The zebrafish has long been a favourite model for the study of vertebrate development. Here we provide .. book, a link to the zebrafish newsgroup, laboratory. Please note that in addition to the item price actual shipping costs will apply. * indicates a required field. Product, Description, Type (Unit), Quantity *, Academic. PDF | On Apr 1, , Neil Vargesson and others published Zebrafish in In book: Manual of Animal Technology, Chapter: 12, Publisher.
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This material is from the 4th edition of The Zebrafish Book. The 5th edition is available in print and within the ZFIN Protocol Wiki. The following PDF file (see note below) contains a template for animal use protocols involving zebrafish which has been approved by the veterinarian ( OVSAC). The entire book is available online. A paperback version of the Fifth Edition, called The Zebrafish Book: A Guide for the Laboratory Use of.
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Request Username. Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Restricted access. View PDF. Axel Meyer Christiane H. Biermann Guillermo Orti The phylogenetic position of the zebrafish Danio rerio , a model system in developmental biology: Series B: Biological Sciences http: Restricted access Article. Christiane H.
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Purchase Save for later Item saved, go to cart. Biological Sciences , Article Information DOI: Statistics from Altmetric. Each tank contained one cylindrical plastic mesh cage 0. To minimize handling stress, these 28 days postfertilization fish were individually photographed in reduced-volume glass containers with reference grids, and lengths mouth to caudal peduncle were determined by image analysis Image-J; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
All experimental fish were photographed and measured for length at the end of 3-week intervals for the duration of the 9-week experiment. Dietary treatments that were evaluated consisted of five commercially available and two laboratory-prepared diets. The five commercial diets that served as dietary treatments were as follows: The remaining two laboratory-prepared diets were adopted from Kovalenko et al. Proximate composition was provided by respective manufacturers or analytical analysis Mississippi State Chemical Laboratory, Mississippi State, MS for the commercial and experimental diets, respectively.
The ingredient compositions of the laboratory-prepared diets tested are presented in Table 1.
Menhaden oil, cholesterol, ascorbylpalmitate, a vitamin premix, betaine, choline chloride, a mineral premix, monopotassium phosphate, and glucosamine were then added and mixed. The resulting dry sheets of feed were added to a coffee bean grinder Black and Decker; Applica Consumer Products, Miramar, FL and ground to achieve a particle size that passed through a 1-mm 2 mesh.
Length, weight, and condition index values were statistically compared using analysis of variance ANOVA v Differences in length, weight, and condition index between sexes within diets were statistically compared using the independent-samples T -test and then compared by sex across diets using ANOVA.
Tests for normality and constant variance were performed before all statistical analysis. No differences in feeding behavior were observed among the different dietary treatments throughout the 9-week study. All feeds utilized in the trial initially floated and were readily consumed, but would sink over time. Zebrafish continued consuming feed particles on the bottom of the enclosed fine-mesh cages. At the end of the experiment, zebrafish fed laboratory-prepared diet A gained significantly more weight Mean weights for zebrafish fed the other diets ranged between Mean length of zebrafish fed laboratory-prepared diet A Although length and weight were significantly different among dietary treatments, overall condition as assessed through condition index did not differ significantly among the treatments Table 2.
No significant differences were determined for weight, length, and condition factor between male and female zebrafish within an individual diet Table 3.
Mean weights for male zebrafish ranged from Mean lengths ranged from Condition factor was not significantly different for male or female zebrafish fed the different diets.
No significant differences were found for weight, length, and condition factor between male and female zebrafish within an individual diet. M, male n ; F, female n. The current investigation evaluated the relative effectiveness of commercially available diets that have been fed in zebrafish culture in the past versus laboratory-prepared diets.
These data provide a foundation for the future development of defined, open-formulation diets with a proposal for future dietary standardization.
While future studies should focus on diets that enhance breeding by comparing the cross success rate, this investigation and corresponding results presented clearly demonstrate to the zebrafish community the importance of feeding defined diets and the potential experimental problems that may arise from utilizing undefined diets. Published concentrations of major dietary constituents vary significantly for commercial feeds used to culture D.
Minerals and vitamins, feed ingredient sources, and trace elements also varied. These differences may be responsible for the observed differences in growth rates among individuals fed the different commercially available diets and those fed the laboratory-prepared diets.
Although growth rates themselves are not necessarily indicative of health, they do suggest that D. Additionally, the diets may influence other physiological processes, including those associated with endocrine, neurological, immunological, or reproductive function.
These and other dietary-mediated processes may have contributed to observed differences in survival. Further, differences in sexual maturity were visually observed, suggesting that certain still undefined dietary nutrients are necessary to produce sexually mature zebrafish at 13 weeks, further implying the importance of a nutritionally complete D.
In this study, the two semipurified diets prepared and tested represent a first attempt at developing semipurified diets with ingredients that are chemically well defined. These diets were similar in nutrient profiles, but differed primarily in ingredient composition, particularly the sources of energy lipid and carbohydrate. Although these diets were isocaloric and contained similar levels of macronutrients, weight gain of individuals fed diet A was significantly higher than that of diet B, suggesting that the source of specific nutrients affects those physiological, cellular, or molecular processes that contribute to weight gain.
Although many researchers utilize natural diets mainly Artemia sp. This, however, does not negate the importance of designing experimental feeds with nutritional profiles similar to those found in cultured Artemia.
The nutritional profile of Great Salt Lake brine shrimp Artemia franciscana cultured in a defined unialgal system contains 9. Application of zebrafish research in the last 15 years has led to the development of purported paradigms that suggest similarities in the genetics of human and D.
Unfortunately, many of the same mistakes that were committed historically in disease research using rodent models may be repeated with the zebrafish model. Numerous studies have shown that specific nutrients, or specific compounds found in feed ingredients, can substantially affect the outcomes of experiments.
These physiologically relevant concentrations of genistein could potentially affect research outcomes in which estrogen mimics have consequence. Recent animal studies have also shown how differences in dietary arsenic, commonly found in trace amounts in some ingredients, profoundly altered gene expression and confounded genomic analysis in mouse liver and lung.
Nutrition is now known to be an important determinant of disease progression in all rodent models, and authors are now obliged to report the specific diet used in those ongoing investigations.
Nutrition and its consequences have yet to be included in zebrafish research endeavors.
In the absence of an understanding and standardization of dietary intake, the results of ongoing studies are subject to varied interpretation as influenced by the physiology of adult D. Zebrafish researchers must come to an accord in the development and common use of an open-formulation dietary standard. Feeds that are currently used contain different concentrations of a variety of compounds known to produce confounding variation in results of molecular experimentation with other animal models.
Variation in commercial rodent diets even within brands has been shown to influence experimental results. Until standardized D. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Anthony J. Garris , 1 Warren T. Jones , 1 Dorothy B. Moseley , 1 Louis R. D'Abramo , 2 and Stephen A. Watts 1. Find articles by Anthony J.
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Warren T. Find articles by Warren T. Dorothy B. Find articles by Dorothy B. Louis R. Find articles by Louis R. Stephen A. Find articles by Stephen A. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.
Address correspondence to: Siccardi III, Ph. Copyright , Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish Danio rerio research is supported by the knowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown to affect development and growth of adult D.
Introduction Z ebrafish Danio rerio are an important laboratory model to study development, genetics, and human disease, as they undergo rapid development, display genetic similarities to humans, 1 and can develop many disease pathologies 2 by induction. Diets Dietary treatments that were evaluated consisted of five commercially available and two laboratory-prepared diets.
Preparation of laboratory diets The ingredient compositions of the laboratory-prepared diets tested are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Open in a separate window. Statistical analysis Length, weight, and condition index values were statistically compared using analysis of variance ANOVA v Results No differences in feeding behavior were observed among the different dietary treatments throughout the 9-week study. Table 2. Table 3. Discussion The current investigation evaluated the relative effectiveness of commercially available diets that have been fed in zebrafish culture in the past versus laboratory-prepared diets.
Disclosure Statement No competing financial interests exist. References 1. Lamason RL. Mohideen MA. Mest JR. Wong AC. Norton HL. Aros MC, et al. SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans. Barut B. Zon LI. Realizing the potential of zebrafish as a model for human disease. Lawrence C. The husbandry of zebrafish Danio rerio: Bennetau-Pelissero C. Breton B. Bennetau B. Corraze G. Le Menn F. Davail-Cuisset B, et al. Effect of genistein-enriched diets on the endocrine process of gametogenesis and on reproduction efficiency of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.
Gen Comp Endocrinol. Hanson S. Malison JA. Wentworth B. Barry TP. Genistein and other isoflavones found in soybeans inhibit estrogen metabolism in salmonid fish. Thigpen JE. Setchell KDR. Ahlmark KB. Locklear J. Spahr T. Caviness GR, et al. Phytoestrogen content of purified, open-and closed-formula laboratory animal diets. Lab Anim Sci. Naciff JM.