The Core Science Stage 4 eGuidePLUS contains a HTML and PDF version of the entire student text as well as a complimentary set of targeted. Core Science:Stage 4 Complete Course EBookPLUS (Registration contains the entire textbook in HTML and PDF format plus additional. Jacaranda Core Science Stage 4 NSW Australian curriculum 2e learnON & Print. Jacaranda ISBN: November Jacaranda Pages.
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A possible solution is. Albert Einstein. The bag of feathers and the bar of lead have the same mass. How do you know? Is it easy to see?
The movement of the particles explains why liquids take the shape of their container. The particles roll over each other until they fill the bottom of the container. Give possible explanations for how they can have different densities yet be made of identical particles. Use a tick to indicate which properties each state usually has. The sample has a mass of 10 g and has a volume of 2. B pulling particles further apart.
C removing the heat energy from the particles of a substance. D the releasing of air from a car tyre. B the ice is less dense than the soft drink. C the ice is denser than the soft drink. D water and soft drink do not mix. Make an improvement to each of the diagrams so that they describe the particle model more fully.
B bugs can cross the railway lines safely. C the steel tracks can expand in cold weather without buckling the track. D the steel tracks can expand in hot weather without buckling the track.
B liquids. C gases. D plasma. How a refrigerator works Evaporation occurs when a liquid gains enough heat energy to change into a gas. Refrigeration is possible because of this. The pipes in a refrigerator contain a substance called a refrigerant.
A refrigerant is a substance that changes from a liquid to a gas and back again. Near the expansion device, the refrigerant is in the liquid state. As it passes through the expansion device, the liquid is made to expand the pressure drops. As a result of the drop in pressure, the refrigerant cools down to a very low temperature.
You may have experienced this cooling effect if you have ever used a fire extinguisher. The liquid refrigerant then passes through the part of the pipe that is inside the fridge. This part of the pipe is called the evaporator. Heat energy travels from the objects and air inside the fridge to the very cold refrigerant.
The inside of the fridge cools down. The liquid refrigerant heats up and turns to gas evaporates. Heat energy travels from a hotter to a colder substance. The refrigerant, which is now a gas, passes into the compressor.
This puts the refrigerant under pressure again. Under pressure, the refrigerant becomes even hotter. You may have experienced this when you pumped up the tyres on your bike.
Under increased pressure, the air in the tyres feels warmer. The compressor pushes the refrigerant into the next part of the pipe, the condenser. The condenser is on the outside of the fridge.
Here, heat from the gas is transferred to the air outside the fridge. The air outside the fridge warms up. The refrigerant in the pipe cools down and becomes a liquid again condenses. The liquid flows back towards the expansion device. The cycle is repeated. Colour each state a different colour. For example, when the refrigerant is in the liquid state, you may choose to colour the relevant section blue. N identify the three most common states of matter 2. Study checklist gives students a detailed outline of the key content covered in the chapter.
Test yourself multiple choice and extended response questions are included at the end of each chapter.
N relate changes of state to the motion of particles as energy is added or removed 2. A worksheet is attached to further your understanding. N state the main assumptions of the particle model 2. Interactivities Changes of state This interactivity allows you to simulate heating an ice cube over a Bunsen burner. As you add more heat, you will see the effect on the particles as the ice changes state to become boiling water. N describe the state of matter called plasma 2.
Searchlight ID: Essential content: Students learn about: Outcomes 4. Acknowledgements xiii. The Bionic Ear Institute. ESA left. Illustration by John Tenniel. ANU left. Randy A Kimble. In consideration of the State permitting use of this data you acknowledge and agree that the State gives no warranty in relation to the data including accuracy.
Caulet St-ECF. Data must not be used for direct marketing or be used in breach of the privacy laws. V Allen bottom right. Handling an ice core at Law Dome. Charles W Bowers. Acknowledgements The publisher would like to thank the following copyright holders. The most up-to-date version of this document can be found at www. Marion van Gameron. Peter Rozanski. Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch. Ross Phillips.
Daniela Nardelli. Tim Byrne. Paula Taylor. Collette Ballantyne. Taronga Zoo Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of copyright material. In such cases. Dowsett left. Poland left. Dowsett Australian Science Teachers Journal.
December Vol. M Brauner left. Information that will enable the publisher to rectify any error or omission in subsequent editions will be welcome. Incidence and mortality data. The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them. Sir William Bragg — Before the s.
In this chapter. It is about exploring and. Forensic scientists use their knowledge to help solve crimes. Scientists have been seeking knowledge for many thousands of years. But science is more than a collection of important facts. Some of the skills that scientists use are the same as those used by detectives in solving a crime. Look carefully at the drawing below and describe what you think has happened. Outline when what would you draw?
Draw your image of a each should be used. Underneath your drawing. Look around the laboratory. Identify five everyday devices that have been invented with the assistance of science. Identify an important difference between them. Identify five features special to this working environment. You will need to Step 1 that you will need.
Outline each step you followed and. Think of a really important scientific discovery. In your workbook. Do you know anyone working in science? Describe what they do. Step 2 Step 3. If you were asked to draw a picture of a scientist. These two pieces of equipment are used for measuring volumes of liquids.
Careful observations are required before any conclusions can be drawn. InveStIgatIon 1. Thinking about investigating 1. Identify the unique property or feature of each item that allowed it to be separated from the other items. Discuss with a partner why you think it is so significant. They could be in a desert finding out how plants survive without water. Palaeontologists study fossils and ancient rocks. Some specialised geologists. Astronomy Astronomers study the sky. Earth science Earth scientists.
He passed his university exams by Einstein studying the notes of his classmates. Some scientists work in laboratories. He left school at the age Fig. Biology Biologists study living things. The branches of science You can find scientists just about anywhere. You might find a scientist searching for fossils on a rocky shore.
A few are shown on these pages. Others work in the chemical industry. You might even find a scientist in space. Some biologists. Albert Einstein is probably the most famous example. They investigate how living things function and how they live together. People like doctors and dentists use their knowledge of biology to help keep people and their teeth healthy.
Microbiologists study microscopic living things.
Zoologists and veterinarians study animals. They are concerned with planets. He did not talk until he was three years old.
They could be digging deep into the ice in Antarctica. There are many branches of study in science. They investigate and explain how rocks and mountains form. Vulcanologists study volcanoes. Psychologists study the causes of behaviour. He observed that a tiny piece of mould that had fallen into his experiment stopped the growth of bacteria. They investigate and explain tthings like movement. Scientific discoveries have helped improve our quality of life. They work with chemicals that are used to treat illness and disease.
For example. Biophysicists and biochemists work in more than one field. Bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic. Industrial chemists might look for ways to make better paints or special plastics. The word technology refers to devices that use scientific ideas to make life easier. Sports psychologists advise athletes on self-image and on maintaining the motivation to persist and succeed in their chosen sport. Some engineers uuse their knowledge of pphysics to make sure bbuildings are strong and ccars are safe.
A mix of science Physics P Physicists study different ttypes of energy. Some scientific discoveries happen by accident. A knowledge of physics is also used iin electronics.
The boundaries between the different sciences are often crossed. Physicists and geologists work together to locate underground mineral deposits using soundwaves. Chemists work with biologists to find cures for diseases. In general. Physicists worked with medical staff to design the bionic ear. Chemistry Chemists study how substances react with other substances.
Whenever you turn on a light. Pharmacists are chemists too. They investigate and explain why some substances behave differently from others and how they can best be used. Physicists study how objects move and the importance of forces such as friction. On clay courts. Industrial chemists look for ways to make better materials. Lleyton travelled with a physiotherapist to Beijing so that he could get through the games and continue on to the US Open. Select any one of these scientists and make notes for each to identify: Lleyton has received advice from sports psychologists on setting goals.
Lleyton suffered a hip injury leading up to the Olympic Games in Lleyton s tennis outfit is made of a blend of polyester and cotton. This produces a slower.
Count the number of times that a scientist is referred to or quoted. Lleyton Hewitt. Lleyton Hewitt s racquet frame is constructed of graphite. Sports psychology helps athletes train their minds for greater success in the sports arena. Propose how each of the following scientists might improve his performance. The branch of physics that studies how people move is called biomechanics.
The branch of biology that studies the function of the human body is physiology. On a grass court. The strings are made of nylon. They research the performance of the different types of balls. Researchers in physics have helped modern tennis players adjust their game to suit different playing surfaces.
Chemical engineers have been responsible for producing a lightweight but powerful tennis racquet for modern tennis players. Scientists use modern video and computer technology to analyse every part of Lleyton s swing to help suggest improvements. Tennis racquet technology has changed greatly from the timber and catgut tennis racquets of the s and the s. THinK 3 What type of scientist would investigate rocks to see how old they are? The blend of these two fibres makes the fabric more breathable and durable.
Equipment Use Beaker Container for mixing or heating substances Bosshead Holds the clamp to a retort stand Bunsen burner Heats substances Clamp Holds objects at the required height on a retort stand Conical flask Container for mixing substances or collecting filtered substances Evaporating dish Container for heating small amounts of substances over a Bunsen burner Filter funnel Used with filter paper to filter substances Gauze mat Supports a container over a Bunsen burner while it is heated.
Use the illustrations on the following page to find each item in the laboratory. The science laboratory is different from other classrooms in the school. Student tables and work benches Teacher s desk or demonstration bench Gas taps Sinks Fume cupboard Eye wash and safety shower Fire extinguishers Fire blanket Broken glass bin Rubbish bin Doors Laboratory equipment Some of the equipment that you are likely to use in science is listed on the right.
It is filled with a range of equipment to help you undertake scientific investigations safely. Always wear gloves and safety glasses when using chemicals with this symbol.
These substances are easily set on fire so keep them away from flames. At times. Working with dangerous chemicals Your teacher will tell you how to handle the chemicals in each experiment. When you do need to smell substances. Mercury is a toxic substance. Corrosive substances can cause severe damage to skin and eyes. They are also dangerous when touched without gloves because they can be absorbed by the skin.
There are certain rules that must be followed for your own safety and the safety of others. Always tie hair back.
Air hole gas jet inside 8 Remember to close the collar to return the flame to yellow when the Bunsen burner is not in use. Never look directly into a container while it is being heated. Beaker Gauze mat Bunsen burner Tripod Heating containers Beakers and evaporating dishes can be placed straight onto a gauze mat for heating.
What colour is it? Does it make a noise? Base 5 Light a match and hold it a few centimetres above the barrel. Which flame is hotter? Bunsen burner matches pieces of porcelain clock or watch heatproof mat tongs safety glasses Discussion 1 Describe the flame when the air hole is open. Bunsen burners heat objects or liquids with a naked flame. Barrel 6 Turn on the gas tap and a yellow flame will appear.
Is it easy to see? What observations did you make that support your answer? Use a gauze mat over a tripod to hold containers over a Bunsen burner flame. Wait until the equipment has cooled properly before handling it.
In school laboratories. Heating substances Many experiments that you will conduct in the laboratory require heating. Heatproof mat Evaporating dish A guide to using the Bunsen burner 1 Place the Bunsen burner on a heatproof mat.
Gas hose Collar 3 Connect the rubber hose to the gas tap. A blue flame is hotter than a yellow flame. A Bunsen burner provides heat when a mixture of air and gas is lit. Pouring a liquid into a test tube 1 Investigating Add a drop of food colouring to make it easier to see. Why would it be unwise to: Discussion 1 What happens to the match hanging over the barrel? Explain why.
Place the test tube in the testtube rack. The base of the test tube should be moved gently in and out of the flame. Remember that the open end of the test tube should be pointing away from you and your fellow students. Keep the test-tube holder away from above the flame. Move the base of the test tube in and out of the flame. This prevents the liquid from splashing out of the test tube. Leave it there until it has cooled before emptying it and cleaning up.
Make sure that the test tube points away from you and other students. Core Science Stage 4 Complete course Danger in the laboratory. Discussion 12 1 Why is the test tube placed in a test-tube rack rather than in your hand? How do you obtain this coloured flame? THinK 6 identify which item of equipment you would use to: Rewrite them so that they are correct. You might create a safety play poster. The standard unit for measuring length is the metre m.
Muttiah Muralitharan. Scientists all around the world use the metric system of units for their measurements. The biologists in the photograph below are measuring the size and condition of a tranquillised polar bear as part of a study aimed at conserving these animals in their Arctic home. The following table shows how to convert between some common units of measurement.
Measuring Experiments conducted in science often involve measuring quantities such as length and mass. Measuring gives us an accurate way of knowing whether quantities change and. The male red kangaroo had a mass of Some observations are qualitative. Measuring length Scientists measure the lengths of different objects accurately to compare sizes and estimate growth. But length can also be measured in millimetres mm.
The red kangaroo sheltered under a tree during the hottest part of the day. This helps scientists to make conclusions from their experiments and to develop new ideas. Quantitative observations are those where a measurement is made: The sensor does the measuring and sends the information to the data logger. We always measure the volume of liquids from the middle flat section of the meniscus. This type of reading error is called parallax error. When scales are read from a different angle.
Data loggers are useful devices because they generally measure quantities very accurately. When using thermometers.
A data logger and temperature sensor 1 Investigating Some data loggers can also store thousands of individual measurements and allow them to be downloaded to a computer to be converted to tables and graphs. The measurement recorded by a data logger depends on the sensor that is connected to it. The curve is called a meniscus. Parallax error Measurements should always be made with your eye level with the reading you are taking. The edges of the meniscus may curve up or down.
There are a number of different sensors available. Measuring volume Liquids in tubes such as measuring cylinders are often curved at the top edge. The lowest temperature ever measured was in in Antarctica. The measurement was taken in in Libya. A laboratory thermometer has a scale that measures temperature with an accuracy of 0. What are the temperatures measured by thermometers C to J? Measuring temperature Substance or location Air inside the school laboratory Air outside the school laboratory Refrigerated water in a small beaker Cold tap water in a small beaker Warm tap water in a small beaker My armpit Temperature C.
That temperature was When reading a scale. Practise reading the scales below. Reading scales In science. Electronic scales are the easiest to use. Follow these steps to measure mass using a beam balance: Step 3: When an object is put on the pan. Step 4: Add the masses on each of the arms to determine the total mass. To find the mass of these substances. The smallest mass should balance the pointer. Do the same with 2 teaspoons of sugar in the jar lid. The dry.
Record the masses of the beaker and the jar lid on their own. This is called the difference. Record the combined mass of the water and the beaker.
For each item. Measuring mass Mass is usually measured in kilograms kg. Repeat this with the smaller masses in turn. The tomato in the diagram below has a mass of Subtract the mass of the beaker alone from the combined mass.
You will use either a beam balance or electronic scales to measure mass accurately. Do this by moving the heaviest sliding mass towards the pointer. Discussion 1 Which was your most accurate estimation? Explain why you think this is the case. Slide it until it just overbalances the pointer. Step 2: Put the object to be measured on the pan of the beam balance. Simply adjust the balance reading to zero by pressing the tare button. You can determine the object s mass by Step 1: Liquids and grains should not be placed directly on the pan.
After making some initial observations. What was the greatest number recorded by a member of your class? The standard unit for measuring time is the second s. Familiarise yourself with a stopwatch. A typical stopwatch used to record time accurately InveStIgatIon 1.
Some of the most important scientific discoveries have come about through simple scientific observations. Push the reset button when you wish to start timing in a new experiment and when you have finished timing your experiment and need to return your stopwatch to zero. Measuring time Making observations We use clocks and watches to tell the time. Michael Faraday. Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered the first antibiotic when he was observing mould read more about this on page Repeat two more times.
Core Science Stage 4 Complete course. Can you explain why? To do this accurately. Use as many senses as you can. Conclusions are made.
An inference is based on these observations. You might conduct further experiments to produce quantitative observations or data that support or reject your hypothesis. A summary of the process of investigating is shown on the right. Initial observations are made.
A hypothesis is made. Scientists wishing to investigate further often come up with a hypothesis or suggestion describing what may happen. What interesting observations did others make? Hypotheses should be measurable so that they can be tested. You might like to re-design Investigation 1.
Data is collected in experiments. He tipped out the water and measured the mass of the beaker as grams. If the observations support your hypothesis. Aim This is what you intended to do in the investigation.
The conclusion must relate to the aim of the investigation. They may also describe any problems encountered in the investigation and make suggestions on improvements. Some examples of equipment drawn scientifically are shown above right. When drawing scientific diagrams. They may refer to the research of other scientists. Distance cm 0 2 4 6 8 Time for ant to travel between markers s 0 3 7 8 12 Enter the data in the body of the table.
Results This is a presentation of your data. Drawing laboratory equipment Scientific drawings can be used in laboratory reports to show how equipment was set up.
You may have some experience in writing reports in other subjects. The heading for each column is a clear label of what has been measured.
Always include the units used in the headings. Do not include units in this part of the table. Graphs can then be constructed from the table to make it even easier to see patterns in the data. Information presented in this way is often easier to read. Conclusion This is a summary of the overall findings.
Use a ruler to draw lines for rows. It is important for the drawings to be clear and easy to understand. Discussion In this section. Be sure to include what you are actually recording in the experiment. It may be useful to include a labelled diagram of the set-up of equipment used. Data is usually organised into tables and presented as graphs. Method This is the procedure followed in the investigation and described as a series of steps.
This is done using a scientific report. Materials This is a list of all the equipment and chemicals that were used.
Pie charts are useful for showing the parts that make up a whole. A line graph can be used to predict what might happen in the future. Height of plant cm 1. They are often used to represent continuous or connected data. A line graph is used to show how something changes. The type of graph used depends on the type of data to be displayed. Shake the tube until the sodium carbonate dissolves.
Gently blow out through a drinking straw into the limewater. Add a dry spatula full of copper sulfate to the other test tube and shake it until the crystals dissolve. Activity 3 InveStIgatIon 1.
Add a spatula full of sodium bicarbonate. Add a drop of iodine solution. Blow air gently across the back of your hand. If you took more limewater than required. Pour the contents of the second test tube into the first.
Add a dry spatula full of sodium carbonate to one test tube. Be careful not to share straws. Recording observations in a table You will need: A line graph can also be used to predict values that occur between. The aim of this experiment is to observe how the temperature of water changes while it is heated over a Bunsen burner. The initial temperature is recorded when time is 0 minutes. Discussion 1 Why didn t you record the starting temperature of the water as soon as you poured the water into the beaker?
Design an experiment to test your answer. The evaporating dish is supported by a gauze mat on a tripod. If you were at this computer. Identify the type of graph that the student should select to display her results. Think about what happens to water while it is boiling. The computer has graphed all these data. THINK 6 A student measured the temperature in each of the classrooms at her school so she could compare them. A temperature sensor was used to take the measurements.
David loved playing handball in the playground. In most cases. When designing fair tests. In a fair test. In David s case. In some cases though. An important part of any investigation is to consider all the factors.
Investigating whether the height from which a ball is dropped affects the height of the bounce Investigation: Does the height from which a ball is bounced affect the height of its bounce? This means. In many of the experiments you will do. David thought that the most important variable to affect the bounce of a ball was the height it fell from. The phrase Cows Moo Softly is useful in remembering how to plan a fair test: To enable him to make conclusions from his investigation.
Let s look at some important principles to consider when designing investigations. When designing investigations in science. A hypothesis is a testable idea developed from previous observations. He wanted to test his hypothesis. Fair tests Experiments are generally designed to test hypotheses. If this wasn t the case. The amount of air in a ball might also affect its bounce. To prevent one-off errors from affecting your conclusions.
Errors often arise in experiments. If there was a significant difference between your results for each test. If the results obtained are similar each time. A control is a repetition of the experiment in which the independent variable being tested is not applied and so all the variables are controlled.
Would you have drawn the same conclusion based on the results of trial 1 only? Reliability The results obtained from experiments are used to make conclusions. Other times the errors may be more difficult to eradicate because the equipment we used is not as accurate as it should be. The results obtained using the dry ball act as a control. Results from the control are compared with those obtained when the independent variable has been included.
When repeating experiments. This allows us to test whether the independent variable we are investigating really has an effect.
Would you say the results presented in the table below are reliable? Height of bounce m Trial Dry tennis ball control Wet tennis ball 1 0. Water and dissolved salt You will need: If not. Measuring cylinder Cotton thread Tourists demonstrate the unusual buoyancy caused by high salinity in the Dead Sea.
The easiest way to do that is to compare others graphs with yours. Tourists flock to the lake because it is believed the water has health benefits and to experience the water s unusually high buoyancy.
Floating in salty water The water in the Dead Sea. Diving bell Investigate whether the salinity of water affects how high an object floats in water. Record this value in a suitable table. The diving bell Discussion 1 Write a conclusion to the experiment about whether the salinity of water affects how high an object floats in water.
AnALYsE 7 Simon and Jessie did an experiment to find out how effectively two plastic cups maintain the temperature of near boiling water. The illustration below shows their experiment in progress.
To produce reliable results. Simon s cup Jessie s cup 0 90 90 inVEsTiGATE 10 47 58 20 29 39 30 22 31 40 20 26 50 20 23 9 The aim of this experiment is to find out whether distances are easier to judge with two eyes than just one. You can do this by shooting for goal with a basketball or netball from a particular spot under three conditions: In your discussion section: THinK 4 identify some variables that might affect: Imagine you are conducting an experiment to test a range of washing powders and liquids.
Plan and carry out your experiment. Their data is shown below. Write a formal report for the experiment including a table of results and a conclusion.
Catherine and Celine s experiment in progress 28 c Estimate the temperature of the water in Simon s cup 15 minutes after timing commenced. Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic. As well as coming up with new theories and ideas.
He attached a metal wire to the tip of the kite as a conductor. Australian-born scientist Howard Florey and his colleagues successfully purified the mould so that it could be used as a commercial antibiotic. Many of the important scientific discoveries of the past began as questions. Artist s impression of Benjamin Franklin and his son performing the kite experiment 1 Investigating Alexander Fleming made an accidental discovery that was to change medicine.
Just over ten years later. Benjamin Franklin. They look for ways of improving our lives by developing and testing their ideas. Franklin was lucky to have survived his experiment — several other attempts at the kite experiment electrocuted other scientists!
His work led to the invention of the lightning rod. Alexander Fleming A scientific discovery can start from a simple observation. Albert Einstein. Marie Curie and Isaac Newton. He noticed that the bacteria had stopped developing where the mould had landed. He was working on a completely different experiment when he discovered that some mould spores in the air had contaminated a petri dish growing bacteria.
Franklin flew a kite during a thunderstorm in Benjamin Franklin Many scientific theories are initially prompted by observations. Although our knowledge of science is advancing every day. In This helped solve the problem of buildings catching fire after being struck by lightning. Louis Pasteur. The mould contained a substance called penicillin. When hit by lightning.
Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be used. From an observation. He observed that a tiny piece of mould that had contaminated his experiment stopped the growth of bacteria. The test result helped to confirm his hypothesis.
Galileo Galilei. To test his hypothesis. When Franklin placed his knuckle near the key. Pasteur s experiment particularly in the study of the A control is an experiment universe.
Pasteur boiled meat broth in flasks to sterilise the flask and broth. At In he published and he won the Nobel prize for the book Starry Messenger. In it he physics in Microbial Boil greatest thinkers in science history. He exposed meat broth to clean mountain air and dirty city air. He died in them running continuously for over 50 years. In a simple experiment you change one independent variable at a time and observe what happens.
No microbial Boil growth Einstein himself was a pacifist. He found that a lot of bacteria grew in the dirty city air and only a small number of bacteria Albert Einstein writing an equation on a grew in the clean mountain air. S-shaped neck that prevented dust in the air from entering the flask. One of the greatest biologists of the nineteenth century was the French scientist Louis Pasteur.
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