did you know? German and British soldiers called a truce on Christmas in and played a soccer game together. When World War 1 began in the summer of. GCSE Modern World History. The path to the war. TASK 1: Revise your notes for the years – Then fill-in the chart: Long-term causes of World War I. as the root causes of World War 1. 1. Mutual Defense Alliances. Over time, countries . History Lists · Events · 5 Reasons for the US Entry into World War I.
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1. 4º ESO - First World War. The First World War Juan Carlos Ocaña Aybar Geography and History – Bilingual Studies – IES Parque de Lisboa. The spark that ignited World War I was struck in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where Archduke Franz Ferdinand—heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire—was shot to death. June 28th – August 4th ▫ Assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand. ▫ Austro- Hung declares war on Serbia. ▫ Russia vows to Protect Serbia. ▫ Germany.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Table Of Contents. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. At once he instructed the German Foreign Office to tell Austria-Hungary that there was no longer any justification for war and that it should content itself with a temporary occupation of Belgrade. Thereupon, Great Britain , which had no concern with Serbia and no express obligation to fight either for Russia or for France but was expressly committed to defend Belgium, on August 4 declared war against Germany.
Both sides dug into trenches, and the Western Front was the setting for a hellish war of attrition that would last more than three years.
Particularly long and costly battles in this campaign were fought at Verdun February-December and the Battle of the Somme July-November German and French troops suffered close to a million casualties in the Battle of Verdun alone.
This increased hostility was directed toward the imperial regime of Czar Nicholas II and his unpopular German-born wife, Alexandra. Russia reached an armistice with the Central Powers in early December , freeing German troops to face the remaining Allies on the Western Front. At the outbreak of fighting in , the United States remained on the sidelines of World War I, adopting the policy of neutrality favored by President Woodrow Wilson while continuing to engage in commerce and shipping with European countries on both sides of the conflict.
In , Germany declared the waters surrounding the British Isles to be a war zone, and German U-boats sunk several commercial and passenger vessels, including some U.
Widespread protest over the sinking by U-boat of the British ocean liner Lusitania —traveling from New York to Liverpool, England with hundreds of American passengers onboard—in May helped turn the tide of American public opinion against Germany.
Germany sunk four more U. With World War I having effectively settled into a stalemate in Europe, the Allies attempted to score a victory against the Ottoman Empire, which entered the conflict on the side of the Central Powers in late After a failed attack on the Dardanelles the strait linking the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean Sea , Allied forces led by Britain launched a large-scale land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in April The invasion also proved a dismal failure, and in January Allied forces were staged a full retreat from the shores of the peninsula, after suffering , casualties.
British-led forces also combated the Ottoman Turks in Egypt and Mesopotamia , while in northern Italy, Austrian and Italian troops faced off in a series of 12 battles along the Isonzo River, located at the border between the two nations.
British and French—and later, American—troops arrived in the region, and the Allies began to take back the Italian Front. The biggest naval engagement of World War I, the Battle of Jutland May left British naval superiority on the North Sea intact, and Germany would make no further attempts to break an Allied naval blockade for the remainder of the war.
With Germany able to build up its strength on the Western Front after the armistice with Russia, Allied troops struggled to hold off another German offensive until promised reinforcements from the United States were able to arrive. On July 15, , German troops launched what would become the last German offensive of the war, attacking French forces joined by 85, American troops as well as some of the British Expeditionary Force in the Second Battle of the Marne.
The Allies successfully pushed back the German offensive, and launched their own counteroffensive just three days later. The Second Battle of the Marne turned the tide of war decisively towards the Allies, who were able to regain much of France and Belgium in the months that followed. Despite the Turkish victory at Gallipoli, later defeats by invading forces and an Arab revolt had combined to destroy the Ottoman economy and devastate its land, and the Turks signed a treaty with the Allies in late October Austria-Hungary, dissolving from within due to growing nationalist movements among its diverse population, reached an armistice on November 4.
Facing dwindling resources on the battlefield, discontent on the homefront and the surrender of its allies, Germany was finally forced to seek an armistice on November 11, , ending World War I. At the Paris Peace Conference in , Allied leaders would state their desire to build a post-war world that would safeguard itself against future conflicts of such devastating scale. As the years passed, hatred of the Versailles treaty and its authors settled into a smoldering resentment in Germany that would, two decades later, be counted among the causes of World War II.
World War I took the lives of more than 9 million soldiers; 21 million more were wounded. Civilian casualties caused indirectly by the war numbered close to 10 million. The two nations most affected were Germany and France, each of which sent some 80 percent of their male populations between the ages of 15 and 49 into battle.
The political disruption surrounding World War I also contributed to the fall of four venerable imperial dynasties—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Turkey. World War I brought about massive social upheaval, as millions of women entered the workforce to support men who went to war, and to replace those who never came back. The severe effects that chemical weapons such as mustard gas and phosgene had on soldiers and civilians during World War I galvanized public and military attitudes against their continued use.
The Geneva Convention agreements, signed in , restricted the use of chemical and biological agents in warfare, and remains in effect today. We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. When World War I broke out across Europe in , President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed the United States would remain neutral, and many Americans supported this policy of nonintervention.
However, public opinion about neutrality started to change after the sinking of the British By the end of autumn , the alliance of the Central Powers was unraveling in its war effort against the better supplied and coordinated The instability created in Europe by the First World War set the stage for another international conflict—World War II—which broke out two decades later and would prove even more devastating.
Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf Secretly courted by both sides in World War I as a potential ally in the tumultuous Balkan region, Top Questions. Read more below: The outbreak of war.
Franz Ferdinand, archduke of Austria-Este. Balkan Wars. The outbreak of war: Forces and resources of the combatant nations in Allied powers.
Central Powers. Killed, wounded, and missing. Treaty of Versailles. Technology of war in Machine gun. Trench warfare. Remembering World War I. World War I events. Read More on This Topic.
The roots of World War I, — Forty-three years of peace among the great powers of Europe came to an end in , when an act of political terrorism provoked two great…. Page 1 of Next page Forces and resources of the combatant nations in Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Forty-three years of peace among the great powers of Europe came to an end in , when an act of political terrorism provoked two great alliance systems into mortal combat.
The South Slav campaign against Austrian rule in Bosnia, culminating in….
In many ways—politically,…. China was not permitted to interfere. Then, on Jan. He sent Colonel House to Europe in early to explore the possibilities of peace and again early in to press for…. The prewar period English literature In English literature: The literature of World War I and the interwar period agriculture In origins of agriculture: Economics, politics, and agriculture View More.
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