammu, the kingdom of Jammu to the south of the Kashmir valley was also captured by the Sikhs and afterwards, until , became a tributary to the Sikh power.
With the help of his officer, Zorawar Singh , Gulab Singh soon captured for the Sikhs the lands of Ladakh and Baltistan to the east and north-east, respectively, of Jammu.
In , the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out, and Gulab Singh "contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon , when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore i. Dogras refused to provide sanctuary to mutineers, allowed English women and children to seek asylum in Kashmir and sent Kashmiri troops to fight on behalf of the British.
British in return rewarded them by securing the succession of Dogra rule in Kashmir. The Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu as it was then called was constituted between and and was "somewhat artificial in composition and it did not develop a fully coherent identity, partly as a result of its disparate origins and partly as a result of the autocratic rule which it experienced on the fringes of Empire. Despite being in a majority the Muslims were made to suffer severe oppression under Hindu rule in the form of high taxes, unpaid forced labor and discriminatory laws.
Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh , who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in , was the reigning monarch in at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
An internal revolt began in the Poonch region against oppressive taxation by the Maharaja. Such an agreement was pending with India. The tribesmen engaged in looting and killing along the way. Instead the Maharaja appealed to the Government of India for assistance, and the Governor-General Lord Mountbatten [c] agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India.
India accepted the accession, regarding it provisional  until such time as the will of the people can be ascertained. Kashmir leader Sheikh Abdullah endorsed the accession as ad-hoc which would be ultimately decided by the people of the State. He was appointed the head of the emergency administration by the Maharaja. The then Indian Prime Minister is reported to have himself urged U. In the last days of , a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices; however, since the plebiscite demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan soured,  and eventually led to three more wars over Kashmir in , and India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; Pakistan controls a third of the region, governing it as Gilgit—Baltistan and Azad Kashmir.
Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Vale of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked.
The UN Security Council on 20 January passed Resolution 39 establishing a special commission to investigate the conflict. In a string of subsequent resolutions the Security Council took notice of the continuing failure by India to hold the plebiscite. However, no punitive action against India could be taken by the Security Council because its resolution, requiring India to hold a Plebiscite, was non-binding. Moreover the Pakistani army never left the part of the Kashmir, they managed to keep occupied at the end of the war.
They were required by the Security Council resolution 47 to remove all armed personnels from the Azad Kashmir before holding the plebiscite. The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist revolution in By the mids the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.: India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October In , the Indian government obliged Hari Singh to leave Jammu and Kashmir and yield the government to Sheikh Abdullah , the leader of a popular political party, the National Conference Party.
The growing dispute over Kashmir and the consistent failure of democracy  also led to the rise of Kashmir nationalism and militancy in the state. In the Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir was 2,, Of these 2,, were Muslims, , Hindus, 25, Sikhs, and 35, Buddhists. Among the Muslims of the Kashmir province within the princely state, four divisions were recorded: The Shaikhs, who are by far the most numerous, are the descendants of Hindus, but have retained none of the caste rules of their forefathers.
They have clan names known as krams The Saiyids , it was recorded, "could be divided into those who follow the profession of religion and those who have taken to agriculture and other pursuits.
Their kram name is 'Mir.
Finally, it was recorded that the Pathans "who are more numerous than the Mughals, The most interesting of these colonies is that of Kuki-Khel Afridis at Dranghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashtu.